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Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: HELP
Articles from China
Based on 459 articles published since 2008
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These are the 459 published articles about Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders that originated from China during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19
1 Review Auriculotherapy for sleep quality in people with primary insomnia: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019

Ren, Runyuan / Zhang, Jiayuan / Zhang, Tingting / Peng, Yangzhi / Tang, Chenjian / Zhang, Qi. ·Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #30813193.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary insomnia is one of the common sleep disorders. Auriculotherapy originated from traditional Chinese medicine, has been thought as a promising treatment for primary insomnia. We aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of auriculotherapy for patients with primary insomnia through this systematic review. METHODS: Five English databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL), 4 Chinese databases (CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, and Wanfang), and 5 clinical trial registration databases (ClinicalTrials.gov, ANZCTR, EU-CTR, ChiCTR, and ICTRP) will be searched from establishment of the database until November 2018. Articles written in English or Chinese languages will be included. The randomized controlled trials of auriculotherapy (auricular acupuncture and auricular acupressure) for patients with primary insomnia will be included. The primary outcome will be assessed according to the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Meta-analysis will be conducted with the use of RevMan 5.3. The specific process will refer to the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 for Systematic Review. RESULTS: High-quality synthesis of current evidence on the efficacy and safety of auriculotherapy for primary insomnia will be provided in this study. CONCLUSION: This systematic review aims to present evidence for whether auriculotherapy is an effective intervention which can improve sleep quality in patients suffering primary insomnia. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019106422.

2 Review Effectiveness and safety of fire-needle moxibustion on insomnia: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2019

Liu, Cuiling / Chen, Zhiqiang / Li, Ting / Yang, Zhihua / Zhang, Qingsong / Yin, Jianping / Zhou, Peng / Fu, Wei / Chen, BaiShu. ·Baoan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Shenzhen, Shenzhen. · Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #30762783.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fire-needle moxibustion (FNM) is an ancient method of external therapy that combines acupuncture with moxibustion, and has the property of high temperature resistance. Insomnia is a major public health problem and strongly associated with a high prevalence, impact on daily life, comorbidity with other disorders, and societal costs. The clinical practice demonstrates that FNM has a therapeutic effect on insomnia. Here we will provide a protocol to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of FNM for insomnia. METHODS: We will search the randomized controlled trial literatures of FNM for insomnia in 7 electronic databases, including 3 English databases (PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials [Cochrane Library]) and 4 Chinese databases (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese VIP Information, Wanfang Database, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index will be considered as the primary outcome, and the secondary outcome will include biochemical, indicators total scores on the insomnia severity index, quality of life, adverse events caused by FNM, and changes of TCM syndromes scores. Review Manager 5.2 software will be use for assessment of risk of bias, data synthesis. Begg and Egger tests will be use for assessing symmetries of funnel plot by software Stata 12.0. Methodological quality will be assessed with the risk of bias according to Cochrane Handbook. RESULT: This study will provide a rational synthesis of current evidences for Fire-needle moxibustion on insomnia. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to judge the effectiveness and safety of Fire-needle moxibustion on insomnia. REGISTRATION: PROS-PERO CRD42019120875.

3 Review Acupuncture Application in Chronic Kidney Disease and its Potential Mechanisms. 2018

Xiong, Wei / He, Fang-Fang / You, Ren-Yu / Xiong, Jing / Wang, Yu-Mei / Zhang, Chun / Meng, Xian-Fang / Su, Hua. ·* Department of Nephrology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, P. R. China. · † Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, P. R. China. · ‡ Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, P. R. China. ·Am J Chin Med · Pubmed #30286626.

ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing major public health problem worldwide. The number of CKD patients on hemodialysis is growing rapidly as well. Acupuncture technique is one of the traditional Chinese medicine methods and has been used in a variety of diseases. Nowadays, the clinical application of acupuncture technique for CKD patients has become the focus for its effectiveness and security. In this paper, we will review the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of different acupuncture techniques for CKD patients. In patients with CKD, acupuncture improves renal function, reduces proteinuria, controls hypertension, corrects anemia, relieves pain, and controls many hemodialysis-related complications such as uremic pruritus, insomnia and fatigue. The mechanisms are related to the regulation of sympathetic nerve and the activation of bioactive chemicals. In conclusion, acupuncture is proved to be beneficial for CKD patients. More research, however, is needed to verify the potential mechanisms.

