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Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: HELP
Articles from San Francisco Bay area
Based on 231 articles published since 2008
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These are the 231 published articles about Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders that originated from San Francisco Bay area during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10
1 Guideline Clinical Practice Guideline for the Pharmacologic Treatment of Chronic Insomnia in Adults: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Clinical Practice Guideline. 2017

Sateia, Michael J / Buysse, Daniel J / Krystal, Andrew D / Neubauer, David N / Heald, Jonathan L. ·Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH. · University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA. · University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA. · Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. · American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Darien, IL. ·J Clin Sleep Med · Pubmed #27998379.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this guideline is to establish clinical practice recommendations for the pharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia in adults, when such treatment is clinically indicated. Unlike previous meta-analyses, which focused on broad classes of drugs, this guideline focuses on individual drugs commonly used to treat insomnia. It includes drugs that are FDA-approved for the treatment of insomnia, as well as several drugs commonly used to treat insomnia without an FDA indication for this condition. This guideline should be used in conjunction with other AASM guidelines on the evaluation and treatment of chronic insomnia in adults. METHODS: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of four experts in sleep medicine. A systematic review was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, and patient values and preferences. Literature reviews are provided for those pharmacologic agents for which sufficient evidence was available to establish recommendations. The AASM Board of Directors approved the final recommendations. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following recommendations are intended as a guideline for clinicians in choosing a specific pharmacological agent for treatment of chronic insomnia in adults, when such treatment is indicated. Under GRADE, a STRONG recommendation is one that clinicians should, under most circumstances, follow. A WEAK recommendation reflects a lower degree of certainty in the outcome and appropriateness of the patient-care strategy for all patients, but should not be construed as an indication of ineffectiveness. GRADE recommendation strengths do not refer to the magnitude of treatment effects in a particular patient, but rather, to the strength of evidence in published data. Downgrading the quality of evidence for these treatments is predictable in GRADE, due to the funding source for most pharmacological clinical trials and the attendant risk of publication bias; the relatively small number of eligible trials for each individual agent; and the observed heterogeneity in the data. The ultimate judgment regarding propriety of any specific care must be made by the clinician in light of the individual circumstances presented by the patient, available diagnostic tools, accessible treatment options, and resources. We suggest that clinicians use suvorexant as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use eszopiclone as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zaleplon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use zolpidem as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use triazolam as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use temazepam as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use ramelteon as a treatment for sleep onset insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians use doxepin as a treatment for sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use trazodone as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use tiagabine as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use diphenhydramine as a treatment for sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use melatonin as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use tryptophan as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK). We suggest that clinicians not use valerian as a treatment for sleep onset or sleep maintenance insomnia (versus no treatment) in adults. (WEAK).

2 Editorial The power of pooled analyses to inform about the effects of CBTI on outcomes beyond sleep. 2019

Manber, Rachel. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, USA. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #30691658.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial A step towards stepped care: delivery of CBT-I with reduced clinician time. 2015

Manber, Rachel / Simpson, Norah S / Bootzin, Richard R. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94301-5597, USA. Electronic address: Rmanber@stanford.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94301-5597, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, USA. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #25454675.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Guest editorial: Overcoming barriers to care for returning veterans: expanding services to college campuses. 2013

McCaslin, Shannon E / Leach, Bridget / Herbst, Ellen / Armstrong, Keith. ·Mental Health Service, SFVAMC, San Francisco, CA. ·J Rehabil Res Dev · Pubmed #24458904.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Review Insomnia in Elderly Patients: Recommendations for Pharmacological Management. 2018

Abad, Vivien C / Guilleminault, Christian. ·Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Outpatient Medical Center, Stanford University, 450 Broadway St. Pavilion C 2nd Floor MC 5704, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA. · Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford Outpatient Medical Center, Stanford University, 450 Broadway St. Pavilion C 2nd Floor MC 5704, Redwood City, CA, 94063, USA. cguil@stanford.edu. ·Drugs Aging · Pubmed #30058034.

