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Infertility: HELP
Articles by Enrico Carmina
Based on 4 articles published since 2010
(Why 4 articles?)

Between 2010 and 2020, Enrico Carmina wrote the following 4 articles about Infertility.
+ Citations + Abstracts

Goodman, Neil F / Cobin, Rhoda H / Futterweit, Walter / Glueck, Jennifer S / Legro, Richard S / Carmina, Enrico / Anonymous2160851 / Anonymous2170851 / Anonymous2180851. · ·Endocr Pract · Pubmed #26642102.

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is recognized as the most common endocrine disorder of reproductive-aged women around the world. This document, produced by the collaboration of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the Androgen Excess Society aims to highlight the most important clinical issues confronting physicians and their patients with PCOS. It is a summary of current best practices in 2014. Insulin resistance is believed to play an intrinsic role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. The mechanism by which insulin resistance or insulin give rise to oligomenorrhea and hyperandrogenemia, however, is unclear. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies have shown that both obese and lean women with PCOS have some degree of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance is implicated in the ovulatory dysfunction of PCOS by disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Given the association with insulin resistance, all women with PCOS require evaluation for the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and the possible risk of clinical events, including acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Obese women with PCOS are at increased risk for MetS with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT; 31 to 35%) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; 7.5 to 10%). Rates of progression from normal glucose tolerance to IGT, and in turn to T2DM, may be as high as 5 to 15% within 3 years. Data suggest the need for baseline oral glucose tolerance test every 1 to 2 years based on family history of T2DM as well as body mass index (BMI) and yearly in women with IGT. Compared with BMI- and age-matched controls, young, lean PCOS women have lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) size, higher very-low-density lipoprotein particle number, higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number, and borderline lower LDL size. Statins have been shown to lower testosterone levels either alone or in combination with oral contraceptives (OCPs) but have not shown improvement in menses, spontaneous ovulation, hirsutism, or acne. Statins reduce total and LDL cholesterol but have no effect on HDL, C-reactive protein, fasting insulin, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in PCOS women, in contrast to the general population. There have been no long-term studies of statins on clinical cardiac outcomes in women with PCOS. Coronary calcification is more prevalent and more severe in PCOS than in controls. In women under 60 years of age undergoing coronary angiography, the presence of polycystic ovaries on sonography has been associated with more arterial segments with >50% stenosis, but the relationship between PCOS and actual cardiovascular events remains unclear. Therapies for PCOS are varied in their effects and targets and include both nonpharmacologic as well as pharmacologic approaches. Weight loss is the primary therapy in PCOS--reduction in weight of as little as 5% can restore regular menses and improve response to ovulation- inducing and fertility medications. Metformin in premenopausal PCOS women has been associated with a reduction in features of MetS. Clamp studies using ethinyl estradiol/drosperinone combination failed to reveal evidence of an increase in either peripheral or hepatic insulin resistance. Subjects with PCOS have a 1.5-times higher baseline risk of venous thromboembolic disease and a 3.7-fold greater effect with OCP use compared with non-PCOS subjects. There is currently no genetic test to screen for or diagnose PCOS, and there is no test to assist in the choice of treatment strategies. Persistent bleeding should always be investigated for pregnancy and/or uterine pathology--including transvaginal ultrasound exam and endometrial biopsy--in women with PCOS. PCOS women can have difficulty conceiving. Those who become pregnant are at risk for gestational diabetes (which should be evaluated and managed appropriately) and the microvascular complications of diabetes. Assessment of a woman with PCOS for infertility involves evaluating for preconceptional issues that may affect response to therapy or lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes and evaluating the couple for other common infertility issues that may affect the choice of therapy, such as a semen analysis. Women with PCOS have multiple factors that may lead to an elevated risk of pregnancy, including a high prevalence of IGT--a clear risk factor for gestational diabetes--and MetS with hypertension, which increases the risk for pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Women should be screened and treated for hypertension and diabetes prior to attempting conception. Women should be counseled about weight loss prior to attempting conception, although there are limited clinical trial data demonstrating a benefit to this recommendation. Treatment for women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility should begin with an oral agent such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor.