4 Review [Research Advances in Insomnia Disorder Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging]. 2018

Zhou, Ping / Yan, Chao-Qun / Zhang, Shuai / Huo, Jian-Wei / Liu, Cun-Zhi. ·Center of Acupuncture and Meridians,Beijing Chinese Medicine Hospital,Capital Medical University,Beijing 100010,China. · Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion,Dongfang Hospital,Beijing University of Chinese Medicine,Beijing 100078,China. ·Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao · Pubmed #30193610.

ABSTRACT: As the most common sleep disorder,insomnia decreases the quality of life and is the high risk for cardiovascular disease,neurological disease,and psychiatric disease. It has become a major public health problem. In recent years,magnetic resonance imaging technology has been widely used for research on the brain structure in patients with insomnia. This article summarizes recent research findings of the abnormal brain structure and the potential neural mechanism of insomnia,with an attempt to understand the mechanisms in abnormal brain regions and thus further identify the pathophysiology of insomnia.

5 Review Association between insomnia and job stress: a meta-analysis. 2018

Yang, Bing / Wang, Yongwei / Cui, Fangfang / Huang, Ting / Sheng, Peijia / Shi, Ting / Huang, Chan / Lan, Yajia / Huang, Yi-Na. ·Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. · Department of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. wangyw_1980@sina.com. · Department of Occupational Health, No.4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. wangyw_1980@sina.com. · Occupational Health Emergency Key Laboratory of West China Occupational Disease Hospital and No.4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. wangyw_1980@sina.com. · Department of Occupational Health, No.4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. · Occupational Health Emergency Key Laboratory of West China Occupational Disease Hospital and No.4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. · Center for Test, West China Occupational Disease Hospital and No.4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China. · Changji State Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Changji, 831100, Xinjiang, China. ·Sleep Breath · Pubmed #29959635.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Insomnia has become one of the foremost health concerns among workers. Despite a significant number of epidemiological studies have reported on the correlation between insomnia and job stress, comprehensive evidence remains insufficient. Therefore, this research seeks to provide evidence with greater reliability, through summarizing relevant contemporary literature via a meta-analysis. METHODS: Literature from across Europe and Asia that was of both a prospective and cross-sectional design was included, if well-controlled odds ratios were available. The meta-analysis was undertaken in accordance with the guidelines devised by PRISMA, including tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. RESULTS: High job stress was associated with a greater risk of suffering from insomnia (random OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.46-2.05), and the correlation between effort-reward imbalance and insomnia was statistically significant (random OR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.22-5.69). Higher demand was correlated to a relatively greater risk of insomnia (random OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.20-1.51), while the pooled effect of low control was not found to be statistically significant. The summary random odds ratio of heavy workload was 2.76, and a pooled odds ratio of 1.67 (fixed, 95% CI 1.11-2.52) was calculated in low social support. With regard to the overall population, work-family conflict was correlated with insomnia (random OR = 2.32, 95% CI 1.53-3.51). The subgroup analysis provided comparable outcomes, for both males (fixed OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.50-2.57) and females (random OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.05). Egger's regression indicated that publication bias may be apparent in the syntheses of effort-reward imbalance, low social support, and work-family conflict (p < 0.05). Heterogeneity was caused by design, measuring the exposure or outcome, in addition to the region where the research was conducted. CONCLUSIONS: The correlation between insomnia and higher levels of job stress, effort-reward imbalance, high demand, heavy workload, and low social support was determined. Publication bias and heterogeneity were partially observed. Furthermore, future studies with improved methodologies and a focus on mechanisms are anticipated.

6 Review [Literature analysis on moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) for insomnia]. 2018

He, Furong / Zhao, Baixiao / Zheng, Meifeng. ·College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion, Fujian University of CM, Fuzhou 350122, China. · School of Acupuncture Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of CM, Beijing 100029. ·Zhongguo Zhen Jiu · Pubmed #29797920.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the clinical literature regarding moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) for insomnia, and to provide clinical evidence of moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) for insomnia. METHODS: With "moxibustion" "acupuncture-moxibustion" "Yongquan (KI 1)" "insomnia" and "sleep disorder", etc. as key terms, the clinical literature regarding moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) for insomnia was retrieved in CNKI, RESULTS: A total of 27 clinical papers were retrieved, including 14 randomized controlled trials. In recent years, the number of clinical papers had increased. Few papers selected moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) as independent treatment for insomnia; most papers combined moxibustion with acupuncture, massage, etc. Moxibustion was commonly manipulated by patients or family members, and few papers applied moxibustion instruments to make the manipulation easier and safer. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at Yongquan (KI 1) for insomnia has attracted more and more attention. It is suggested to apply convenient and safe moxibustion instruments in clinical treatment, which is benefit to clinical generalization, but also provides convenient manipulation for further study regarding its clinical effect and mechanism.

