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Irritable Bowel Syndrome: HELP
Articles from New York
Based on 115 articles published since 2008
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These are the 115 published articles about Irritable Bowel Syndrome that originated from New York during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5
1 Editorial Editorial: food for thought-the low-FODMAP diet and IBS in perspective. 2017

Quigley, E M M. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #28621070.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Effects of Different Coping Strategies on Physical and Mental Health of Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome. 2017

Dindo, Lilian / Lackner, Jeffrey. ·Baylor College of Medicine and VA HSR&D Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety, Houston, Texas. · Department of Medicine, Behavioral Medicine Clinic, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York. ·Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #28392439.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Editorial: diet, inflammation and irritable bowel syndrome. 2017

Quigley, E M M. ·Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #28370035.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Irritable Bowel Syndrome: An Infectious Disease? 2017

Quigley, Eamonn M M / Lembo, Anthony J. ·Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas. Electronic address: equigley@tmhs.org. · Harvard Medical School, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #28259791.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Editorial: balancing fibre and FODMAPs in IBS - a 'rye' look at an old problem. 2016

Quigley, E M M. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA. equigley@tmhs.org. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #27734545.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Dietary therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. 2016

Lebwohl, Benjamin / Green, Peter H R. ·Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. · Department of Medicine, Celiac Disease Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA pg11@columbia.edu. ·BMJ · Pubmed #27449185.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Editorial: serotonin and irritable bowel syndrome--reconciling pharmacological effects with basic biology. 2016

Quigley, E M M. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA. equigley@tmhs.org. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #26843336.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Distinguishing Microscopic Colitis From Irritable Bowel Syndrome. 2016

Gudsoorkar, Vineet S / Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·Lynda K. and David M. Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas. ·Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #26707680.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Editorial: differentiating chronic idiopathic constipation from constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome--possible and important? 2015

Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX, USA. equigley@tmhs.org. ·Aliment Pharmacol Ther · Pubmed #25968150.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Persistent abdominal symptoms post-travel: lessons learned. 2014

Connor, Bradley A / Riddle, Mark S. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA. ·J Travel Med · Pubmed #24734916.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial A cross-cultural perspective on irritable bowel syndrome. 2010

Gerson, Charles D / Gerson, Mary-Joan. ·Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. cgerson@yahoo.com ·Mt Sinai J Med · Pubmed #21105131.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal illness, defined by symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome has been described as a biopsychosocial condition, in which colonic dysfunction is affected by psychological and social factors. As a result of this unusual constellation, irritable bowel syndrome may be subject to cultural variables that differ in different parts of the globe. In this article, we describe some of the ways in which irritable bowel syndrome may be experienced differently, depending on local belief systems, psychological pressures, acceptance or resistance to a mind-body paradigm, and breakdown in support or relationship structure. Examples are given in which irritable bowel syndrome investigators from countries around the world describe various aspects of the syndrome that may affect the illness experience of their patients. We describe our own research studies that have demonstrated possible adverse effects on disease severity from relationship conflict, attribution of symptoms to physical rather than emotional cause, and the belief that irritable bowel syndrome is enduring and mysterious. Also described is our finding that symptom patterns may differ significantly between different geographic locations. Finally, we discuss the importance of "cultural competence" on the part of healthcare professionals in regard to caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds.

12 Review Brain-Gut Axis: Clinical Implications. 2018

Khlevner, Julie / Park, Yeji / Margolis, Kara Gross. ·Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, PH 17, New York, NY 10032, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, 630 West 168th Street, PH 17, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: kjg2133@cumc.columbia.edu. ·Gastroenterol Clin North Am · Pubmed #30337029.

ABSTRACT: This article provides an overarching view of what is currently known about the physiology of the brain-gut axis in both health and disease and how these concepts apply to irritable bowel syndrome, the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder in pediatrics.

