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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Thomas T. Amatruda
Based on 17 articles published since 2010
(Why 17 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Thomas Amatruda wrote the following 17 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumour immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. 2013

Kaufman, Howard L / Kirkwood, John M / Hodi, F Stephen / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Amatruda, Thomas / Bines, Steven D / Clark, Joseph I / Curti, Brendan / Ernstoff, Marc S / Gajewski, Thomas / Gonzalez, Rene / Hyde, Laura Jane / Lawson, David / Lotze, Michael / Lutzky, Jose / Margolin, Kim / McDermott, David F / Morton, Donald / Pavlick, Anna / Richards, Jon M / Sharfman, William / Sondak, Vernon K / Sosman, Jeffrey / Steel, Susan / Tarhini, Ahmad / Thompson, John A / Titze, Jill / Urba, Walter / White, Richard / Atkins, Michael B. ·Rush University Cancer Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. ·Nat Rev Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23982524.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is associated with durable clinical benefit in patients with melanoma. The goal of this article is to provide evidence-based consensus recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in the clinical management of patients with high-risk and advanced-stage melanoma in the USA. To achieve this goal, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer sponsored a panel of melanoma experts--including physicians, nurses, and patient advocates--to develop a consensus for the clinical application of tumour immunotherapy for patients with melanoma. The Institute of Medicine clinical practice guidelines were used as a basis for this consensus development. A systematic literature search was performed for high-impact studies in English between 1992 and 2012 and was supplemented as appropriate by the panel. This consensus report focuses on issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical end points and sequencing or combination of therapy. The literature review and consensus panel voting and discussion were used to generate recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in patients with melanoma, and to assess and rate the strength of the supporting evidence. From the peer-reviewed literature the consensus panel identified a role for interferon-α2b, pegylated-interferon-α2b, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and ipilimumab in the clinical management of melanoma. Expert recommendations for how to incorporate these agents into the therapeutic approach to melanoma are provided in this consensus statement. Tumour immunotherapy is a useful therapeutic strategy in the management of patients with melanoma and evidence-based consensus recommendations for clinical integration are provided and will be updated as warranted.

2 Clinical Trial Biodistribution, shedding, and transmissibility of the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec in patients with melanoma. 2019

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Amatruda, Thomas / Nemunaitis, John / Zager, Jonathan S / Walker, John / Chesney, Jason A / Liu, Kate / Hsu, Cheng-Pang / Pickett, Cheryl A / Mehnert, Janice M. ·University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. · Minnesota Oncology and Virginia Piper Cancer Institute, Fridley, MN, USA. Electronic address: thomas.amatruda@usoncology.com. · College of Medicine and Life Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA. · Moffitt Cancer Center, 10920 N. McKinley Drive, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. · University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. · James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, 529 South Jackson Street, Louisville, KY 40205, USA. · Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. · Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. Electronic address: cpickett@amgen.com. · Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. ·EBioMedicine · Pubmed #31409575.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an intralesionally delivered, modified herpes simplex virus type-1 oncolytic immunotherapy. The biodistribution, shedding, and potential transmission of T-VEC was systematically evaluated during and after completion of therapy in adults with advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this phase 2, single-arm, open-label study, T-VEC was administered into injectable lesions initially at 10 FINDINGS: Sixty patients received ≥1 dose of T-VEC. During cycles 1-4, T-VEC DNA was detected in blood (98·3% of patients, 36·7% of samples), urine (31·7% of patients, 3·0% of samples) and swabs from injected lesions (100% of patients, 57·6% of samples), exterior of dressings (80% of patients,19·5% of samples), oral mucosa (8·3% of patients, 2·5% of samples), and anogenital area (8·0% of patients, 1·1% of samples). During the safety follow-up period, T-VEC DNA was only detected on swabs from injected lesions (14% of patients, 5.8% of samples). T-VEC DNA was detected in 4/37 swabs (3/19 patients) of suspected herpetic lesions. Among all samples, only those from the surface of injected lesions tested positive for infectivity (8/740 [1·1%]). Three close contacts reported signs and symptoms of suspected herpetic origin; however, no lesions had detectable T-VEC DNA. INTERPRETATION: Using current guidelines, T-VEC can be administered safely to patients with advanced melanoma and is unlikely to be transmitted to close contacts with appropriate use of occlusive dressings. FUND: This study was funded by Amgen Inc.: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02014441.