7 Review ["Governor vessel 2018

Ding, Li / Wang, Jun / Yang, Haoxia / Yu, Jun. ·Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Wuxi City Ninth People's Hospital, Wuxi 214000, Jiangsu Province, China. ·Zhongguo Zhen Jiu · Pubmed #29797908.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical efficacy differences between "governor vessel METHODS: Seventy patients of insomnia were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 35 cases in each one. The patients in the control group were treated with oral administration of estazolam, 2 mg each time; the estazolam was taken 30 min before sleeping. The patients in the observation group were treated with "governor vessel RESULTS: The total effective rate was 94.3% (33/35) in the observation group, which had no significant difference with 82.9% (29/35) in the control group ( CONCLUSION: "Governor vessel

8 Review Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in children and adolescents with insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2018

Ma, Zhong-Rui / Shi, Li-Jun / Deng, Ming-Hong. ·Department of Neurology, Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu, China. · Department of Hematology, Chengdu Fifth People's Hospital, Chengdu, China. ·Braz J Med Biol Res · Pubmed #29791593.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is highly prevalent in children and adolescents. However, the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-i) in children and adolescents remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy of CBT-i in children and adolescents. We conducted a search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to select primary studies evaluating CBT-i in children and adolescents that were primarily diagnosed through standardized diagnostic criteria. The primary outcomes of the meta-analysis included sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), and sleep efficiency (SE%). Six randomized controlled trials and four open-label trials met all inclusion criteria. A total of 464 participants (ranging from 5-19 years of age) were included. Based on the results from sleep logs, a significant pooled effect size was observed for SOL and SE%. However, no significant pooled effect size was found for WASO or TST. Results from actigraphy were consistent with the sleep logs. A significant pooled effect size was observed for SOL and SE%, and no significant pooled effect size was found for WASO or TST. CBT-i might be effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with insomnia.

9 Review Revealing the Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Beneficial Effects of Tai Chi: A Neuroimaging Perspective. 2018

Yu, Angus P / Tam, Bjorn T / Lai, Christopher W / Yu, Doris S / Woo, Jean / Chung, Ka-Fai / Hui, Stanley S / Liu, Justina Y / Wei, Gao X / Siu, Parco M. ·* School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. · ‡ Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. · § Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China. · ∥ The Nethersole School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. · ** Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. · † Department of Psychiatry, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China. · †† Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Faculty of Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China. · ¶ School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China. · ‡‡ Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ·Am J Chin Med · Pubmed #29542330.

ABSTRACT: Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain. These neuroimaging findings have provided new clues for revealing the mechanisms behind the observed effects of TCC. In this review paper, we discussed the possible effects of TCC-induced modulation of brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity on health. Moreover, we identified possible links between the alterations in brain and beneficial effects of TCC, such as improved motor functions, pain perception, metabolic profile, cognitive functions, mental health and sleep quality. This paper aimed to stimulate further mechanistic neuroimaging studies in TCC and its effects on brain morphology, functional homogeneity and connectivity, regional activity and macro-scale network activity, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of TCC on human health.

10 Review A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mindfulness-Based (Baduanjin) Exercise for Alleviating Musculoskeletal Pain and Improving Sleep Quality in People with Chronic Diseases. 2018

Zou, Liye / Yeung, Albert / Quan, Xinfeng / Boyden, Sean David / Wang, Huiru. ·Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. liyezou123@gmail.com. · Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02114, USA. AYEUNG@mgh.harvard.edu. · The South Cove Community Health Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA. AYEUNG@mgh.harvard.edu. · Department of Material Science and Engineering, Sichuan University-Pittsburgh Institute, Chengdu 610065, China. xinfeng.quan@gmail.com. · Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02114, USA. SBOYDEN@partners.org. · Department of Physical Education, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240, China. wanghrsjtu@163.com. ·Int J Environ Res Public Health · Pubmed #29370149.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: we performed the first systematic review with meta-analyses of the existing studies that examined mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise for its therapeutic effects for individuals with musculoskeletal pain or insomnia. METHODS: Both English- (PubMed, Web of Science, Elsevier, and Google Scholar) and Chinese-language (CNKI and Wangfang) electronic databases were used to search relevant articles. We used a modified PEDro scale to evaluate risk of bias across studies selected. All eligible RCTS were considered for meta-analysis. The standardized mean difference was calculated for the pooled effects to determine the magnitude of the Baduanjin intervention effect. For the moderator analysis, we performed subgroup meta-analysis for categorical variables and meta-regression for continuous variables. RESULTS: The aggregated result has shown a significant benefit in favour of Baduanjin at alleviating musculoskeletal pain (SMD = -0.88, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.74, CONCLUSIONS: Mindfulness-based Baduanjin exercise may be effective for alleviating musculoskeletal pain and improving overall sleep quality in people with chronic illness. Large, well-designed RCTs are needed to confirm these findings.