ABSTRACT: Chronic insomnia affects 57% of the elderly in the United States, with impairment of quality of life, function, and health. Chronic insomnia burdens society with billions of dollars in direct and indirect costs of care. The main modalities in the treatment of insomnia in the elderly are psychological/behavioral therapies, pharmacological treatment, or a combination of both. Various specialty societies view psychological/behavioral therapies as the initial treatment intervention. Pharmacotherapy plays an adjunctive role when insomnia symptoms persist or when patients are unable to pursue cognitive behavioral therapies. Current drugs for insomnia fall into different classes: orexin agonists, histamine receptor antagonists, non-benzodiazepine gamma aminobutyric acid receptor agonists, and benzodiazepines. This review focuses on Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for insomnia, including suvorexant, low-dose doxepin, Z-drugs (eszopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon), benzodiazepines (triazolam, temazepam), and ramelteon. We review the indications, dosing, efficacy, benefits, and harms of these drugs in the elderly, and discuss data on drugs that are commonly used off-label to treat insomnia, and those that are in clinical development. The choice of a hypnotic agent in the elderly is symptom-based. Ramelteon or short-acting Z-drugs can treat sleep-onset insomnia. Suvorexant or low-dose doxepin can improve sleep maintenance. Eszopiclone or zolpidem extended release can be utilized for both sleep onset and sleep maintenance. Low-dose zolpidem sublingual tablets or zaleplon can alleviate middle-of-the-night awakenings. Benzodiazepines should not be used routinely. Trazodone, a commonly used off-label drug for insomnia, improves sleep quality and sleep continuity but carries significant risks. Tiagabine, sometimes used off-label for insomnia, is not effective and should not be utilized. Non-FDA-approved hypnotic agents that are commonly used include melatonin, diphenhydramine, tryptophan, and valerian, despite limited data on benefits and harms. Melatonin slightly improves sleep onset and sleep duration, but product quality and efficacy may vary. Tryptophan decreases sleep onset in adults, but data in the elderly are not available. Valerian is relatively safe but has equivocal benefits on sleep quality. Phase II studies of dual orexin receptor antagonists (almorexant, lemborexant, and filorexant) have shown some improvement in sleep maintenance and sleep continuity. Piromelatine may improve sleep maintenance. Histamine receptor inverse agonists (APD-125, eplivanserin, and LY2624803) improve slow-wave sleep but, for various reasons, the drug companies withdrew their products.

6 Review Insomnia disorder in adolescence: Diagnosis, impact, and treatment. 2018

de Zambotti, Massimiliano / Goldstone, Aimee / Colrain, Ian M / Baker, Fiona C. ·Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA. Electronic address: massimiliano.dezambotti@sri.com. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA; Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. · Center for Health Sciences, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA, USA; Brain Function Research Group, School of Physiology, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #28974427.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia disorder is very common in adolescents; it is particularly manifest in older adolescents and girls, with a prevalence comparable to that of other major psychiatric disorders (e.g., depressive disorders). However, insomnia disorder in adolescence is poorly characterized, under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated, and the reason for the female preponderance for insomnia that emerges after puberty is largely unknown. Insomnia disorder goes beyond an individual complaint of poor sleep or a sleep state misperception, and there is emerging evidence supporting the association of insomnia symptoms in adolescents with alterations in several bio-systems including functional cortical alterations and systemic inflammation. Insomnia disorder is associated with depression and other psychiatric disorders, and is an independent risk factor for suicidality and substance use in adolescents, raising the possibility that treating insomnia symptoms in early adolescence may reduce risk for these adverse outcomes. Cognitive behavioral treatments have proven efficacy for adolescent insomnia and online methods seem to offer promising cost-effective options. Current evidence indicates that insomnia in adolescence is an independent entity that warrants attention as a public health concern in its own right.

