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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Sanjiv S. Agarwala
Based on 46 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, S. Agarwala wrote the following 46 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Guideline Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Management of Regional Lymph Nodes in Melanoma: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Society of Surgical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Update. 2018

Wong, Sandra L / Faries, Mark B / Kennedy, Erin B / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Akhurst, Timothy J / Ariyan, Charlotte / Balch, Charles M / Berman, Barry S / Cochran, Alistair / Delman, Keith A / Gorman, Mark / Kirkwood, John M / Moncrieff, Marc D / Zager, Jonathan S / Lyman, Gary H. ·Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Santa Monica, CA, USA. · American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria, VA, USA. guidelines@asco.org. · St Luke's Cancer Center, Easton, PA, USA. · Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Broward Health, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. · Los Angeles Center for Health Services, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · , Silver Spring, MD, USA. · University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK. · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA. · Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #29236202.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)-Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) guideline for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in melanoma. METHODS: An ASCO-SSO panel was formed, and a systematic review of the literature was conducted regarding SLN biopsy and completion lymph node dissection (CLND) after a positive sentinel node in patients with melanoma. RESULTS: Nine new observational studies, two systematic reviews and an updated randomized controlled trial (RCT) of SLN biopsy, as well as two randomized controlled trials of CLND after positive SLN biopsy, were included. RECOMMENDATIONS: Routine SLN biopsy is not recommended for patients with thin melanomas that are T1a (non-ulcerated lesions < 0.8 mm in Breslow thickness). SLN biopsy may be considered for thin melanomas that are T1b (0.8 to 1.0 mm Breslow thickness or <0.8 mm Breslow thickness with ulceration) after a thorough discussion with the patient of the potential benefits and risk of harms associated with the procedure. SLN biopsy is recommended for patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas (T2 or T3; Breslow thickness of >1.0 to 4.0 mm). SLN biopsy may be recommended for patients with thick melanomas (T4; > 4.0 mm in Breslow thickness), after a discussion of the potential benefits and risks of harm. In the case of a positive SLN biopsy, CLND or careful observation are options for patients with low-risk micrometastatic disease, with due consideration of clinicopathological factors. For higher risk patients, careful observation may be considered only after a thorough discussion with patients about the potential risks and benefits of foregoing CLND. Important qualifying statements outlining relevant clinicopathological factors, and details of the reference patient populations are included within the guideline.

2 Guideline The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumour immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. 2013

Kaufman, Howard L / Kirkwood, John M / Hodi, F Stephen / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Amatruda, Thomas / Bines, Steven D / Clark, Joseph I / Curti, Brendan / Ernstoff, Marc S / Gajewski, Thomas / Gonzalez, Rene / Hyde, Laura Jane / Lawson, David / Lotze, Michael / Lutzky, Jose / Margolin, Kim / McDermott, David F / Morton, Donald / Pavlick, Anna / Richards, Jon M / Sharfman, William / Sondak, Vernon K / Sosman, Jeffrey / Steel, Susan / Tarhini, Ahmad / Thompson, John A / Titze, Jill / Urba, Walter / White, Richard / Atkins, Michael B. ·Rush University Cancer Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. ·Nat Rev Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23982524.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is associated with durable clinical benefit in patients with melanoma. The goal of this article is to provide evidence-based consensus recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in the clinical management of patients with high-risk and advanced-stage melanoma in the USA. To achieve this goal, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer sponsored a panel of melanoma experts--including physicians, nurses, and patient advocates--to develop a consensus for the clinical application of tumour immunotherapy for patients with melanoma. The Institute of Medicine clinical practice guidelines were used as a basis for this consensus development. A systematic literature search was performed for high-impact studies in English between 1992 and 2012 and was supplemented as appropriate by the panel. This consensus report focuses on issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical end points and sequencing or combination of therapy. The literature review and consensus panel voting and discussion were used to generate recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in patients with melanoma, and to assess and rate the strength of the supporting evidence. From the peer-reviewed literature the consensus panel identified a role for interferon-α2b, pegylated-interferon-α2b, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and ipilimumab in the clinical management of melanoma. Expert recommendations for how to incorporate these agents into the therapeutic approach to melanoma are provided in this consensus statement. Tumour immunotherapy is a useful therapeutic strategy in the management of patients with melanoma and evidence-based consensus recommendations for clinical integration are provided and will be updated as warranted.

3 Guideline Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Society of Surgical Oncology joint clinical practice guideline. 2012

Wong, Sandra L / Balch, Charles M / Hurley, Patricia / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Akhurst, Timothy J / Cochran, Alistair / Cormier, Janice N / Gorman, Mark / Kim, Theodore Y / McMasters, Kelly M / Noyes, R Dirk / Schuchter, Lynn M / Valsecchi, Matias E / Weaver, Donald L / Lyman, Gary H / Anonymous1300731 / Anonymous1310731. ·University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #22778321.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) sought to provide an evidence-based guideline on the use of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in staging patients with newly diagnosed melanoma. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature published from January 1990 through August 2011 was completed using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts from ASCO and SSO annual meetings were included in the evidence review. An Expert Panel was convened to review the evidence and develop guideline recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-three studies met full eligibility criteria. The evidence review demonstrated that SLN biopsy is an acceptable method for lymph node staging of most patients with newly diagnosed melanoma. RECOMMENDATIONS: SLN biopsy is recommended for patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas (Breslow thickness, 1 to 4 mm) of any anatomic site; use of SLN biopsy in this population provides accurate staging. Although there are few studies focusing on patients with thick melanomas (T4; Breslow thickness, > 4 mm), SLN biopsy may be recommended for staging purposes and to facilitate regional disease control. There is insufficient evidence to support routine SLN biopsy for patients with thin melanomas (T1; Breslow thickness, < 1 mm), although it may be considered in selected patients with high-risk features when staging benefits outweigh risks of the procedure. Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) is recommended for all patients with a positive SLN biopsy and achieves good regional disease control. Whether CLND after a positive SLN biopsy improves survival is the subject of the ongoing Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II.