11 Review Can music improve sleep quality in adults with primary insomnia? A systematic review and network meta-analysis. 2018

Feng, Fan / Zhang, Yingshi / Hou, Jun / Cai, Jiayi / Jiang, Qiyu / Li, Xiaojuan / Zhao, Qingchun / Li, Bo-An. ·Center for Clinical Laboratory, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China; Research Center for Clinical and Transitional Medicine, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address: fengfanbio@126.com. · Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China. Electronic address: syzys1990@sina.com. · Research Center for Clinical and Transitional Medicine, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address: houj302@163.com. · College of Pharmaceutical Science, China Medical University, Shenyang 110013, PR China. Electronic address: caijiayi_syphu@163.com. · Research Center for Clinical and Transitional Medicine, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address: jiangqy1991@sina.com. · Research Center for Clinical and Transitional Medicine, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address: sxlily55@163.com. · Department of Pharmacy, General Hospital of Shenyang Military Area Command, Shenyang 110840, PR China; Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, PR China. Electronic address: zhaoqingchun1967@163.com. · Center for Clinical Laboratory, The 302nd Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address: lba@263.net. ·Int J Nurs Stud · Pubmed #29100201.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary insomnia is one of the most common issues for adults. However, whether to use music intervention as a non-pharmacological method of treatment, as well as which treatment should be preferred, is still a matter of controversy. Therefore, we aimed to compare and rank music interventions and no-music controls for primary insomnia patients. METHODS: A network meta-analysis was used to identify evidence from relevant clinical trials. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Library for publications up to May 2017, pertaining to music intervention for primary insomnia patients. The prespecified primary outcome was sleep quality (scored by the PSQI and overall), and the secondary outcomes were sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency. We did pairwise meta-analyses using the random-effects model, later completing the random-effects network meta-analyses. The study was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017064750. RESULTS: We deemed 20 trials to be eligible, involving 1339 patients and 12 intervention arms. For PSQI scores, all intervention arms were statistically more effective than the usual care, with patients ranking listening to music as the best means of intervention (SMD: -0.61, 95%CrI: -1.01 to -0.20). For overall sleep quality, only music-associated relaxation was statistically more effective than the patients' usual care (-0.28, -0.48 to -0.08). In terms of sleep onset latency, music-associated relaxation and listening to music had significant advantages (-0.26, -0.64 to -0.09, and -0.28, -0.53 to -0.02); listening to music and music with exercise displayed a tendency to improve sleep efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: When considering the efficacy, music intervention seemed to offer clear advantages for adults with primary insomnia. Listening to music and music-associated relaxation are probably the best options to consider in the application of music intervention.

12 Review Ziziphus spinosa seeds for insomnia: A review of chemistry and psychopharmacology. 2017

Shergis, Johannah Linda / Ni, Xiaojia / Sarris, Jerome / Zhang, Anthony Lin / Guo, Xinfeng / Xue, Charlie C / Lu, Chuanjian / Hugel, Helmut. ·China-Australia International Research Centre for Chinese Medicine, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Australia. · China-Australia International Research Centre for Chinese Medicine, School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora 3083, Australia; Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 111 Dade Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou 510120, PR China. · Department of Psychiatry and The Melbourne Clinic, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3121, Australia; Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University of Technology, PO Box 218, Hawthorn 3122, Victoria, Australia. · Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 111 Dade Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou 510120, PR China. · Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, and The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, 111 Dade Road, Yuexiu District, Guangzhou 510120, PR China. Electronic address: luchuanjian888@vip.sina.com. · School of Science, RMIT University, PO Box 2476, Melbourne 3001 VIC, Australia. Electronic address: hugel@rmit.edu.au. ·Phytomedicine · Pubmed #28899507.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In Chinese medicine, Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa (Bunge) Hu ex H. F. Chou is widely used for the treatment of insomnia. PURPOSE/SECTIONS: This paper summarises the chemistry, psychopharmacology, and compares the pharmaceutical effects of the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba plant, Ziziphus spinosa (ZS) seeds, with benzodiazepines. Whole extracts and constituent compounds have been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: ZS secondary metabolites modulate GABAergic activity and the serotonergic system. The actual therapeutic agents require further confirmation/identification so that new insomnia phytomedicines can be discovered.