7 Review Management of side effects during and post-treatment in breast cancer survivors. 2018

Palesh, Oxana / Scheiber, Caroline / Kesler, Shelli / Mustian, Karen / Koopman, Cheryl / Schapira, Lidia. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Department of Surgery, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. · Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, CA, USA. ·Breast J · Pubmed #28845551.

ABSTRACT: Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are commonly experienced symptoms that share psychological and physical manifestations. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all patients at some point during their course of treatment or survivorship. These side effects are burdensome and reduce patients' quality of life well beyond their cancer diagnosis and associated care treatments. Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are likely to have multiple etiologies that make it difficult to identify the most effective method to manage them. In this review, we summarized the information on cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment incidence and prevalence among breast cancer patients and survivors as well as recent research findings on pharmaceutical, psychological, and exercise interventions that have shown effectiveness in the treatment of these side effects. Our review revealed that most current pharmaceutical interventions tend to ameliorate symptoms only temporarily without addressing the underlying causes. Exercise and behavioral interventions are consistently more effective at managing chronic symptoms and possibly address an underlying etiology. Future research is needed to investigate effective interventions that can be delivered directly in clinic to a large portion of patients and survivors.

8 Review Hypnosis in Cancer Care. 2017

Wortzel, Joshua / Spiegel, David. ·a Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford , California , USA. ·Am J Clin Hypn · Pubmed #28557681.

ABSTRACT: Cancer affects a growing proportion of the population as survival improves. The illness and its treatment brings a substantial burden of symptoms, including pain, anxiety, insomnia, and grief. Here, the uses of hypnosis in the treatment of these cancer-related problems will be reviewed. The utility of measuring hypnotizability in the clinical setting will be discussed. The current neurobiology of hypnotizability and hypnosis will be reviewed. Methods and results of using hypnosis for pain control in acute and chronic settings will be presented. Effects of hypnotic analgesia in specific brain regions associated with pain reduction, notably the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the somatosensory cortex, underlies its utility as a potent and side-effect free analgesic. Methods for helping those with cancer to better manage their anxiety, insomnia, and grief will be described. These involve facing disease-related stressors while dissociating the experience from somatic arousal. Given the serious complications of medications widely used to treat pain, anxiety, and insomnia, this article provides methods and an evidence base for wider use of techniques involving hypnosis in cancer care. Altering patients' perception of pain, disease-related stress, and anxiety can help change the reality of their life with cancer.

9 Review Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and Sleep: a Review of the Literature. 2017

Babson, Kimberly A / Sottile, James / Morabito, Danielle. ·National Center for PTSD-Dissemination & Training Division, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA. Kimberly.Babson@va.gov. · Palo Alto University, Palo Alto, CA, USA. · National Center for PTSD-Dissemination & Training Division, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, 795 Willow Road, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA. ·Curr Psychiatry Rep · Pubmed #28349316.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review aims to summarize the state of research on cannabis and sleep up to 2014 and to review in detail the literature on cannabis and specific sleep disorders from 2014 to the time of publication. RECENT FINDINGS: Preliminary research into cannabis and insomnia suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of insomnia. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may decrease sleep latency but could impair sleep quality long-term. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with PTSD and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain. Research on cannabis and sleep is in its infancy and has yielded mixed results. Additional controlled and longitudinal research is critical to advance our understanding of research and clinical implications.

10 Review Genetic prion disease: Experience of a rapidly progressive dementia center in the United States and a review of the literature. 2017

Takada, Leonel T / Kim, Mee-Ohk / Cleveland, Ross W / Wong, Katherine / Forner, Sven A / Gala, Ignacio Illán / Fong, Jamie C / Geschwind, Michael D. ·Department of Neurology, Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology Unit, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. · Department of Neurology, Memory and Aging Center, University of California, San Francisco, California. · Department of Pediatrics, The University of Vermont Children's Hospital, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. · Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain. ·Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet · Pubmed #27943639.