13 Review The Role of Diet in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review. 2018

Singh, Rajdeep / Salem, Ahmed / Nanavati, Julie / Mullin, Gerard E. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, 2421 Cylburn Avenue, Baltimore, MD 21215, USA. · Gastroenterology Department, University of Rochester Medical Center, 101 Portsmouth Terrace, Rochester, NY 14642, USA. · The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Welch Medical Library, 2024 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street CARN 464B, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address: gmullin1@jhmi.edu. ·Gastroenterol Clin North Am · Pubmed #29413008.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a multifaceted illness involving maladaptive shifts in the gut microbiota that affect the enteric nervous and immune systems, mucosal barrier function, the balance of neurotransmitters and hormones, and emotional well-being. There is abundant evidence indicating that certain foods elicit symptoms in IBS. Numerous elimination-type diets have been shown to alleviate symptoms. However, among these, the most controversial is a group of foods called fructo, oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs). This paper reviews the role of diet and systematically analyze the literature for the role of FODMAPs in IBS.

14 Review The Overlapping Area of Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) and Wheat-Sensitive Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): An Update. 2017

Catassi, Carlo / Alaedini, Armin / Bojarski, Christian / Bonaz, Bruno / Bouma, Gerd / Carroccio, Antonio / Castillejo, Gemma / De Magistris, Laura / Dieterich, Walburga / Di Liberto, Diana / Elli, Luca / Fasano, Alessio / Hadjivassiliou, Marios / Kurien, Matthew / Lionetti, Elena / Mulder, Chris J / Rostami, Kamran / Sapone, Anna / Scherf, Katharina / Schuppan, Detlef / Trott, Nick / Volta, Umberto / Zevallos, Victor / Zopf, Yurdagül / Sanders, David S. ·Department of Pediatrics, Marche Polytechnic University, 60121 Ancona, Italy. c.catassi@univpm.it. · Department of Medicine, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10027, USA. aa819@cumc.columbia.edu. · Medical Department, Division of Gastroenterology, Infectiology and Rheumatology, Charité, Campus Benjamin Franklin, 12203 Berlin, Germany. christian.bojarski@charite.de. · Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, CHU, 38043 Grenoble, France. bbonaz@chu-grenoble.fr. · Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology, VU University Medical Center, 1117 Amsterdam, The Netherlands. g.bouma@vumc.nl. · Department of Internal Medicine, "Giovanni Paolo II" Hospital, Sciacca (AG) and University of Palermo, 92019 Sciacca, Italy. acarroccio@hotmail.com. · Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit, Sant Joan de Reus University Hospital. IISPV, 43003 Tarragona, Spain. gcv@tinet.cat. · Department of Internal and Experimental Medicine Magrassi-Lanzara, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80131 Naples, Italy. laura.demagistris@unicampania.it. · Medical Clinic 1, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. walburga.dieterich@uk-erlangen.de. · Central Laboratory of Advanced Diagnosis and Biomedical Research (CLADIBIOR), University of Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy. diana.diliberto@unipa.it. · Center for the Prevention and Diagnosis of Celiac Disease, Fondazione IRCCS Ca Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy. lucelli@yahoo.com. · Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. AFASANO@mgh.harvard.edu. · Academic Department of Neurosciences, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2JF, UK. Marios.Hadjivassiliou@sth.nhs.uk. · Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. matthew.kurien@sth.nhs.uk. · Department of Pediatrics, Marche Polytechnic University, 60121 Ancona, Italy. mariaelenalionetti@gmail.com. · Celiac Center Amsterdam, Department of Gastroenterology, VU University Medical Center, 1117 Amsterdam, The Netherlands. cjmulder@vumc.nl. · Gastroenterology Unit, Milton Keynes University Hospital, Milton Keynes MK6 5LD, UK. krostami@hotmail.com. · Center for Celiac Research and Treatment, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. annasapone@yahoo.it. · German Research Centre for Food Chemistry, Leibniz Institute, Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, D-85354 Freising, Germany. Katharina.Scherf@lrz.tu-muenchen.de. · Institute of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55131 Mainz, Germany. detlef.schuppan@unimedizin-mainz.de. · Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. nick.trott@sth.nhs.uk. · Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy. umberto.volta@aosp.bo.it. · Institute of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55131 Mainz, Germany. zevallos@uni-mainz.de. · Medical Clinic 1, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. Yurdaguel.Zopf@uk-erlangen.de. · Academic Unit of Gastroenterology, Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK. david.sanders@sth.nhs.uk. ·Nutrients · Pubmed #29160841.