13 Review [Epidemiological study of sleep disorder in the elderly]. 2017

Tian, Y / Li, L M. ·School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China. ·Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi · Pubmed #28738480.

ABSTRACT: As a common health problem in modern society, sleep disorder have a high incidence in the elderly population, which seriously affect the quality of life and physical and mental health of the elderly, and can even aggravate to cause diseases. This review summarizes main research findings in the field of sleep disorder during the past 20 years, describes the sleeping characteristics of elderly, the epidemiological distribution of sleep disorder and possible influencing factors, and finally suggests appropriate measures for the prevention of sleep disorder.

14 Review Fatal familial insomnia with abnormal signals on routine MRI: a case report and literature review. 2017

Lu, Tingting / Pan, Yuhang / Peng, Lisheng / Qin, Feng / Sun, Xiaobo / Lu, Zhengqi / Qiu, Wei. ·Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Pathology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Neurosurgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Neurology, the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China. qiuwei120@vip.163.com. ·BMC Neurol · Pubmed #28549449.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by the PRNP D178N/129 M mutation. Routine brain CT and MRI usually reveal non-specific features. We report a patient with FFI presenting with diffuse abnormal signals on MRI, later confirmed as combined with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 58-year-old female, whose main clinical manifestations were insomnia, movement disorders, autonomic hyperactivity and mental deterioration. The patient also suffered a typical episode of transient global amnesia. MRI indicated a diffuse white matter abnormality and microbleeding on the susceptibility-weighted imaging. On biopsy, the brain tissue sections showed spongiform changes with gliosis, neuronal degeneration, and prion protein deposition in a portion of the neurons. In addition, arteriosclerosis was prominent. Transmission electron microscopy showed osmiophilic particle deposition in the matrix of medial smooth muscle cells. Gene sequencing confirmed a diagnosis of FFI with CADASIL. CONCLUSIONS: This case is a compelling example that even with evidence of leukoencephalopathy, prion disease should be an important differential diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia and related diseases. In cases of genetic diseases with atypical manifestations, the coexistence of two or even more diseases should be considered as a possible explanation.

15 Review Treatment of insomnia with tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis of polysomnographic randomized controlled trials. 2017

Liu, Yang / Xu, Xiaomin / Dong, Meixue / Jia, Shiyu / Wei, Youdong. ·Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing, China. ·Sleep Med · Pubmed #28522080.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insomnia represents a significant public health burden worldwide. Antidepressants have often been the insomnia treatment of choice in recent decades. Some tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have been shown to improve sleep efficiency. OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy and safety of TCAs for the treatment of insomnia using a meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs). METHODS: Relevant studies were identified in electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, and Web of Science, up until July 2016. We included all polysomnographic (PSG) RCTs using TCAs to treat insomnia. The primary outcome measure was the total sleep time (TST), although other polysomnographic measures were also investigated. Next-day somnolence and dropout rates were also assessed. RESULTS: The meta-analysis included nine RCTs. TCAs significantly improved TST compared with placebo (SMD = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.50-0.71, P < 0.00001). Participants receiving TCAs were not more likely to drop out than those receiving a placebo because of adverse side effects (1.71% vs 1.19%, RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.67-2.80, P = 0.39) or any other reason (7.08% vs 8.20%; RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.60-1.23, P = 0.42). However, the incidence of somnolence was higher in participants receiving TCAs (6.06% vs. 3.21%; RR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.10-3.00, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our limited data analysis with two medications at particular doses (most studies included extremely low doxepin), we assert that TCAs can be an effective pharmacological treatment for insomnia. TCAs were found to improve sleep outcome measures, with the notable exception of an 82% increase in somnolence. Overall TCAs have very problematic and dangerous side effects, while TCAs were not found to increase the dropout rate compared with the placebo.

16 Review A review of sleep disorders and melatonin. 2017

Xie, Zizhen / Chen, Fei / Li, William A / Geng, Xiaokun / Li, Changhong / Meng, Xiaomei / Feng, Yan / Liu, Wei / Yu, Fengchun. ·a Department of Neurology , Beijing Haidian Hospital , Beijing , China. · b Department of Neurological Surgery , Wayne State University School of Medicine , Detroit , MI , USA. · c Department of Neurology , Beijing Luhe Hospital Capital Medical University , Beijing , China. ·Neurol Res · Pubmed #28460563.