ABSTRACT: Although prion diseases are generally thought to present as rapidly progressive dementias with survival of only a few months, the phenotypic spectrum for genetic prion diseases (gPrDs) is much broader. The majority have a rapid decline with short survival, but many patients with gPrDs present as slowly progressive ataxic or parkinsonian disorders with progression over a few to several years. A few very rare mutations even present as neuropsychiatric disorders, sometimes with systemic symptoms such as gastrointestinal disorders and neuropathy, progressing over years to decades. gPrDs are caused by mutations in the prion protein gene (PRNP), and have been historically classified based on their clinicopathological features as genetic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease (gJCD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS), or Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). Mutations in PRNP can be missense, nonsense, and octapeptide repeat insertions or a deletion, and present with diverse clinical features, sensitivities of ancillary testing, and neuropathological findings. We present the UCSF gPrD cohort, including 129 symptomatic patients referred to and/or seen at UCSF between 2001 and 2016, and compare the clinical features of the gPrDs from 22 mutations identified in our cohort with data from the literature, as well as perform a literature review on most other mutations not represented in our cohort. E200K is the most common mutation worldwide, is associated with gJCD, and was the most common in the UCSF cohort. Among the GSS-associated mutations, P102L is the most commonly reported and was also the most common at UCSF. We also had several octapeptide repeat insertions (OPRI), a rare nonsense mutation (Q160X), and three novel mutations (K194E, E200G, and A224V) in our UCSF cohort. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

11 Review Beyond the mean: A systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns. 2016

Bei, Bei / Wiley, Joshua F / Trinder, John / Manber, Rachel. ·Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash School of Psychological Sciences, Faculty of Biomedical and Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Australia; Centre for Women's Mental Health, Royal Women's Hospital, Australia. Electronic address: bei.bei@monash.edu. · Centre for Primary Care and Prevention, Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Australia. · Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia. · Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, USA. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #26588182.

ABSTRACT: Features of an individual's sleep/wake patterns across multiple days are governed by two dimensions, the mean and the intraindividual variability (IIV). The existing literature focuses on the means, while the nature and correlates of sleep/wake IIV are not well understood. A systematic search of records in five major databases from inception to November 2014 identified 53 peer-reviewed empirical publications that examined correlates of sleep/wake IIV in adults. Overall, this literature appeared unsystematic and post hoc, with under-developed theoretical frameworks and inconsistent methodologies. Correlates most consistently associated with greater IIV in one or more aspects of sleep/wake patterns were: younger age, non-White race/ethnicity, living alone, physical health conditions, higher body mass index, weight gain, bipolar and unipolar depression symptomatology, stress, and evening chronotype; symptoms of insomnia and poor sleep were associated with higher sleep/wake IIV, which was reduced following sleep interventions. The effects of experimentally reduced sleep/wake IIV on daytime functioning were inconclusive. In extending current understanding of sleep/wake patterns beyond the mean values, IIV should be incorporated as an additional dimension when sleep is examined across multiple days. Theoretical and methodological shortcomings in the existing literature, and opportunities for future research are discussed.

12 Review Insomnia disorder. 2015

Morin, Charles M / Drake, Christopher L / Harvey, Allison G / Krystal, Andrew D / Manber, Rachel / Riemann, Dieter / Spiegelhalder, Kai. ·Université Laval, École de psychologie, 2325 rue des Bibliothèques, Québec City, Québec G1V 0A6, Canada. · Henry Ford Hospital Sleep Disorders and Research Center, Detroit, Michigan, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA. · Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychophysiology/Sleep Medicine, Center for Mental Disorders, University of Freiburg Medical Center, Freiburg, Germany. ·Nat Rev Dis Primers · Pubmed #27189779.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia disorder affects a large proportion of the population on a situational, recurrent or chronic basis and is among the most common complaints in medical practice. The disorder is predominantly characterized by dissatisfaction with sleep duration or quality and difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep, along with substantial distress and impairments of daytime functioning. It can present as the chief complaint or, more often, co-occurs with other medical or psychiatric disorders, such as pain and depression. Persistent insomnia has been linked with adverse long-term health outcomes, including diminished quality of life and physical and psychological morbidity. Despite its high prevalence and burden, the aetiology and pathophysiology of insomnia is poorly understood. In the past decade, important changes in classification and diagnostic paradigms have instigated a move from a purely symptom-based conceptualization to the recognition of insomnia as a disorder in its own right. These changes have been paralleled by key advances in therapy, with generic pharmacological and psychological interventions being increasingly replaced by approaches that have sleep-specific and insomnia-specific therapeutic targets. Psychological and pharmacological therapies effectively reduce the time it takes to fall asleep and the time spent awake after sleep onset, and produce a modest increase in total sleep time; these are outcomes that correlate with improvements in daytime functioning. Despite this progress, several challenges remain, including the need to improve our knowledge of the mechanisms that underlie insomnia and to develop more cost-effective, efficient and accessible therapies.