2 Review Non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency revisited: an update with a special focus on adolescent and adult women. 2017

Carmina, Enrico / Dewailly, Didier / Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F / Kelestimur, Fahrettin / Moran, Carlos / Oberfield, Sharon / Witchel, Selma F / Azziz, Ricardo. ·Endocrinology Unit, Department of Health Sciences and Mother and Child Care, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy. · CHU Lille, Service de Gynécologie Endocrinienne et Médecine de la Reproduction, Hôpital Jeanne de Flandre, F-5900Lille, France. · Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal & Universidad de Alcalá & Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS & CIBER Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM, Madrid, Spain. · Department of Endocrinology, Erciyes University Medical School, Kayseri, Turkey. · Health Research Council, Mexican Institute of Social Security, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Departments of Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Medicine, Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA. ·Hum Reprod Update · Pubmed #28582566.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. SEARCH METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies evaluating NCAH published up to October 2016 were reviewed. Multiple databases were searched including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, ERIC, EBSCO, dissertation abstracts, and current contents. OUTCOMES: The worldwide prevalence of NCAH amongst women presenting with signs and symptoms of androgen excess is 4.2% (95% confidence interval: 3.2-5.4%). The clinical consequences of NCAH expand from infancy, i.e. accelerated growth, to adolescence and adulthood, i.e. premature pubarche, cutaneous symptoms and oligo-ovulation in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-like clinical picture. The diagnosis of NCAH relies on serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) concentrations. A basal 17-OHP concentration ≥2 ng/ml (6 nmol/l) should be used for screening if more appropriate in-house cut-off values are not available. Definitive diagnosis requires a 17-OHP concentration ≥10 ng/ml (30 nmol/l), either basally or after cosyntropin-stimulation. Molecular genetic analysis of the CYP21A2 gene, which is responsible for 21-hydroxylase activity, may be used for confirmation purposes and should be offered to all patients with NCAH along with genetic counseling because these patients frequently carry alleles that may result in classic CAH, the more severe form of the disease, in their progeny. Treatment must be individualized. Glucocorticoid replacement therapy may benefit pediatric patients with accelerated growth or advanced bone age or adult women seeking fertility, whereas adequate control of menstrual irregularity, hirsutism and other cutaneous symptoms is best served by the use of oral contraceptive pills and/or anti-androgens. Some women may need ovulation induction or assisted reproductive technology to achieve pregnancy. Patients with NCAH have a higher risk of miscarriage and may benefit from glucocorticoid treatment during pregnancy. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Evidence-based diagnostic and treatment strategies are essential for the proper management of women with NCAH, especially considering that these patients may need different therapeutic strategies at different stages during their follow-up and that appropriate genetic counseling may prevent the occurrence of CAH in their children.

3 Review Reproductive System Outcome Among Patients with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. 2015

Carmina, Enrico. ·Reproductive Endocrinology Unit, Department of Mother and Child Health, University of Palermo, Via delle Croci 47, Palermo 90139, Italy. Electronic address: enrico.carmina@ae-society.org. ·Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am · Pubmed #26568493.

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with different clinical patterns and the anovulatory phenotype may not be the most common. Data suggest that anovulation in PCOS is not the consequence of increased androgen ovarian secretion but rather of a severe derangement of early follicle development. Other mechanisms may be operative in subgroups of patients and may contribute to the arrest of follicle growth and anovulation. At least 50% of anovulatory patients with PCOS become ovulatory in their late reproductive age. There is also evidence that menopause may occur later in women with PCOS. Finally, a strategy for treatment of infertility in PCOS is presented.

4 Article Consensus on women's health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. 2012

Fauser, Bart C J M / Tarlatzis, Basil C / Rebar, Robert W / Legro, Richard S / Balen, Adam H / Lobo, Roger / Carmina, Enrico / Chang, Jeffrey / Yildiz, Bulent O / Laven, Joop S E / Boivin, Jacky / Petraglia, Felice / Wijeyeratne, C N / Norman, Robert J / Dunaif, Andrea / Franks, Stephen / Wild, Robert A / Dumesic, Daniel / Barnhart, Kurt. ·Department of Reproductive Medicine and Gynecology, University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands. b.c.fauser@umcutrecht.nl ·Fertil Steril · Pubmed #22153789.

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in females, with a high prevalence. The etiology of this heterogeneous condition remains obscure, and its phenotype expression varies. Two widely cited previous ESHRE/ASRM sponsored PCOS consensus workshops focused on diagnosis (published in 2004) and infertility management (published in 2008), respectively. The present third PCOS consensus report summarizes current knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps regarding various women's health aspects of PCOS. Relevant topics addressed-all dealt with in a systematic fashion-include adolescence, hirsutism and acne, contraception, menstrual cycle abnormalities, quality of life, ethnicity, pregnancy complications, long-term metabolic and cardiovascular health, and finally cancer risk. Additional, comprehensive background information is provided separately in an extended online publication.