4 Guideline Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: American Society of Clinical Oncology and Society of Surgical Oncology joint clinical practice guideline. 2012

Wong, Sandra L / Balch, Charles M / Hurley, Patricia / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Akhurst, Timothy J / Cochran, Alistair / Cormier, Janice N / Gorman, Mark / Kim, Theodore Y / McMasters, Kelly M / Noyes, R Dirk / Schuchter, Lynn M / Valsecchi, Matias E / Weaver, Donald L / Lyman, Gary H / Anonymous11110730 / Anonymous11120730. ·University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #22766987.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and Society of Surgical Oncology (SSO) sought to provide an evidence-based guideline on the use of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in staging patients with newly diagnosed melanoma. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic review of the literature published from January 1990 through August 2011 was completed using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Abstracts from ASCO and SSO annual meetings were included in the evidence review. An Expert Panel was convened to review the evidence and develop guideline recommendations. RESULTS: Seventy-three studies met full eligibility criteria. The evidence review demonstrated that SLN biopsy is an acceptable method for lymph node staging of most patients with newly diagnosed melanoma. RECOMMENDATIONS: SLN biopsy is recommended for patients with intermediate-thickness melanomas (Breslow thickness, 1-4 mm) of any anatomic site; use of SLN biopsy in this population provides accurate staging. Although there are few studies focusing on patients with thick melanomas (T4; Breslow thickness, >4 mm), SLN biopsy may be recommended for staging purposes and to facilitate regional disease control. There is insufficient evidence to support routine SLN biopsy for patients with thin melanomas (T1; Breslow thickness, <1 mm), although it may be considered in selected patients with high-risk features when staging benefits outweigh risks of the procedure. Completion lymph node dissection (CLND) is recommended for all patients with a positive SLN biopsy and achieves good regional disease control. Whether CLND after a positive SLN biopsy improves survival is the subject of the ongoing Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II.

5 Review Surgical Management and Adjuvant Therapy for High-Risk and Metastatic Melanoma. 2016

van Akkooi, Alexander C J / Atkins, Michael B / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Lorigan, Paul. ·From the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC; St. Luke's University Hospital, Temple University, Allentown, PA; University of Manchester, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. ·Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book · Pubmed #27249760.

ABSTRACT: Wide local excision is considered routine therapy after initial diagnosis of primary melanoma to reduce local recurrences, but it does not impact survival. Sentinel node staging is recommended for melanomas of intermediate thickness, but it has also not demonstrated any indisputable therapeutic effect on survival. The prognostic value of sentinel node staging has been long established and is therefore considered routine, especially in light of the eligibility criteria for adjuvant therapy (trials). Whether completion lymph node dissection after a positive sentinel node biopsy improves survival is the question of current trials. The MSLT-2 study is best powered to show a potential benefit, but it has not yet reported any data. Another study, the German DECOG study, presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting did not show any benefit but is criticized for the underpowered design and insufficient follow-up. There is no consensus on the use of adjuvant interferon in melanoma. This topic has been the focus of many studies with different regimens (low-, intermediate-, or high-dose and/or short- or long-term treatment). Adjuvant interferon has been shown to improve relapse-free survival but failed to improve overall survival. More recently, adjuvant ipilimumab has also demonstrated an improved relapse-free survival. Overall survival data have not yet been reported due to insufficient follow-up. Currently, studies are ongoing to analyze the use of adjuvant anti-PD-1 and molecular targeted therapies (vemurafenib, dabrafenib, and trametinib). In the absence of unambiguously positive approved agents, clinical trial participation remains a priority. This could change in the near future.

6 Review Practical Approaches to Immunotherapy in the Clinic. 2015

Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·Chief of Medical Oncology and Hematology, St Luke's University Hospital and Health Network; Professor of Medicine Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address: ssagarwala0501@gmail.com. ·Semin Oncol · Pubmed #26598056.

ABSTRACT: The development of immunotherapy using checkpoint blockade has altered the treatment landscape for patients who had but few options only several years ago. Currently, approved anti-checkpoint agents include ipilimumab, the first approved treatment aimed against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) pathway, and pembrolizumab and nivolumab, which inhibit the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway. Careful monitoring and early intervention for immune-mediated side effects is important to mitigate toxicity. Immune-mediated response patterns may differ from response associated with conventional therapies, and so it is important to use caution against early abandonment of treatment. Biomarkers as predictive and prognostic markers of efficacy are still under investigation in an attempt to guide treatment selection in patients with advanced melanoma, and additional studies are needed to provide guidance for selection of checkpoint inhibitors to be used in sequence or combination.

7 Review Intralesional therapy for advanced melanoma: promise and limitation. 2015

Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·St. Luke's Cancer Center and Temple University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. ·Curr Opin Oncol · Pubmed #25629369.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with unresectable, multiple or advanced locally/regionally metastatic stage IIIB/C or stage IV M1a melanoma have a high risk for recurrence, progression and metastasis. The article reviews treatment advances for this population. RECENT FINDINGS: After promising phase 2 results with Allovectin-7 (velimogene aliplasmid), overall survival in a phase 3 study was shorter for Allovectin-7 than for dacarbazine/temozolomide (median 18.8 versus 24.1 months).In a phase 2 trial of intratumoral electroporation of plasmid interleukin-12 among 28 patients with advanced melanoma, the primary endpoint of best overall response rate within 24 weeks of first treatment was 32.2% for objective response and 10.7% for complete response.In the phase 3 OPTiM trial of talimogene laherparepvec, the intralesional agent that is furthest along in clinical testing, the primary endpoint of durable response rate was 16% for talimogene laherparepvec and 2% for granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.In the PV-10 phase 2 trial among 80 patients with stage III-IV melanoma, the overall response rate was 51%, with a 26% complete response rate. SUMMARY: Despite advances, many patients will need several lines of therapy. Some will not be eligible for systemic therapy. Their low toxicity, easy administration and likely systemic immune effects make intralesional therapies an attractive option.