13 Review Sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor. 2015

Bernert, Rebecca A / Kim, Joanne S / Iwata, Naomi G / Perlis, Michael L. ·Suicide Prevention Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, USA, rbernert@stanford.edu. ·Curr Psychiatry Rep · Pubmed #25698339.

ABSTRACT: Increasing research indicates that sleep disturbances may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. Despite increased investigation, a number of methodological problems present important limitations to the validity and generalizability of findings in this area, which warrant additional focus. To evaluate and delineate sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor, a systematic review of the extant literature was conducted with methodological considerations as a central focus. The following methodologic criteria were required for inclusion: the report (1) evaluated an index of sleep disturbance; (2) examined an outcome measure for suicidal behavior; (3) adjusted for presence of a depression diagnosis or depression severity, as a covariate; and (4) represented an original investigation as opposed to a chart review. Reports meeting inclusion criteria were further classified and reviewed according to: study design and timeframe; sample type and size; sleep disturbance, suicide risk, and depression covariate assessment measure(s); and presence of positive versus negative findings. Based on keyword search, the following search engines were used: PubMed and PsycINFO. Search criteria generated N = 82 articles representing original investigations focused on sleep disturbances and suicide outcomes. Of these, N = 18 met inclusion criteria for review based on systematic analysis. Of the reports identified, N = 18 evaluated insomnia or poor sleep quality symptoms, whereas N = 8 assessed nightmares in association with suicide risk. Despite considerable differences in study designs, samples, and assessment techniques, the comparison of such reports indicates preliminary, converging evidence for sleep disturbances as an empirical risk factor for suicidal behaviors, while highlighting important, future directions for increased investigation.

14 Review Pharmacological treatment of sleep disorders and its relationship with neuroplasticity. 2015

Abad, Vivien C / Guilleminault, Christian. ·Psychiatry and Behavioral Science-Division of Sleep Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA. ·Curr Top Behav Neurosci · Pubmed #25585962.

ABSTRACT: Sleep and wakefulness are regulated by complex brain circuits located in the brain stem, thalamus, subthalamus, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. Wakefulness and NREM and REM sleep are modulated by the interactions between neurotransmitters that promote arousal and neurotransmitters that promote sleep. Various lines of evidence suggest that sleep disorders may negatively affect neuronal plasticity and cognitive function. Pharmacological treatments may alleviate these effects but may also have adverse side effects by themselves. This chapter discusses the relationship between sleep disorders, pharmacological treatments, and brain plasticity, including the treatment of insomnia, hypersomnias such as narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome (RLS), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and parasomnias.

15 Review An evidence-based review of insomnia treatment in early recovery. 2014

Kaplan, Katherine A / McQuaid, John / Primich, Charles / Rosenlicht, Nicholas. ·From the Department of Psychiatry (KAK), Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA · Department of Psychiatry (JM, NR), University of California, San Francisco · and San Francisco VA Medical Center (JM, CP, NR), San Francisco, CA. ·J Addict Med · Pubmed #25369938.