ABSTRACT: Sleep disorders are a group of conditions that affect the ability to sleep well on a regular basis and cause significant impairments in social and occupational functions. Although currently approved medications are efficacious, they are far from satisfactory. Benzodiazepines, antidepressants, antihistamines and anxiolytics have the potential for dependence and addiction. Moreover, some of these medications can gradually impair cognition. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is an endogenous hormone produced by the pineal gland and released exclusively at night. Exogenous melatonin supplementation is well tolerated and has no obvious short- or long-term adverse effects. Melatonin has been shown to synchronize the circadian rhythms, and improve the onset, duration and quality of sleep. It is centrally involved in anti-oxidation, circadian rhythmicity maintenance, sleep regulation and neuronal survival. This narrative review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of various therapeutic functions of melatonin in insomnia, sleep-related breathing disorders, hypersomnolence, circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders and parasomnias. Melatonin offers an alternative treatment to the currently available pharmaceutical therapies for sleep disorders with significantly less side effects.

17 Review Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Drugs for Treating Behavioural Insomnia in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review with Methodological Quality Assessment. 2017

Anand, Shweta / Tong, Henry / Besag, Frank M C / Chan, Esther W / Cortese, Samuele / Wong, Ian C K. ·Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong. · School of Health Science, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao SAR, China. · East London NHS Foundation Trust, Bedfordshire, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK. · Research Department of Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, UK. · Department of Psychology, Developmental Brain-Behaviour Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. · The Child Study Center at NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, The University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam, Hong Kong. i.wong@ucl.ac.uk. · Research Department of Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London, WC1N 1AX, UK. i.wong@ucl.ac.uk. ·Paediatr Drugs · Pubmed #28391425.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD. METHODS: After an initial screen to determine which drugs were most commonly used, we conducted a systematic review of English-language publications from searches of PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and two trial register databases to February 2017, using keywords 'clonidine', 'melatonin', 'zolpidem', 'eszopiclone', 'L-theanine', 'guanfacine', 'ADHD', 'sleep disorder' and 'children'. For quality assessment of included studies, we used the CONSORT checklist for randomised control trials (RCTs) and the Downs and Black checklist for non-RCTs. RESULTS: Twelve studies were included. Two case series for clonidine, two RCTs and four observational studies for melatonin and one RCT each for zolpidem, eszopiclone, L-theanine and guanfacine. Of the 12 included studies, only one on eszopiclone scored excellent for quality. The quality of the rest of the studies varied from moderate to low. For clonidine, melatonin and L-theanine, improvements in sleep-onset latency and total sleep duration were reported; however, zolpidem, eszopiclone and guanfacine failed to show any improvement when compared with placebo. Clonidine, melatonin, L-theanine, eszopiclone and guanfacine were well tolerated with mild to moderate adverse events; zolpidem was associated with neuropsychiatric adverse effects. CONCLUSION: There is generally poor evidence for prescribing drugs for behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD. Further controlled studies are warranted.

18 Review The Efficacy of Acupuncture for Treating Depression-Related Insomnia Compared with a Control Group: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2017

Dong, Bo / Chen, Zeqin / Yin, Xuan / Li, Danting / Ma, Jie / Yin, Ping / Cao, Yan / Lao, Lixing / Xu, Shifen. ·Shanghai Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine Shanghai, Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 200071, China. · School of Medicine, Nanchang University, Jiangxi 330031, China. · School of Chinese Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 10 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; School of Medicine, Center for Integrative Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #28286776.

ABSTRACT:

19 Review [Review for sedative and hypnotic mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and relative active components on neurotransmitters]. 2016

Zhang, Fei-Yan / Li, Jing-Jing / Zhou, Ying / Xu, Xiao-Yu. ·College of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Chinese Medicine, Southwest University, Chongqing 400716, China. ·Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi · Pubmed #28933106.

ABSTRACT: The sedative traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety and antidepression which might be related to certain neurotransmitters and cytokines and so on. This review summarized the mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and its active monomers based on neurotransmitters, including GABA, Glu, 5-HT, DA, NE and their metabolites 5-HIAA, HVA, DOPAC. The results showed that the most research about the sedative medicine at present was throught serotonergic and GABA ergic system. Study on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen was the most extensive, including its monomers, extracts and traditional Chinese patent medicines. It involved many sedative traditional Chinese medicine, such as Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, Albiziae Flos, Polygalae Radix, Longan Arillus, Ganoderma, etc. It also systematically summarized the information which was useful for the further applications and research on sedative drugs and their active components.