8 Review Metastatic melanoma to the liver: a contemporary and comprehensive review of surgical, systemic, and regional therapeutic options. 2014

Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Eggermont, Alexander M M / O'Day, Steven / Zager, Jonathan S. ·Department of Hematology/Oncology, St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. ·Cancer · Pubmed #24301420.

ABSTRACT: Effective management of hepatic metastases from ocular and cutaneous melanoma remains a major therapeutic challenge. Treatment options include hepatic resection, hepatic intra-arterial (HIA) chemotherapy, chemoembolization, and hepatic perfusions. Evaluating the efficacy of these interventions is limited by the retrospective nature of most of the data, although controlled phase 3 studies are starting to emerge. Studies of hepatic resection are strongly suggestive of a survival benefit following surgery in selected patients. Effective systemic agents for metastatic cutaneous melanoma are available and supported by randomized controlled phase 3 trials. In contrast, no active systemic treatment has yet been identified for metastatic ocular melanoma. HIA and intravenous delivery of fotemustine have been compared in a randomized phase 3 trial in patients with unresectable metastases from melanoma, but no differences between the 2 approaches were observed. Hepatic arterial chemoembolization appears only to be moderately effective according to uncontrolled studies; targeting patients with less liver involvement may improve outcomes. A recent phase 3 study showed a significant improvement in hepatic progression-free survival with percutaneous hepatic perfusion compared with best alternative care in patients with metastatic melanoma; however, the overall survival analysis was confounded by crossover of control patients to active treatment. In conclusion, hepatic resection offers the possibility of long-term survival in carefully selected patients with liver-limited metastases from melanoma. In patients with unresectable cutaneous melanoma, effective systemic therapy is the best treatment option. For patients with unresectable ocular melanoma, regional treatments are likely to assume a greater role until effective systemic treatments are identified.

9 Review Ipilimumab and its toxicities: a multidisciplinary approach. 2013

Fecher, Leslie A / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Hodi, F Stephen / Weber, Jeffrey S. ·University of Pennsylvania Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. lafecher@iu.edu ·Oncologist · Pubmed #23774827.

ABSTRACT: The treatment for metastatic melanoma has evolved significantly in the past few years. Ipilimumab, an immunotherapy, is now in mainstream oncology practice given that it has shown improved overall survival in randomized clinical trials. Other immune modulating agents, such as programmed death receptor-1 and programmed death receptor ligand-1 antibodies, are showing promise in early clinical trials. This manuscript will review ipilimumab and its most common side effects. Immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are important to recognize early, and their presentation, timing of onset, and general recommendations for workup and management will be reviewed. Assembling a multidisciplinary team, as well as thorough education of the patient, is recommended to optimize patient care.

10 Review An update on pegylated IFN-α2b for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma. 2012

Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·St Luke's Cancer Center, 801 Ostrum Street, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA. agarwas@slhn.org ·Expert Rev Anticancer Ther · Pubmed #23249109.

ABSTRACT: For patients with localized melanoma, excision of the primary tumor, including lymphadenectomy for nodal metastases, is standard treatment. However, patients with large primary tumors (stage IIB and IIC) or stage III melanoma have a relatively poor prognosis owing to the high risk of recurrence. High-dose IFN-α2b and pegylated IFN-α2b (PEG-IFN-α2b) are the only approved options for adjuvant therapy of stage III melanoma, but the lack of comparative data has led to considerable confusion in choosing between these options. In this article, current evidence regarding the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety and tolerability of adjuvant PEG-IFN-α2b in patients with melanoma is reviewed, with frequent reference to and comparisons with data using IFN-α2b. Particular focus is given to the pharmacokinetic differences between IFN-α2b and PEG-IFN-α2b and their implications for the treatment of high-risk patients. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that PEG-IFN-α2b therapy may provide clinically significant overall survival benefit for selected high-risk patients.

11 Review Understanding and managing interferon-α-related fatigue in patients with melanoma. 2012

Nashan, Dorothée / Reuter, Katrin / Mohr, Peter / Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·Department of Dermatology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #22968217.

ABSTRACT: Fatigue is the most common toxicity associated with adjuvant interferon-α treatment of melanoma, with an incidence ranging from 80 to 90%. It may be dose-limiting and may lead to treatment discontinuation in a large proportion of patients. Fatigue is commonly diagnosed by self-report, does not have a precise definition, and has a high degree of overlap with symptoms of depression. Specific fatigue scales have been developed over the past few years, assessing fatigue either one-dimensionally or multi-dimensionally. However, the characteristics that define an accurate and efficient fatigue scale have not been established. Despite the debilitating effects of fatigue resulting from interferon treatment, a large proportion of patients place a higher value on the relapse-free survival benefits of treatment compared with quality-of-life deterioration. Pharmacologic interventions to treat and manage fatigue are not well established, although psychostimulants are sometimes used. We recommend incorporating structure and routine into day-to-day activities to cope with fatigue. In our experience, participating in moderate physical activities and drinking sufficient fluids are key factors to ensuring efficient fatigue management. A multidisciplinary team is necessary to translate the fatigue management recommendations into practice. Clinical trials using appropriate fatigue assessment tools to investigate interventional therapies are warranted. We recommend the use of the cross-culturally European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality-of-life questionnaire Fatigue Module FA13 for clinical trials as well as in day-to-day clinical trials.

12 Review Progression of cutaneous melanoma: implications for treatment. 2012

Leong, Stanley P L / Mihm, Martin C / Murphy, George F / Hoon, Dave S B / Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Zager, Jonathan S / Hauschild, Axel / Sondak, Vernon K / Guild, Valerie / Kirkwood, John M. ·Center for Melanoma Research and Treatment and Department of Surgery, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA. leongsx@cpmcri.org ·Clin Exp Metastasis · Pubmed #22892755.