ABSTRACT: Gluten-related disorders have recently been reclassified with an emerging scientific literature supporting the concept of non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS). New research has specifically addressed prevalence, immune mechanisms, the recognition of non-immunoglobulin E (non-IgE) wheat allergy and overlap of NCGS with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms. This review article will provide clinicians with an update that directly impacts on the management of a subgroup of their IBS patients whose symptoms are triggered by wheat ingestion.

15 Review Postinfection Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Links Between Gastroenteritis, Inflammation, the Microbiome, and Functional Disease. 2017

Downs, Ian A / Aroniadis, Olga C / Kelly, Libusha / Brandt, Lawrence J. ·*Albert Einstein College of Medicine †Division of Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine ‡Department of Systems and Computational Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY. ·J Clin Gastroenterol · Pubmed #28885302.

ABSTRACT: Postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a diarrheal disease that develops after infectious gastroenteritis (IGE). Profound alterations in the microbiota accompany IGE yet only 10% of IGE patients progress to PI-IBS. This review explores research linking IGE severity, psychological comorbidity, PI-IBS, and the microbiome in various patient populations. Selective pressures caused by inflammation and increased gastrointestinal motility during gastroenteritis can alter intestinal bacterial phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. More specifically, classes such as Bacteroides and Clostridia are differentially abundant in many PI-IBS patients. Altered microbiota may perpetuate a cycle of enteric and systemic inflammation, potently activating neural afferent signaling in the enteric nervous system and causing pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS patients. Altered production of microbial metabolites, for example short chain fatty acids, may have enteric and systemic effects on the host. Longitudinal sampling to characterize changes in the microbiota's genetic, metabolic, and transcriptional activities over time from IGE to PI-IBS may enable improved diagnosis and classification of PI-IBS cases into subtypes, allowing for targeted antibiotic, probiotic, and prebiotic treatments. PI-IBS is a heterogenous and largely organic disease marked by specific alterations in functions of the microbiota and is an important model for studying microbial influences on intestinal, neurological, and psychological host functions.

16 Review Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for IBS: How Useful, How Often, and How Does It Work? 2017

Radziwon, Christopher D / Lackner, Jeffrey M. ·Behavioral Medicine Clinic, Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine, University at Buffalo, SUNY, ECMC, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA. cdr@buffalo.edu. · Behavioral Medicine Clinic, Department of Medicine, Jacobs School of Medicine, University at Buffalo, SUNY, ECMC, 462 Grider Street, Buffalo, NY, 14215, USA. ·Curr Gastroenterol Rep · Pubmed #28819814.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While dietary and medical treatments are beneficial for specific GI symptoms for some IBS patients, they have an unsatisfactory track record for the full range of GI symptoms for more severe patients. A number of psychological interventions have been developed over the past two decades to help patients' self-manage symptoms. This review discusses the last 5 years of research on psychological treatments, with a focus on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and hypnosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent systematic reviews indicate that psychological interventions are efficacious and their gains are maintained long-term. Treatment gains are not a function of the number of sessions. Psychological interventions are at least moderately efficacious treatments for IBS symptoms. Of different psychotherapies, CBT and hypnosis appear efficacious in minimal-contact formats (e.g., fewer sessions, phone contact). Research is still needed to identify theoretically relevant active ingredients that underlie treatment effects.

17 Review The global prevalence of IBS in adults remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of studies: a Rome Foundation working team literature review. 2017