3 Clinical Trial Randomized phase II trial of autologous dendritic cell vaccines versus autologous tumor cell vaccines in metastatic melanoma: 5-year follow up and additional analyses. 2018

Dillman, Robert O / Cornforth, Andrew N / Nistor, Gabriel I / McClay, Edward F / Amatruda, Thomas T / Depriest, Carol. ·Hoag Cancer Institute, Newport Beach, CA, 92660, USA. robert.dillman55@gmail.com. · AIVITA Biomedical, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA. robert.dillman55@gmail.com. · TCR2 Therapeutics, Cambridge, MA, USA. · AIVITA Biomedical, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA. · California Cancer Associates for Research and Excellence (cCARE), Institute for Melanoma Research & Education, Encinitas, CA, USA. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN, USA. · , Franklin, TN, USA. ·J Immunother Cancer · Pubmed #29510745.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite improved survival following checkpoint inhibitors, there is still a potential role for anti-cancer therapeutic vaccines. Because of biological heterogeneity and neoantigens resulting from each patient's mutanome, autologous tumor may be the best source of tumor-associated antigens (TAA) for vaccines. Ex vivo loading of autologous dendritic cells with TAA may be associated with superior clinical outcome compared to injecting irradiated autologous tumor cells. We conducted a randomized phase II trial to compare autologous tumor cell vaccines (TCV) and autologous dendritic cell vaccines (DCV) loaded with autologous TAA. METHODS: Short-term autologous tumor cell lines were established from metastatic tumor. Vaccines were admixed with 500 micrograms of GM-CSF and injected weekly for 3 weeks, then at weeks 8, 12,16, 20, and 24. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary objectives were identification of adverse events, and results of delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions to intradermal tumor cell injections. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were randomized. All were followed from randomization until death or for five years; none were lost to follow-up. DCV was associated with longer survival: median 43.4 versus 20.5 months (95% CI, 18.6 to > 60 versus 9.3 to 32.3 months) and a 70% reduction in the risk of death (hazard ratio = 0.304, p = 0.0053, 95% CI, 0.131 to 0.702). Tumor DTH reactions were neither prognostic nor predictive. The most common treatment-related adverse events were mild to moderate local injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms; but grade 2 treatment-related adverse events were more frequent with TCV. Serum marker analyses at week-0 and week-4 showed that serum markers were similar at baseline in each arm, but differed after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This is the only human clinical trial comparing DCV and TCV as platforms for autologous TAA presentation. DCV was associated with minimal toxicity and long-term survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. DTH to autologous tumor cells was neither prognostic for survival nor predictive of benefit for either vaccine. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trials.gov NCT00948480 retrospectively registered 28 July 2009.

4 Clinical Trial Phase IIIb safety results from an expanded-access protocol of talimogene laherparepvec for patients with unresected, stage IIIB-IVM1c melanoma. 2018

Chesney, Jason / Awasthi, Sanjay / Curti, Brendan / Hutchins, Laura / Linette, Gerald / Triozzi, Pierre / Tan, Marcus C B / Brown, Russell E / Nemunaitis, John / Whitman, Eric / Windham, Christopher / Lutzky, Jose / Downey, Gerald F / Batty, Nicolas / Amatruda, Thomas. ·Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. · Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope, Duarte. · Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. · Division of Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. · Section of Hematology and Oncology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem. · Division of Surgical Oncology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama. · Department of Surgery, Ochsner Medical Center, New Orleans, Louisiana. · Department of Medical Hematology and Oncology, Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, Texas. · Department of Endocrine and Oncologic Surgery, Atlantic Melanoma Center, Atlantic Health System Cancer Care, Morristown, New Jersey. · Department of Oncology, Cone Health, Greensboro, North Carolina. · Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, Florida. · Center for Design and Analysis, Amgen Limited, Cambridge, UK. · Department of Clinical Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California. · Department of Hematology and Oncology, Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, Minnesota. ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #29176501.