ABSTRACT: The survival rates of melanoma, like any type of cancer, become worse with advancing stage. Spectrum theory is most consistent with the progression of melanoma from the primary site to the in-transit locations, regional or sentinel lymph nodes and beyond to the distant sites. Therefore, early diagnosis and surgical treatment before its spread is the most effective treatment. Recently, new approaches have revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma. Genomic profiling and sequencing will form the basis for molecular taxonomy for more accurate subgrouping of melanoma patients in the future. New insights of molecular mechanisms of metastasis are summarized in this review article. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard of care for staging primary melanoma without the need for a more morbid complete regional lymph node dissection. With recent developments in molecular biology and genomics, novel molecular targeted therapy is being developed through clinical trials.

13 Review Cutaneous melanoma: a model to study cancer metastasis. 2011

Leong, Stanley P L / Gershenwald, Jeffrey E / Soong, Seng-Jaw / Schadendorf, Dirk / Tarhini, Ahmad A / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Hauschild, Axel / Soon, Christopher W M / Daud, Adil / Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed. ·Center for Melanoma Research and Treatment and Department of Surgery, California Pacific Medical Center and Research Institute, San Francisco, California 94115, USA. leongsx@cpmcri.org ·J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #21480247.

ABSTRACT: Nodal status in melanoma is a critically important prognostic factor for patient outcome. The survival rate drops to <10% when melanoma has spread beyond the regional lymph nodes and includes visceral involvement. In general, the process of melanoma metastasis is progressive in that dissemination of melanoma from the primary site to the regional lymph nodes occurs prior to systemic disease. The goal of this review article is to describe melanoma as a clinical model to study cancer metastasis. A future challenge is to develop a molecular taxonomy to subgroup melanoma patients at various stages of tumor progression for more accurate targeted treatment.

14 Review Current and future adjuvant immunotherapies for melanoma: blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 as a novel approach. 2011

Agarwala, Sanjiv S / O'Day, Steven J. ·Medical Oncology and Hematology, St. Luke's Cancer Center, 801 Ostrum Street, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA. agarwas@slhn.org ·Cancer Treat Rev · Pubmed #20638184.

ABSTRACT: The current treatment for melanoma with nodal involvement, but without distant metastasis, is surgical excision and lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant therapy. A number of systemic regimens have been evaluated for melanoma patients with a medium or high risk of disease recurrence following surgery. The only agent approved for the adjuvant therapy of melanoma is high-dose interferon (IFN)-α2b, which prolongs relapse-free survival, but its effects on overall survival remain controversial. Its use is also accompanied by significant toxicity. Thus, despite its approval, high-dose IFN-α2b is not always used for the adjuvant therapy of melanoma, particularly in countries other than the United States. Studies aimed at identifying subgroups of patients that have the greatest benefit-to-risk ratio with this regimen are ongoing. Several vaccines have been studied in the adjuvant setting for melanoma, but none has shown superiority to IFN-containing regimens. The GMK ganglioside vaccine, for instance, has actually been shown to be inferior to high-dose IFN-α2b. Therefore, a therapeutic regimen which improves overall survival with a favorable safety profile would be a major advance in the adjuvant therapy of melanoma. One approach that is currently being investigated is the potentiation of antitumour immune responses through blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). Here, we provide an overview of the current unmet needs in the adjuvant therapy of melanoma and evaluate the potential of CTLA-4 blockade as a future therapeutic option in this setting.

15 Review Novel immunotherapies as potential therapeutic partners for traditional or targeted agents: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 blockade in advanced melanoma. 2010

Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·Medical Oncology and Hematology, St. Luke's Cancer Center, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015, USA. agarwas@slhn.org ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #19952852.

ABSTRACT: The successful management of advanced melanoma remains an unmet need because of a resolutely poor prognosis and therapeutic options with limited effectiveness. Dacarbazine and fotemustine are the only approved chemotherapeutic agents for advanced melanoma, yet neither alone or in combination regimens has been shown to extend survival in randomized clinical trials. The only agent to be approved for advanced melanoma in the US in more than 30 years is high-dose bolus interleukin-2, but its use is associated with high toxicity and cost, and it has also failed to show a survival benefit. Our expanding knowledge of the complex factors and pathways regulating immune function has led to the advent of novel immunotherapeutic agents. Among these are ipilimumab and tremelimumab - fully human, monoclonal antibodies directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). The pivotal role of CTLA-4 in regulating T-cell function is established, and a series of preclinical studies provided proof-of-concept evidence of the antitumor activity of anti-CLTA-4 antibodies in combination with vaccines or chemotherapy. Subsequently, anti-CTLA-4 antibodies have shown encouraging results in clinical trials in advanced melanoma. Recent progress in the understanding of melanoma genetics and tumorigenesis has led to potential new therapeutic targets. Molecular targeted agents that inhibit the proliferation and survival of metastatic melanoma cells offer potential partners for anti-CTLA-4 antibodies in combined modality regimens. Novel combinations are reviewed in the context of creating an immunosupportive environment in the host.

16 Review Current systemic therapy for metastatic melanoma. 2009

Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·St Luke's Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Bethlehem, PA, USA. agarwas@slhn.org ·Expert Rev Anticancer Ther · Pubmed #19445576.

ABSTRACT: Metastatic melanoma remains a lethal disease with a long-term remission rate of less than 10%. Despite many years of research, there has not been a new drug approved in this disease in over two decades. Single-agent chemotherapy is palliative in some patients and there is no advantage of combination chemotherapy or chemo-immunotherapy in randomized trials. High-dose bolus IL-2 produces some long-term remissions and is available for highly selected individuals at selected centers in the USA but is impractical for most patients. Research is ongoing in exploring novel immunotherapeutic and targeted approaches. The status of recently completed and ongoing trials is discussed in this review.

17 Review Melanoma vaccines. 2008

Riley, Lee B / Agarwala, Sanjiv S. ·St Luke's Cancer Center, St Luke's Hospital and Health Network, 801 Ostrum Street, Bethlehem, PA 18015, USA. rileyl@slhn.org ·Expert Rev Vaccines · Pubmed #18767944.