Sperber, Ami D / Dumitrascu, Dan / Fukudo, Shin / Gerson, Charles / Ghoshal, Uday C / Gwee, Kok Ann / Hungin, A Pali S / Kang, Jin-Yong / Minhu, Chen / Schmulson, Max / Bolotin, Arkady / Friger, Michael / Freud, Tamar / Whitehead, William. ·Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel. · 2nd Medical Department of Internal Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. · Department of Behavioral Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo Aoba, Japan. · Division of Gastroenterology, Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, Mind-Body Digestive Center, New York, New York, USA. · Department of Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGI), Lucknow, India. · Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. · Durham University School of Medicine, Pharmacy and Health, Wolfson Research Institute, Stockton-on-Tees, UK. · Department of Gastroenterology, St. George's Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Gastroenterology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China. · Laboratory of Liver, Pancreas and Motility (HIPAM), Unit of Research in Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Center for Functional GI & Motility Disorders, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA. ·Gut · Pubmed #26818616.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The global prevalence of IBS is difficult to ascertain, particularly in light of the heterogeneity of published epidemiological studies. The aim was to conduct a literature review, by experts from around the world, of community-based studies on IBS prevalence. DESIGN: Searches were conducted using predetermined search terms and eligibility criteria, including papers in all languages. Pooled prevalence rates were calculated by combining separate population survey prevalence estimates to generate an overall combined meta-prevalence estimate. The heterogeneity of studies was assessed. RESULTS: 1451 papers were returned and 83, including 288 103 participants in 41 countries, met inclusion criteria. The mean prevalence among individual countries ranged from 1.1% in France and Iran to 35.5% in Mexico. There was significant variance in pooled regional prevalence rates ranging from 17.5% (95% CI 16.9% to 18.2%) in Latin America, 9.6% (9.5% to 9.8%) in Asia, 7.1% (8.0% to 8.3%) in North America/Europe/Australia/New Zealand, to 5.8% (5.6% to 6.0%) in the Middle East and Africa. There was a significant degree of heterogeneity with the percentage of residual variation due to heterogeneity at 99.9%. CONCLUSIONS: The main finding is the extent of methodological variance in the studies reviewed and the degree of heterogeneity among them. Based on this, we concluded that publication of a single pooled global prevalence rate, which is easily calculated, would not be appropriate or contributory. Furthermore, we believe that future studies should focus on regional and cross-cultural differences that are more likely to shed light on pathophysiology.

18 Review Progress in Our Understanding of the Gut Microbiome: Implications for the Clinician. 2016

Iqbal, Sara / Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, 6550 Fannin St, SM 1001, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. · Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, 6550 Fannin St, SM 1001, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. equigley@tmhs.org. · David M. and Lynda K. Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, 6550 Fannin St, SM 1201, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. equigley@tmhs.org. ·Curr Gastroenterol Rep · Pubmed #27448618.

ABSTRACT: The investigation of the role of the microbial communities of our gastrointestinal tract (microbiota) has accelerated dramatically in recent years thanks to rapid developments in the technologies that allow us to fully enumerate and evaluate the full complement of bacterial species and strains that normally inhabit the gut. Laboratory studies in a range of inventive animal models continue to provide insights into the role of the microbiota in health and to generate plausible hypotheses relating to its potential involvement in the pathogenesis of human disease. Studies of the composition of human gut microbiota continue to accumulate but their interpretation needs to be tempered by an appreciation of the limitations of single-point-in-time studies of fecal samples from small study populations. Nevertheless, clinically important examples of a central role for microbiota-host interactions in disease pathogenesis have emerged and many more have been postulated but await confirmation in appropriately powered and conducted studies.

19 Review Immune response in irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review of systemic and mucosal inflammatory mediators. 2016

Martin-Viñas, Juan J / Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, USA. ·J Dig Dis · Pubmed #27426409.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the available data on cytokine and immune cells in the peripheral blood and mucosal biopsy samples from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: From a review of the literature, data on cytokines and immune cells that had been assayed in at least three independent studies were collated and trends examined. RESULTS: Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 tended to be decreased and those of IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β increased in the systemic circulation in IBS, while in the mucosa, IL-10 was decreased and IL-8, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells and CD3 CONCLUSIONS: The interpretation of this literature is limited by several factors, such as the intrinsic heterogeneity of IBS and a lack of standardization in study design. While a number of intriguing immunological observations have been made in IBS, more work is needed before a compelling case can be made for a role for immune-mediated events in the etiology of IBS.