ABSTRACT: Accruing evidence indicates that insomnia is prevalent and persistent in early recovery from substance use disorders and may predict relapse. As such, insomnia treatment after abstinence represents an important area for intervention. This article reviews the literature on insomnia predicting new-onset alcohol and substance use disorders, along with evidence for insomnia predicting relapse in recovering populations. Pharmacological and psychological treatment options are presented, and cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia applied to recovering populations is described in detail.

16 Review Insomnia as a transdiagnostic process in psychiatric disorders. 2014

Dolsen, Michael R / Asarnow, Lauren D / Harvey, Allison G. ·Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 2205 Tolman Hall #1650, Berkeley, CA, 94720-1650, USA. ·Curr Psychiatry Rep · Pubmed #25030972.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is a major public health concern, and is highly comorbid with a broad range of psychiatric disorders. Although insomnia has historically been considered a symptom of other disorders, this perspective has shifted. Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that insomnia is related to the onset and course of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, several randomized controlled trials show that cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia delivered to individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for insomnia and another psychiatric disorder improves the insomnia as well as the symptoms of the comorbid psychiatric disorder. Taken together, these results encompassing a range of methodologies have provided encouraging evidence and point toward insomnia as a transdiagnostic process in psychiatric disorders.

17 Review Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management. 2014

Jim, Heather S L / Evans, Bryan / Jeong, Jiyeon M / Gonzalez, Brian D / Johnston, Laura / Nelson, Ashley M / Kesler, Shelli / Phillips, Kristin M / Barata, Anna / Pidala, Joseph / Palesh, Oxana. ·Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. Electronic address: heather.jim@moffitt.org. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. · Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. · Division of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. · Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida; Psychiatry and Legal Medicine PhD Program, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. ·Biol Blood Marrow Transplant · Pubmed #24747335.

ABSTRACT: Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients..

18 Review The evidence base of sleep restriction therapy for treating insomnia disorder. 2014

Miller, Christopher B / Espie, Colin A / Epstein, Dana R / Friedman, Leah / Morin, Charles M / Pigeon, Wilfred R / Spielman, Arthur J / Kyle, Simon D. ·Centre for Integrated Research and Understanding of Sleep (CIRUS), Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Australia; Institute of Neuroscience & Psychology, University of Glasgow, UK. Electronic address: chris.miller@sydney.edu.au. · Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Sleep & Circadian Neuroscience Institute, University of Oxford, UK. · Phoenix Veterans Affairs Health Care System, USA; Arizona State University College of Nursing and Health Innovation, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Palo Alto, USA; Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA. · Université Laval, Québec City, Québec, Canada. · Sleep & Neurophysiology Research Lab, University of Rochester Medical Center, USA; Center of Excellence for Suicide Prevention, U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, USA. · Cognitive Neuroscience Doctoral Program, The City College of the City University of New York, USA; Weill Cornell Medical College, Center for Sleep Medicine, NY, USA. · School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, UK. ·Sleep Med Rev · Pubmed #24629826.

ABSTRACT: Sleep restriction therapy is routinely used within cognitive behavioral therapy to treat chronic insomnia. However, the efficacy for sleep restriction therapy as a standalone intervention has yet to be comprehensively reviewed. This review evaluates the evidence for the use of sleep restriction therapy in the treatment of chronic insomnia. The literature was searched using web-based databases, finding 1344 studies. Twenty-one were accessed in full (1323 were deemed irrelevant to this review). Nine were considered relevant and evaluated in relation to study design using a standardized study checklist and levels of evidence. Four trials met adequate methodological strength to examine the efficacy of therapy for chronic insomnia. Weighted effect sizes for self-reported sleep diary measures of sleep onset latency, wake time after sleep onset, and sleep efficiency were moderate-to-large after therapy. Total sleep time indicated a small improvement. Standalone sleep restriction therapy is efficacious for the treatment of chronic insomnia for sleep diary continuity variables. Studies are insufficient to evaluate the full impact on objective sleep variables. Measures of daytime functioning in response to therapy are lacking. Variability in the sleep restriction therapy implementation methods precludes any strong conclusions regarding the true impact of therapy. A future research agenda is outlined.