ABSTRACT: Over the last century, vaccine studies have demonstrated that the human immune system, with appropriate help, can limit or prevent infection against otherwise lethal pathogens. Encouraged by these results, success in animal models and numerous well-documented reports of immune-mediated melanoma regression in humans, investigators developed melanoma vaccines. However, despite considerable laboratory evidence for vaccine-induced immune responses, clinical responses remain poor. Recent studies have elucidated several mechanisms that hinder or prevent the creation of successful vaccines and suggest novel approaches to overcome these barriers. Unraveling the mechanisms of autoimmunity, dendritic cell activation, regulatory T cells and Toll-like receptors will generate novel vaccines that, when used in conjunction with standard adjuvant therapies, may result in improved clinical outcomes. The objective of this review is to provide an overall summary of recent clinical trials with melanoma vaccines and highlight novel vaccine strategies to evaluate in the near future.

18 Clinical Trial Phase III Randomized Study of 4 Weeks of High-Dose Interferon-α-2b in Stage T2bNO, T3a-bNO, T4a-bNO, and T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic) Melanoma: A Trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (E1697). 2017

Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Lee, Sandra J / Yip, Waiki / Rao, Uma N / Tarhini, Ahmad A / Cohen, Gary I / Reintgen, Douglas S / Evans, Terry L / Brell, Joanna M / Albertini, Mark R / Atkins, Michael B / Dakhil, Shaker R / Conry, Robert M / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Flaherty, Lawrence E / Sondak, Vernon K / Carson, William E / Smylie, Michael G / Pappo, Alberto S / Kefford, Richard F / Kirkwood, John M. ·Sanjiv S. Agarwala, Saint Luke's University Hospital, Easton · Uma N. Rao, Ahmad A. Tarhini, Terry L. Evans, and John M. Kirkwood, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA · Sandra J. Lee, and Waiki Yip, Dana Farber Cancer Institute-ECOG-ACRIN Biostatistics Center, Boston, MA · Gary I. Cohen, Greater Baltimore Medical Center, Baltimore, MD · Douglas S. Reintgen, Lakeland Regional Cancer Center, Lakeland · Vernon K. Sondak, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL · Joanna M. Brell, MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland · William E. Carson, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH · Mark R. Albertini, University of Wisconsin Hospital, Madison, WI · Michael B. Atkins, Georgetown Medical Center, Washington, DC · Shaker R. Dakhil, Cancer Center of Kansas, Wichita, KS · Robert M. Conry, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL · Jeffrey A. Sosman, Vanderbilt University, Nashville · Alberto S. Pappo, Saint Jude Children's Research Hospital Oncology, Memphis, TN · Lawrence E. Flaherty, Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI · Michael G. Smylie, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Canada · and Richard F. Kefford, Sydney West Area Health Service, Westmead, Australia. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #28135150.

ABSTRACT: Purpose To test the efficacy of 4 weeks of intravenous (IV) induction with high-dose interferon (IFN) as part of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group regimen compared with observation (OBS) in patients with surgically resected intermediate-risk melanoma. Patients and Methods In this intergroup international trial, eligible patients had surgically resected cutaneous melanoma in the following categories: (1) T2bN0, (2) T3a-bN0, (3) T4a-bN0, and (4) T1-4N1a-2a (microscopic). Patients were randomly assigned to receive IFN α-2b at 20 MU/m

19 Clinical Trial Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab versus ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma: 2-year overall survival outcomes in a multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. 2016

Hodi, F Stephen / Chesney, Jason / Pavlick, Anna C / Robert, Caroline / Grossmann, Kenneth F / McDermott, David F / Linette, Gerald P / Meyer, Nicolas / Giguere, Jeffrey K / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Shaheen, Montaser / Ernstoff, Marc S / Minor, David R / Salama, April K / Taylor, Matthew H / Ott, Patrick A / Horak, Christine / Gagnier, Paul / Jiang, Joel / Wolchok, Jedd D / Postow, Michael A. ·Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: stephen_hodi@dfci.harvard.edu. · University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. · New York University, New York, NY, USA. · Gustave Roussy, INSERM U981, Paris, France. · Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. · Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. · Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. · Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Toulouse, France. · Greenville Health System Cancer Institute, Greenville, SC, USA. · St Luke's Cancer Center and Temple University, Bethlehem, PA, USA. · University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, USA. · Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH, USA. · California Pacific Center for Melanoma Research, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. · Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #27622997.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Results from phase 2 and 3 trials in patients with advanced melanoma have shown significant improvements in the proportion of patients achieving an objective response and prolonged progression-free survival with the combination of nivolumab (an anti-PD-1 antibody) plus ipilimumab (an anti-CTLA-4 antibody) compared with ipilimumab alone. We report 2-year overall survival data from a randomised controlled trial assessing this treatment in previously untreated advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial (CheckMate 069) we recruited patients from 19 specialist cancer centres in two countries (France and the USA). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with previously untreated, unresectable stage III or IV melanoma and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned 2:1 to receive an intravenous infusion of nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg or ipilimumab 3 mg/kg plus placebo, every 3 weeks for four doses. Subsequently, patients assigned to nivolumab plus ipilimumab received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, whereas patients allocated to ipilimumab alone received placebo every 2 weeks during this phase. Randomisation was done via an interactive voice response system with a permuted block schedule (block size of six) and stratification by BRAF mutation status. The study funder, patients, investigators, and study site staff were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint, which has been reported previously, was the proportion of patients with BRAF FINDINGS: Between Sept 16, 2013, and Feb 6, 2014, we screened 179 patients and enrolled 142, randomly assigning 95 patients to nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 47 to ipilimumab alone. In each treatment group, one patient no longer met the study criteria following randomisation and thus did not receive study drug. At a median follow-up of 24·5 months (IQR 9·1-25·7), 2-year overall survival was 63·8% (95% CI 53·3-72·6) for those assigned to nivolumab plus ipilimumab and 53·6% (95% CI 38·1-66·8) for those assigned to ipilimumab alone; median overall survival had not been reached in either group (hazard ratio 0·74, 95% CI 0·43-1·26; p=0·26). Treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were reported in 51 (54%) of 94 patients who received nivolumab plus ipilimumab compared with nine (20%) of 46 patients who received ipilimumab alone. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events were colitis (12 [13%] of 94 patients) and increased alanine aminotransferase (ten [11%]) in the combination group and diarrhoea (five [11%] of 46 patients) and hypophysitis (two [4%]) in the ipilimumab alone group. Serious grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 34 (36%) of 94 patients who received nivolumab plus ipilimumab (including colitis in ten [11%] of 94 patients, and diarrhoea in five [5%]) compared with four (9%) of 46 patients who received ipilimumab alone (including diarrhoea in two [4%] of 46 patients, colitis in one [2%], and hypophysitis in one [2%]). No new types of treatment-related adverse events or treatment-related deaths occurred in this updated analysis. INTERPRETATION: Although follow-up of the patients in this study is ongoing, the results of this analysis suggest that the combination of first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab might lead to improved outcomes compared with first-line ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma. The results suggest encouraging survival outcomes with immunotherapy in this population of patients. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