20 Review Irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal parasites: a view from South America. 2016

Vasquez-Rios, George / Machicado, Jorge D / Terashima, Angelica / Marcos, Luis A. ·Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. · Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú; Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Pittsburgh, PA, USA.. · Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine (Division of Infectious Diseases) and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology; Global Health Institute and Tropical Medicine. Stony Brook University. New York, USA. ·Rev Gastroenterol Peru · Pubmed #27409092.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder of uncertain etiology. Several studies have proposed the possible role of intestinal parasites in the pathogenesis of IBS. We aimed to summarize the epidemiological studies that describe a possible link between intestinal parasites and IBS, with special interest in endemic areas for intestinal parasitism such as South America. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted by using the keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, intestinal parasites, protozoan infection, soil-transmitted helminths and South America. Giardia lamblia may cause IBS symptoms that can persist several years after effective treatment. Dientamoeba fragilis can cause IBS-like symptoms, but low sensitive parasitological techniques may fail to detect it. Entamoeba histolytica can cause a chronic non-dysenteric colitis, but several studies have failed to find an association with IBS. The role of Blastocystis hominis in IBS remains controversial. In addition, epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of soil-transmitted helminths in IBS are scant. Symptoms elicited by intestinal parasites may resemble to those in IBS, especially in endemic areas such as South America, where both the prevalence of IBS and intestinal parasitism are high. Whether these organisms are the cause or contributing factors in IBS remains a subject of study. Routine parasitologicalexamination of stools in individuals who full-fit the criteria for IBS should be included upon initial assessment in endemic countries.

21 Review Irritable bowel syndrome. 2016

Enck, Paul / Aziz, Qasim / Barbara, Giovanni / Farmer, Adam D / Fukudo, Shin / Mayer, Emeran A / Niesler, Beate / Quigley, Eamonn M M / Rajilić-Stojanović, Mirjana / Schemann, Michael / Schwille-Kiuntke, Juliane / Simren, Magnus / Zipfel, Stephan / Spiller, Robin C. ·Department of Internal Medicine VI (Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy), University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Wingate Institute of Neurogastroenterology, Barts and London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. · Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. · Department of Behavioural Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan. · Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. · Department of Human Molecular Genetics, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Lynda K and David M Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, USA. · Department of Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. · Department of Human Biology, Technical University Munich, Freising-Weihenstephan, Germany. · Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. · NIHR Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. ·Nat Rev Dis Primers · Pubmed #27159638.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with a high population prevalence. The disorder can be debilitating in some patients, whereas others may have mild or moderate symptoms. The most important single risk factors are female sex, younger age and preceding gastrointestinal infections. Clinical symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain or discomfort, stool irregularities and bloating, as well as other somatic, visceral and psychiatric comorbidities. Currently, the diagnosis of IBS is based on symptoms and the exclusion of other organic diseases, and therapy includes drug treatment of the predominant symptoms, nutrition and psychotherapy. Although the underlying pathogenesis is far from understood, aetiological factors include increased epithelial hyperpermeability, dysbiosis, inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, epigenetics and genetics, and altered brain-gut interactions. IBS considerably affects quality of life and imposes a profound burden on patients, physicians and the health-care system. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in our understanding of functional bowel disorders such as IBS that will be summarized in this Primer.

22 Review THE INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA AND THE ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a review. 2015

Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado / Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·Departamento de Gastroenterologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. · Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, Texas, United States. ·Arq Gastroenterol · Pubmed #26840477.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome is a common, chronic relapsing gastrointestinal disorder that affects 7%-22% of the population worldwide. According to Rome III Criteria, the disorder is defined by the coexistence of abdominal discomfort or pain associated with an alteration in bowel habits. Its pathophysiology is not completely understood but, in addition to some important abnormalities, the disturbed intestinal microbiota has also been described supported by several strands of evidence. The treatment of irritable bowel syndrome is based upon several therapeutic approaches but few have been successful or without adverse events and more recently the gut microbiota and the use of probiotics have emerged as a factor to be considered. Probiotics are live micro-organisms which when consumed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host, such as Lactic bacteria among others. An important scientific rationale has emerged for the use of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome, although the data regarding different species are still limited. Not all probiotics are beneficial: it is important to select the specific strain which should be supported by good evidence base. The mechanisms of action of probiotics are described and the main strains are quoted.