20 Review Mindfulness meditation for insomnia: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2016

Gong, Hong / Ni, Chen-Xu / Liu, Yun-Zi / Zhang, Yi / Su, Wen-Jun / Lian, Yong-Jie / Peng, Wei / Jiang, Chun-Lei. ·Laboratory of Stress Medicine, Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China. · Department of Pharmacy, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, People's Republic of China. · Laboratory of Stress Medicine, Faculty of Psychology and Mental Health, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200433, People's Republic of China. Electronic address: cljiang@vip.163.com. ·J Psychosom Res · Pubmed #27663102.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a widespread and debilitating condition that affects sleep quality and daily productivity. Although mindfulness meditation (MM) has been suggested as a potentially effective supplement to medical treatment for insomnia, no comprehensively quantitative research has been conducted in this field. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis on the findings of related randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effects of MM on insomnia. METHODS: Related publications in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and PsycINFO were searched up to July 2015. To calculate the standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), we used a fixed effect model when heterogeneity was negligible and a random effect model when heterogeneity was significant. RESULTS: A total of 330 participants in 6 RCTs that met the selection criteria were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of overall effect revealed that MM significantly improved total wake time and sleep quality, but had no significant effects on sleep onset latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, total wake time, ISI, PSQI and DBAS. Subgroup analyses showed that although there were no significant differences between MM and control groups in terms of total sleep time, significant effects were found in total wake time, sleep onset latency, sleep quality, sleep efficiency, and PSQI global score (absolute value of SMD range: 0.44-1.09, all p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MM may mildly improve some sleep parameters in patients with insomnia. MM can serve as an auxiliary treatment to medication for sleep complaints.

21 Review Insomnia in Chinese Medicine: The Heart of the Matter. 2016

O'Brien, Kylie / Weber, Daniel. ·1 Integrative Chinese Medicine, National Institute of Integrative Medicine , Hawthorn, Australia . · 2 College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University , Footscray, Australia . · 3 Torrens University , Adelaide, Australia . · 4 National Institute of Complementary Medicine, Western Sydney University , Sydney, Australia . · 5 Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine , Tianjin, People's Republic of China . ·J Altern Complement Med · Pubmed #27526331.

ABSTRACT: Chronic insomnia affects a significant proportion of the general population worldwide, and is associated with several serious medical conditions. From the Western scientific literature, hyper-arousal (on the cognitive-emotional, behavioral, autonomic, or central nervous system level) is a final common pathway involved in its pathogenesis. However, from a Chinese medicine (CM) perspective, it is the Heart, capitalized to denote the functional system as described in CM theory, that is the key organ involved in insomnia due to its role as the "seat of consciousness." This article explores how insomnia is understood from the CM perspective, in particular the role of the Heart, and some of the neurophysiological evidence that supports these ancient theoretical understandings. The potential role of the vagus nerve and its relationship with the (biomedical) heart and CM Heart is also examined. Finally, some of the evidence in association with mechanisms of action of acupuncture in insomnia, in particular its impact on cardiovascular variables associated with insomnia, is presented, along with findings of systematic reviews.

22 Review Sleep in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Evidence Gaps and Challenges. 2016

Jen, Rachel / Li, Yanru / Owens, Robert L / Malhotra, Atul. ·Clinical Investigator Program, Department of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9; Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. · Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Sleep Medicine Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100730, China. · Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ·Can Respir J · Pubmed #27445564.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence is rising to epidemic proportions due to historical smoking trends, the aging of the population, and air pollution. Although blaming the victims has been common in COPD, the majority of COPD worldwide is now thought to be nonsmoking related, that is, caused by air pollution and cookstove exposure. It is increasingly appreciated that subjective and objective sleep disturbances are common in COPD, although strong epidemiological data are lacking. People with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) plus COPD (the so-called overlap syndrome) have a high risk of cardiovascular death, although again mechanisms are unknown and untested. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of sleep in COPD, to encourage clinicians to ask their patients about symptoms, and to stimulate further research in this area given the large burden of the disease.

23 Review Effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for primary insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2016