20 Clinical Trial Cutaneous head and neck melanoma in OPTiM, a randomized phase 3 trial of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of unresected stage IIIB/IIIC/IV melanoma. 2016

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Ollila, David W / Hallmeyer, Sigrun / Milhem, Mohammed / Amatruda, Thomas / Nemunaitis, John J / Harrington, Kevin J / Chen, Lisa / Shilkrut, Mark / Ross, Merrick / Kaufman, Howard L. ·University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah. · St. Luke's University Hospital and Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. · Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Illinois. · University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, Minnesota. · Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, Texas. · The Institute of Cancer Research/The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK. · Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California. · The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, New Jersey. ·Head Neck · Pubmed #27407058.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cutaneous head and neck melanoma has poor outcomes and limited treatment options. In OPTiM, a phase 3 study in patients with unresectable stage IIIB/IIIC/IV melanoma, intralesional administration of the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec improved durable response rate (DRR; continuous response ≥6 months) compared with subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). METHODS: Retrospective review of OPTiM identified patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma given talimogene laherparepvec (n = 61) or GM-CSF (n = 26). Outcomes were compared between talimogene laherparepvec and GM-CSF treated patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. RESULTS: DRR was higher for talimogene laherparepvec-treated patients than for GM-CSF treated patients (36.1% vs 3.8%; p = .001). A total of 29.5% of patients had a complete response with talimogene laherparepvec versus 0% with GM-CSF. Among talimogene laherparepvec-treated patients with a response, the probability of still being in response after 12 months was 73%. Median overall survival (OS) was 25.2 months for GM-CSF and had not been reached with talimogene laherparepvec. CONCLUSION: Treatment with talimogene laherparepvec was associated with improved response and survival compared with GM-CSF in patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1752-1758, 2016.

21 Clinical Trial Results of a Randomized Controlled Multicenter Phase III Trial of Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion Compared with Best Available Care for Patients with Melanoma Liver Metastases. 2016

Hughes, Marybeth S / Zager, Jonathan / Faries, Mark / Alexander, H Richard / Royal, Richard E / Wood, Bradford / Choi, Junsung / McCluskey, Kevin / Whitman, Eric / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Siskin, Gary / Nutting, Charles / Toomey, Mary Ann / Webb, Carole / Beresnev, Tatiana / Pingpank, James F. ·Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA. · John Wayne Cancer Institute, Providence St. John's Health Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA. · Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, USA. · M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX, USA. · Center for Interventional Oncology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Carol G. Simon Cancer Center, Atlantic Health System, Morristown, NJ, USA. · St. Luke's Cancer Center, Bethlehem, PA, USA. · Albany Medical Neurosciences Institute, Albany, NY, USA. · RIA Endovascular, Greenwood Village, CO, USA. · University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pingpankjf@upmc.edu. · Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Surgical Oncology Services, Hillman Cancer Center, UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pingpankjf@upmc.edu. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #26597368.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: There is no consensus for the treatment of melanoma metastatic to the liver. Percutaneous hepatic perfusion with melphalan (PHP-Mel) is a method of delivering regional chemotherapy selectively to the liver. In this study, we report the results of a multicenter, randomized controlled trial comparing PHP-Mel with best alternative care (BAC) for patients with ocular or cutaneous melanoma metastatic to the liver. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients were randomized to PHP-Mel (n = 44) or BAC (n = 49). On the PHP-Mel arm, melphalan was delivered via the hepatic artery, and the hepatic effluent captured and filtered extracorporeally prior to return to the systemic circulation via a venovenous bypass circuit. PHP-Mel was repeatable every 4-8 weeks. The primary endpoint was hepatic progression-free survival (hPFS), and secondary endpoints included overall PFS (oPFS), overall survival (OS), hepatic objective response (hOR), and safety. RESULTS: hPFS was 7.0 months for PHP-Mel and 1.6 months for BAC (p < 0.0001), while oPFS was 5.4 months for PHP-Mel and 1.6 months for BAC (p < 0.0001). Median OS was not significantly different (PHP-Mel 10.6 months vs. BAC 10.0 months), likely due to crossover to PHP-Mel treatment (57.1 %) from the BAC arm, and the hOR was 36.4 % for PHP-Mel and 2.0 % for BAC (p < 0.001). The majority of adverse events were related to bone marrow suppression. Four deaths were attributed to PHP-Mel, three in the primary PHP-Mel group, and one post-crossover to PHP-Mel from BAC. CONCLUSION: This randomized, phase III study demonstrated the efficacy of the PHP-Mel procedure. hPFS, oPFS, and hOR were significantly improved with PHP-Mel. PHP with melphalan should provide a new treatment option for unresectable metastatic melanoma in the liver.