19 Review Acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-related psychological symptoms. 2014

Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth / Palesh, Oxana. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA nhaddad@stanford.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA. ·Integr Cancer Ther · Pubmed #24501113.

ABSTRACT: Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms. This article reviews the current literature (January 2000 through April 2013) for acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms with attention to both efficacy and acupuncture-specific methodology. All published studies that met our review criteria demonstrate a positive signal for acupuncture for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and for improving quality of life with most results showing statistical significance. However, there are only a handful of acupuncture studies that were specifically designed to evaluate depression, sleep disturbance, and quality of life as primary outcomes, and no studies were found that looked at anxiety as a primary outcome in this population. Published studies in cancer patients and survivors show that acupuncture treatment is not only safe but also more acceptable with fewer side effects than standard of care pharmacological treatments like antidepressants. Finally, there is wide variability in both the implementation and reporting of acupuncture methods in the literature, with only 2 of 12 studies reporting full details of acupuncture methods as outlined in the revised Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines, published in 2010 and providing an essential framework for the reporting of acupuncture methodology. This lack of methodological detail affects outcomes, generalizability, and validity of research involving acupuncture. Reasons for ongoing challenges in the development of high-quality acupuncture trials are discussed. In conclusion, results are encouraging for the development of randomized trials to directly evaluate the therapeutic impact of acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and quality of life, but attention to acupuncture methodological specific challenges in the development of high-quality research is necessary.

20 Review Circadian rhythms and psychiatric illness. 2013

Asarnow, Lauren D / Soehner, Adriane M / Harvey, Allison G. ·University of California, Berkeley, California, USA. ·Curr Opin Psychiatry · Pubmed #24060916.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides a conceptual introduction to sleep and circadian research in psychiatric illness, and discusses recent experimental and intervention findings in this area. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, studies published since January 2011 on circadian disturbance and psychiatric illness have been summarized. SUMMARY: Exciting new results have increasingly utilized objective and validated instruments to measure the circadian system in experimental studies. Since 2011, treatment research has still predominantly utilized self-report measures as outcome variables. However, research in the treatment domain for sleep/circadian disturbances comorbid with psychiatric illness has advanced the field in its work to broaden the validation of existing sleep treatments to additional patient populations with comorbid sleep/circadian disruptions and address how to increase access to and affordability of treatment for sleep and circadian dysfunction for patients with psychiatric disorders, and how to combine psychosocial treatments with psychopharmacology to optimize treatment outcomes.

21 Review Treatment of sleep disturbances in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review. 2012

Schoenfeld, Frank B / Deviva, Jason C / Manber, Rachel. ·San Francisco Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. Frank.schoenfeld@va.gov ·J Rehabil Res Dev · Pubmed #23015583.

ABSTRACT: Sleep disturbances are among the most commonly reported posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. It is essential to conduct a careful assessment of the presenting sleep disturbance to select the optimal available treatment. Cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBTs) are at least as effective as pharmacologic treatment in the short-term and more enduring in their beneficial effects. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia and imagery rehearsal therapy have been developed to specifically treat insomnia and nightmares and offer promise for more effective relief of these very distressing symptoms. Pharmacotherapy continues to be an important treatment choice for PTSD sleep disturbances as an adjunct to CBT, when CBT is ineffective or not available, or when the patient declines CBT. Great need exists for more investigation into the effectiveness of specific pharmacologic agents for PTSD sleep disturbances and the dissemination of the findings to prescribers. The studies of prazosin and the findings of its effectiveness for PTSD sleep disturbance are examples of studies of pharmacologic agents needed in this area. Despite the progress made in developing more specific treatments for sleep disturbances in PTSD, insomnia and nightmares may not fully resolve.