23 Review Genetic epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome. 2015

Makker, Jasbir / Chilimuri, Sridhar / Bella, Jonathan N. ·Jasbir Makker, Sridhar Chilimuri, Jonathan N Bella, Department of Medicine, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10457, United States. ·World J Gastroenterol · Pubmed #26525775.

ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by presence of abdominal pain or discomfort associated with altered bowel habits. It has three main subtypes - constipation predominant IBS (C-IBS), diarrhea predominant IBS (D-IBS) and IBS with mixed features of both diarrhea as well as constipation (M-IBS). Its pathophysiology and underlying mechanisms remain elusive. It is traditionally believed that IBS is a result of multiple factors including hypersensitivity of the bowel, altered bowel motility, inflammation and stress. Initial studies have shown familial aggregation of IBS suggesting shared genetic or environmental factors. Twin studies of IBS from different parts of world have shown higher concordance rates among monozygotic twins than dizygotic twins, and thus suggesting a genetic component to this disorder. Multiple studies have tried to link single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to IBS but there is little evidence that these SNPs are functional. Various molecules have been studied and investigated by the researchers. Serotonin, a known neurotransmitter and a local hormone in the enteric nervous system, has been most extensively explored. At this time, the underlying gene pathways, genes and functional variants linked with IBS remain unknown and the promise of genetically-determined risk prediction and personalize medicine remain unfulfilled. However, molecular biological technologies continue to evolve rapidly and genetic investigations offer much promise in the intervention, treatment and prevention of IBS.

24 Review Probiotics in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Science and the Evidence. 2015

Quigley, Eamonn M M. ·*Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology and Department of Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital †Department of Medicine, and Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX. ·J Clin Gastroenterol · Pubmed #26447967.

ABSTRACT: Although probiotics have been used for many years by those who suffer from what would now be defined as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a scientific rationale for their use in this indication and clinical evidence to support their benefits have only emerged very recently. Evidence to support considering strategies, such as probiotics, that modulate the gut microbiome, in IBS, has been provided by laboratory studies implicating the microbiome and the host response to the enteric microenvironment in IBS, as well as in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating the ability of various commensal bacteria to influence such relevant functions as motility, visceral sensation, gut barrier integrity, and brain-gut interactions. Clinical studies supporting a role for probiotics in the management of IBS predated such experimental data, and randomized controlled trials of probiotics in IBS continue to be reported. Their interpretation is hampered by the less than optimal quality of many studies; nevertheless, it is apparent that probiotics, as a category, do exert significant effects in IBS. Defining the optimal strain, dose, formulation, and duration of therapy is more challenging given the limitations of available data. There is also an urgent need for appropriately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials of appropriate duration of probiotics in IBS; such studies should also help to define those who are most likely to respond to probiotics. Future laboratory and translational research should attempt to define the mechanism(s) of action of probiotics in IBS and explore the response to bacterial components or products in this common and oftentimes troublesome disorder.

25 Review Biomarkers of Inflammation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 2015

Sands, Bruce E. ·Dr. Henry D. Janowitz Division of Gastroenterology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address: bruce.sands@mssm.edu. ·Gastroenterology · Pubmed #26166315.

ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest that subjective measures of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often misleading. Objective measures of inflammation are more closely associated with important long-term outcomes, but often depend upon invasive and costly procedures such as ileocolonoscopy and cross-sectional imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Noninvasive, accurate, and inexpensive measures of intestinal inflammation would allow clinicians to adopt widely the paradigm of adjusting therapies with a goal of controlling inflammation. Blood, stool, and urine markers have all been explored as indicators of intestinal inflammation in IBD, and although none has been universally adopted, some have been well-characterized, and others hold great promise. Serum C-reactive protein and fecal calprotectin are among the best-studied noninvasive biomarkers of inflammation in IBD, and their test characteristics have been described in the setting of differentiating IBD from irritable bowel syndrome, for grading inflammation, to describe the response to therapy, and in demonstrating recurrent inflammation after medical or surgically induced remission. High-throughput research platforms, including gene expression arrays, metabolomics and proteomics, are also being applied to the discovery of novel biomarkers of inflammation. It is certain that biomarkers of inflammation will attain growing importance in the clinic as we strive for more effective and cost-effective strategies to treat patients with IBD.

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