22 Clinical Trial A randomized, controlled phase III trial of nab-Paclitaxel versus dacarbazine in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic melanoma. 2015

Hersh, E M / Del Vecchio, M / Brown, M P / Kefford, R / Loquai, C / Testori, A / Bhatia, S / Gutzmer, R / Conry, R / Haydon, A / Robert, C / Ernst, S / Homsi, J / Grob, J J / Kendra, K / Agarwala, S S / Li, M / Clawson, A / Brachmann, C / Karnoub, M / Elias, I / Renschler, M F / Hauschild, A. ·Department of Medicine, Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, USA ehersh@azcc.arizona.edu. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS National Tumor Institute, Milan, Italy. · Cancer Clinical Trials Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital and School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide. · Sydney West Cancer Trials Centre/Westmead Hospital and Melanoma Institute Australia, University of Sydney, North Sydney, Australia. · Department of Dermatology, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany. · Melanoma and Muscle Cutaneous Sarcoma Division, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Department of Medicine, Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, Seattle, USA. · Department of Dermatology and Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. · Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. · Demartology Unit, Department of Medicine, The Gustave Roussy Cancer Institute, Villejuif, France. · Department of Medical Oncology, London Health Sciences Center-London Regional Cancer Program, London, Canada. · Department of Medical Oncology, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Gilbert, USA. · Department of Dermatology, Timone Hospital, APHM and Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus. · Department of Hematology and Oncology, St Luke's Cancer Center and Temple University, Bethlehem. · Biometrics and Data Operations/Translational Medicine/Biometrics and Data Operations/Clinical Research & Development/Global Medical Affairs, Celgene Corporation, Summit, USA. · Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #26410620.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of nab-paclitaxel versus dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma was evaluated in a phase III randomized, controlled trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IV melanoma received nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks or dacarbazine 1000 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by independent radiologic review; the secondary end point was overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of 529 patients were randomized to nab-paclitaxel (n = 264) or dacarbazine (n = 265). Baseline characteristics were well balanced. The majority of patients were men (66%), had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 0 (71%), and had M1c stage disease (65%). The median PFS (primary end point) was 4.8 months with nab-paclitaxel and 2.5 months with dacarbazine [hazard ratio (HR), 0.792; 95.1% confidence interval (CI) 0.631-0.992; P = 0.044]. The median OS was 12.6 months with nab-paclitaxel and 10.5 months with dacarbazine (HR, 0.897; 95.1% CI 0.738-1.089; P = 0.271). Independently assessed overall response rate was 15% versus 11% (P = 0.239), and disease control rate (DCR) was 39% versus 27% (P = 0.004) for nab-paclitaxel versus dacarbazine, respectively. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse events were neuropathy (nab-paclitaxel, 25% versus dacarbazine, 0%; P < 0.001), and neutropenia (nab-paclitaxel, 20% versus dacarbazine, 10%; P = 0.004). There was no correlation between secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) status and PFS in either treatment arm. CONCLUSIONS: nab-Paclitaxel significantly improved PFS and DCR compared with dacarbazine, with a manageable safety profile.

23 Clinical Trial Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Predict Relapse-Free Survival after One Month of Interferon-α but Not Observation in Intermediate Risk Melanoma Patients. 2015

Tarhini, Ahmad A / Lin, Yan / Zahoor, Haris / Shuai, Yongli / Butterfield, Lisa H / Ringquist, Steven / Gogas, Helen / Sander, Cindy / Lee, Sandra / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Kirwood, John M. ·University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. · University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Biostatistics Facility, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America. · Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group, Athens, Greece. · Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America. · St. Luke's Cancer Center, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, United States of America; Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #26192408.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: E1697 was a phase III trial of adjuvant interferon (IFN)-α2b for one month (Arm B) versus observation (Arm A) in patients with resected melanoma at intermediate risk. We evaluated the levels of candidate serum cytokines, the HLA genotype, polymorphisms of CTLA4 and FOXP3 genes and the development of autoantibodies for their association with relapse free survival (RFS) in Arm A and Arm B among 268 patients with banked biospecimens. METHODS: ELISA was used to test 5 autoantibodies. Luminex/One Lambda LABTypeRSSO was used for HLA Genotyping. Selected CTLA4 and FOXP3 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites were tested for by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sixteen serum cytokines were tested at baseline and one month by Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Cox Proportional Hazards model was applied and the Wald test was used to test the marginal association of each individual marker and RFS. We used the Lasso approach to select the markers to be included in a multi-marker Cox Proportional Hazards model. The ability of the resulting models to predict one year RFS was evaluated by the time-dependent ROC curve. The leave-one-out method of cross validation (LOOCV) was used to avoid over-fitting of the data. RESULTS: In the multi-marker modeling analysis conducted in Arm B, one month serum IL2Rα, IL-12p40 and IFNα levels predicted one year RFS with LOOCV AUC = 82%. Among the three markers selected, IL2Rα and IFNα were the most stable (selected in all the cross validation cycles). The risk score (linear combination of the 3 markers) separated the RFS curves of low and high risk groups well (p = 0.05). This model did not hold for Arm A, indicating a differential marker profile in Arm B linked to the intervention (adjuvant therapy). CONCLUSIONS: Early on-treatment proinflammatory serum markers (IL2Rα, IL-12p40, IFNα) significantly predict RFS in our cohort of patients treated with adjuvant IFN-α2b and warrant further study.