22 Review Non-pharmacological treatment of insomnia. 2012

Siebern, Allison T / Suh, Sooyeon / Nowakowski, Sara. ·Stanford University School of Medicine, Sleep Medicine Center, Redwood City, California 94063, USA. asiebern@stanford.edu ·Neurotherapeutics · Pubmed #22935989.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is one of the most common sleep disorders, which is characterized by nocturnal symptoms of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep, and by daytime symptoms that impair occupational, social, or other areas of functioning. Insomnia disorder can exist alone or in conjunction with comorbid medical and/or psychiatric conditions. The incidence of insomnia is higher in women and can increase during certain junctures of a woman's life (e.g., pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause). This article will focus on an overview of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, evidence of effectiveness for this treatment when insomnia disorder is experienced alone or in parallel with a comorbidity, and a review with promising data on the use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia when present during postpartum and menopause.

23 Review MF101: a multi-component botanical selective estrogen receptor beta modulator for the treatment of menopausal vasomotor symptoms. 2012

Leitman, Dale C / Christians, Uwe. ·University of California, Department of Nutritional Science and Toxicology, 44 Morgan Hall Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. dale@leitmanlab.com ·Expert Opin Investig Drugs · Pubmed #22616988.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The Women's Health Initiative Estrogen Plus Progestin clinical trial demonstrated the risks exceeded the benefits which have led to a decline in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) by greater than 50%. MHT use was initiated long before there was a significant understanding of the molecular mechanisms of estrogens. It has become clear that the problem with the current estrogens in MHT is they act non-selectively as an agonist in all tissues that contain estrogen receptors. MF101 is an oral, botanically derived extract that was designed to selectively regulate estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) because the increased risk of breast and endometrial cancer is due to the activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) by estrogens. Preclinical and clinical data support a role for selective ERβ agonists, such as MF101, for vasomotor symptoms without increasing cancer risks. AREAS COVERED: The review covers the biological, pharmacological and clinical advantages of MF101, and the unique ability of MF101 to selectively target the ERβ pathway for the treatment of hot flashes (HF). EXPERT OPINION: Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that MF101, a selective estrogen receptor beta agonist, represents a new class of drugs that is safe and effective for treating HF and nighttime awakenings.

24 Review (Mis)perception of sleep in insomnia: a puzzle and a resolution. 2012

Harvey, Allison G / Tang, Nicole K Y. ·Department of Psychology, University of California, Berkeley, 3210 Tolman Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1650, USA. aharvey@berkeley.edu ·Psychol Bull · Pubmed #21967449.

ABSTRACT: Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not universal). Resolving this puzzle has clinical, theoretical, and public health importance. There are implications for assessment, definition, and treatment. Moreover, solving the puzzle creates an opportunity for real-world applications of theories from clinical, perceptual, and social psychology as well as neuroscience. Herein we evaluate 13 possible resolutions to the puzzle. Specifically, we consider the possible contribution, to misperception, of (1) features inherent to the context of sleep (e.g., darkness); (2) the definition of sleep onset, which may lack sensitivity for insomnia patients; (3) insomnia being an exaggerated sleep complaint; (4) psychological distress causing magnification; (5) a deficit in time estimation ability; (6) sleep being misperceived as wake; (7) worry and selective attention toward sleep-related threats; (8) a memory bias influenced by current symptoms and emotions, a confirmation bias/belief bias, or a recall bias linked to the intensity/recency of symptoms; (9) heightened physiological arousal; (10) elevated cortical arousal; (11) the presence of brief awakenings; (12) a fault in neuronal circuitry; and (13) there being 2 insomnia subtypes (one with and one without misperception). The best supported resolutions were misperception of sleep as wake, worry, and brief awakenings. A deficit in time estimation ability was not supported. We conclude by proposing several integrative solutions.

25 Review Measures of sleep in rheumatologic diseases: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Functional Outcome of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). 2011

Omachi, Theodore A. ·Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA. omachi@ucsf.edu ·Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) · Pubmed #22588751.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

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