Sun, Yu-Jiao / Yuan, Jia-Min / Yang, Zhi-Min. ·Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No.12, Jichang Road, Bai Yun District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510405, China. · Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.111, Dade Road, Yue Xiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510120, China. · Guangdong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, No.111, Dade Road, Yue Xiu District, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510120, China. yangyo@vip.tom.com. ·BMC Complement Altern Med · Pubmed #27411310.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary insomnia is a widespread and refractory disease. Moxibustion therapy for insomnia shows some advantages compared with conventional therapies. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion therapy for insomnia. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang Data databases from their inception to July 2015 for RCTs that compared moxibustion with western medications, oral Chinese medicine, or other methods of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with primary insomnia. The primary outcome measure was effective rate and secondary outcome measure was adverse events. Data collection and analysis included risk of bias evaluation, meta-analysis, sensitivity analysis, publication bias and adverse events analysis according to corresponding criteria. RESULTS: The study included 22 RCTs (1,971 patients). The quality of the studies was low. The overall meta-analysis demonstrated that moxibustion was more effective for insomnia than western medications, oral Chinese medicine and other TCM therapies (RR = 1.17, 95 % CI 1.12 to 1.23, P < 0.00001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that moxibustion was more effective for insomnia than western medications (RR = 1.16, 95 % CI 1.09 to 1.24, P < 0.00001), oral Chinese medicine (RR = 1.11, 95 % CI 1.04 to 1.18, P = 0.002), and other TCM therapies (RR = 1.22, 95 % CI 1.15 to 1.30, P < 0.00001). There were no serious adverse effects associated with moxibustion therapy for insomnia, and the rate of adverse events was low. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to get the conclusion regarding the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for primary insomnia due to insufficient evidence, such as the high risk of bias in the included studies, small sample sizes, and few reports on adverse effects. Moxibustion should be considered as a novel therapeutic option for insomnia, and more rigorous clinical trials of moxibustion therapy for insomnia are needed to assess its effects.

24 Review A systematic review of acupuncture for sleep quality in people with insomnia. 2016

Shergis, Johannah Linda / Ni, Xiaojia / Jackson, Melinda L / Zhang, Anthony Lin / Guo, Xinfeng / Li, Yan / Lu, Chuanjian / Xue, Charlie Changli. ·School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia. · School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia; Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Guangzhou, China; The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. · School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia; Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Guangzhou, China; The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. · Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Guangzhou, China; The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: luchuanjian888@vip.sina.com. · School of Health and Biomedical Sciences, RMIT University, Bundoora, VIC, Australia; Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Guangzhou, China; The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address: charlie.xue@rmit.edu.au. ·Complement Ther Med · Pubmed #27261976.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Acupuncture is widely used in Asia and increasingly in Western countries. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of acupuncture for insomnia. METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials from English and Chinese databases. Data were extracted using a predefined form and analysed using RevMan 5.2. We included studies that compared acupuncture to sham/placebo, standard pharmacotherapy or cognitive behavioral therapy. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. The primary outcome was sleep quality assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS: A total of 30 studies involving 2363 participants were included. Acupuncture point combinations included the use of at least one of the recommended points for insomnia, HT7, GV20, SP6. Pharmacotherapy control was used in 27 studies and sham/placebo in three studies. Cognitive behavioral therapy was not used in any of the studies. Pharmacotherapies in all studies were benzodiazepine receptor agonists, except for one that used an antidepressant. Acupuncture was superior to sham/placebo in terms of PSQI (MD -0.79, 95% CI -1.38, -0.19, I(2)=49%). Acupuncture was also more effective than pharmacotherapy (MD -2.76, 95% CI -3.67, -1.85, I(2)=94%). Most studies were at risk of bias. Some mild adverse events were reported but they were not causally related to the acupuncture treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Acupuncture compared to sham/placebo and pharmacotherapy showed statistically significant results. However, the evidence is limited by bias in the included studies and heterogeneity. Well-designed studies are needed to confirm the results identified in this review.

25 Review Hazards of insomnia and the effects of acupuncture treatment on insomnia. 2016

Lin, Yu-fang / Liu, Zhi-dan / Ma, Wen / Shen, Wei-dong. ·Graduate School, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. · Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203, China. · Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Shuguang Hospital Baoshan Branch, University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201999, China. ·J Integr Med · Pubmed #27181124.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a common disease in modern society; it is made worse by increasingly fierce competition in the workplace and elsewhere, along with rapid economic and social development. Sleep disorders can result in changes in serum biomarkers and decreased immunity, and may cause maladies such as depression and cardiac diseases, as well as many other somatic symptoms. Western medications for treating insomnia can easily lead to addiction and other adverse effects. Fortunately, acupuncture can ease the symptoms of insomnia. This review summarizes the hazards associated with insomnia and the use of acupuncture in its treatment. Furthermore, the authors introduce an effective and low-cost method of treating insomnia with acupuncture. This review indicates that insomnia poses a major threat to mental health through its effects on serum components, heart function and the immune system of patients, which may lead to other physiological disorders. Anxiety and depression are the two main negative emotions affected by insomnia. Acupuncture, which has showed effectiveness against insomnia and its complications, may be an effective and complementary method for the treatment of insomnia and associated maladies.

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