24 Clinical Trial Pembrolizumab versus investigator-choice chemotherapy for ipilimumab-refractory melanoma (KEYNOTE-002): a randomised, controlled, phase 2 trial. 2015

Ribas, Antoni / Puzanov, Igor / Dummer, Reinhard / Schadendorf, Dirk / Hamid, Omid / Robert, Caroline / Hodi, F Stephen / Schachter, Jacob / Pavlick, Anna C / Lewis, Karl D / Cranmer, Lee D / Blank, Christian U / O'Day, Steven J / Ascierto, Paolo A / Salama, April K S / Margolin, Kim A / Loquai, Carmen / Eigentler, Thomas K / Gangadhar, Tara C / Carlino, Matteo S / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Moschos, Stergios J / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Goldinger, Simone M / Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie / Gonzalez, Rene / Kirkwood, John M / Wolchok, Jedd D / Eggermont, Alexander / Li, Xiaoyun Nicole / Zhou, Wei / Zernhelt, Adriane M / Lis, Joy / Ebbinghaus, Scot / Kang, S Peter / Daud, Adil. ·University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: aribas@mednet.ucla.edu. · Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland. · University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Gustave Roussy and Paris-Sud University, Villejuif, France. · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. · Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. · New York University Cancer Institute, New York, NY, USA. · University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA. · University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ, USA. · Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Beverly Hills Cancer Center, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, Napoli, Italy. · Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USA. · Seattle Cancer Care Alliance/University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. · University Medical Center, Mainz, Germany. · Universitätsklinikum Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead and Blacktown Hospitals, and Melanoma Institute Australia, Westmead, NSW, Australia. · St Luke's Cancer Center, Bethlehem, PA, USA; Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA. · University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #26115796.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with melanoma that progresses on ipilimumab and, if BRAF(V600) mutant-positive, a BRAF or MEK inhibitor or both, have few treatment options. We assessed the efficacy and safety of two pembrolizumab doses versus investigator-choice chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab-refractory melanoma. METHODS: We carried out a randomised phase 2 trial of patients aged 18 years or older from 73 hospitals, clinics, and academic medical centres in 12 countries who had confirmed progressive disease within 24 weeks after two or more ipilimumab doses and, if BRAF(V600) mutant-positive, previous treatment with a BRAF or MEK inhibitor or both. Patients had to have resolution of all ipilimumab-related adverse events to grade 0-1 and prednisone 10 mg/day or less for at least 2 weeks, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, and at least one measurable lesion to be eligible. Using a centralised interactive voice response system, we randomly assigned (1:1:1) patients in a block size of six to receive intravenous pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks or investigator-choice chemotherapy (paclitaxel plus carboplatin, paclitaxel, carboplatin, dacarbazine, or oral temozolomide). Randomisation was stratified by ECOG performance status, lactate dehydrogenase concentration, and BRAF(V600) mutation status. Individual treatment assignment between pembrolizumab and chemotherapy was open label, but investigators and patients were masked to assignment of the dose of pembrolizumab. We present the primary endpoint at the prespecified second interim analysis of progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01704287. The study is closed to enrolment but continues to follow up and treat patients. FINDINGS: Between Nov 30, 2012, and Nov 13, 2013, we enrolled 540 patients: 180 patients were randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg, 181 to receive pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg, and 179 to receive chemotherapy. Based on 410 progression-free survival events, progression-free survival was improved in patients assigned to pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg (HR 0·57, 95% CI 0·45-0·73; p<0·0001) and those assigned to pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg (0·50, 0·39-0·64; p<0·0001) compared with those assigned to chemotherapy. 6-month progression-free survival was 34% (95% CI 27-41) in the pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg group, 38% (31-45) in the 10 mg/kg group, and 16% (10-22) in the chemotherapy group. Treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 20 (11%) patients in the pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg group, 25 (14%) in the pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg group, and 45 (26%) in the chemotherapy group. The most common treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse event in the pembrolizumab groups was fatigue (two [1%] of 178 patients in the 2 mg/kg group and one [<1%] of 179 patients in the 10 mg/kg group, compared with eight [5%] of 171 in the chemotherapy group). Other treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events include generalised oedema and myalgia (each in two [1%] patients) in those given pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg; hypopituitarism, colitis, diarrhoea, decreased appetite, hyponatremia, and pneumonitis (each in two [1%]) in those given pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg; and anaemia (nine [5%]), fatigue (eight [5%]), neutropenia (six [4%]), and leucopenia (six [4%]) in those assigned to chemotherapy. INTERPRETATION: These findings establish pembrolizumab as a new standard of care for the treatment of ipilimumab-refractory melanoma. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

25 Clinical Trial Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma. 2015

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Kaufman, Howard L / Collichio, Frances / Amatruda, Thomas / Senzer, Neil / Chesney, Jason / Delman, Keith A / Spitler, Lynn E / Puzanov, Igor / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Milhem, Mohammed / Cranmer, Lee / Curti, Brendan / Lewis, Karl / Ross, Merrick / Guthrie, Troy / Linette, Gerald P / Daniels, Gregory A / Harrington, Kevin / Middleton, Mark R / Miller, Wilson H / Zager, Jonathan S / Ye, Yining / Yao, Bin / Li, Ai / Doleman, Susan / VanderWalde, Ari / Gansert, Jennifer / Coffin, Robert S. ·Robert H.I. Andtbacka, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT · Howard L. Kaufman, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ · Frances Collichio, University of North Carolina Medical Center, Chapel Hill, NC · Thomas Amatruda, Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN · Neil Senzer, Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas · Merrick Ross, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX · Jason Chesney, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY · Keith A. Delman, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA · Lynn E. Spitler, Northern California Melanoma Center, San Francisco · Gregory A. Daniels, University of California San Diego Medical Center, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla · Yining Ye, Bin Yao, Ai Li, Ari Vander Walde, and Jennifer Gansert, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA · Igor Puzanov, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN · Sanjiv S. Agarwala, St Luke's University Hospital and Health Network, Bethlehem, and Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA · Mohammed Milhem, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA · Lee Cranmer, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ · Brendan Curti, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR · Karl Lewis, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO · Troy Guthrie, Baptist Cancer Institute, Jacksonville · Jonathan S. Zager, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL · Gerald P. Linette, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO · Kevin Harrington, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, London · Mark R. Middleton, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom · Wilson H. Miller Jr, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada · and Susan Doleman and Robert S. Coffin, Amgen, Woburn, MA. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #26014293.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. RESULTS: Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. CONCLUSION: T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma.

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