ABSTRACT: Talimogene laherparepvec is a genetically modified herpes simplex virus-1-based oncolytic immunotherapy for the local treatment of unresectable cutaneous, subcutaneous, and nodal tumors in patients with melanoma recurrence following surgery. We aim to describe the safety of talimogene laherparepvec. Intralesional talimogene laherparepvec was administered at less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml at protocol day 1, then less than or equal to 4 ml×10 PFU/ml 21 days later, and then every 14 days. Treatment continued until complete response, absence of injectable tumors, progressive disease, intolerance, or US Food and Drug Administration approval. Adverse events were graded during and 30 days after the end of treatment. Lesions suspected to have herpetic origin were tested for talimogene laherparepvec DNA by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Between September 2014 and October 2015, 41 patients were enrolled with stage IIIB (22%), IIIC (37%), IVM1a (34%), IVM1b (5%), and IVM1c (2%) melanoma. The median age was 72 (range: 32-96) years and 54% of the patients were men. Patients had an ECOG performance status of 0 (68%) or 1 (32%). The median treatment duration was 13.1 (3.0-41.1) weeks. Treatment-related adverse events of greater than or equal to grade 3 were reported in three (7.3%) patients and included vomiting, upper abdominal pain, chills, hyperhidrosis, nausea, pyrexia, and wound infection. Suspected herpetic lesions were swabbed in five (12%) patients. One of the five tested positive for talimogene laherparepvec DNA by qPCR, but this lesion had been injected previously with talimogene laherparepvec. During the study, five patients completed treatment because of complete response per investigators. In the clinical practice setting, talimogene laherparepvec has a safety profile comparable to that observed in previous clinical trials. Talimogene laherparepvec (IMLYGIC) is now approved in the US, European Union, and Australia.

5 Clinical Trial Cutaneous head and neck melanoma in OPTiM, a randomized phase 3 trial of talimogene laherparepvec versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the treatment of unresected stage IIIB/IIIC/IV melanoma. 2016

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Ollila, David W / Hallmeyer, Sigrun / Milhem, Mohammed / Amatruda, Thomas / Nemunaitis, John J / Harrington, Kevin J / Chen, Lisa / Shilkrut, Mark / Ross, Merrick / Kaufman, Howard L. ·University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah. · St. Luke's University Hospital and Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. · Advocate Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Illinois. · University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, Minnesota. · Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas, Texas. · The Institute of Cancer Research/The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK. · Amgen, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California. · The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, New Jersey. ·Head Neck · Pubmed #27407058.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cutaneous head and neck melanoma has poor outcomes and limited treatment options. In OPTiM, a phase 3 study in patients with unresectable stage IIIB/IIIC/IV melanoma, intralesional administration of the oncolytic virus talimogene laherparepvec improved durable response rate (DRR; continuous response ≥6 months) compared with subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). METHODS: Retrospective review of OPTiM identified patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma given talimogene laherparepvec (n = 61) or GM-CSF (n = 26). Outcomes were compared between talimogene laherparepvec and GM-CSF treated patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. RESULTS: DRR was higher for talimogene laherparepvec-treated patients than for GM-CSF treated patients (36.1% vs 3.8%; p = .001). A total of 29.5% of patients had a complete response with talimogene laherparepvec versus 0% with GM-CSF. Among talimogene laherparepvec-treated patients with a response, the probability of still being in response after 12 months was 73%. Median overall survival (OS) was 25.2 months for GM-CSF and had not been reached with talimogene laherparepvec. CONCLUSION: Treatment with talimogene laherparepvec was associated with improved response and survival compared with GM-CSF in patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1752-1758, 2016.

6 Clinical Trial Patterns of Clinical Response with Talimogene Laherparepvec (T-VEC) in Patients with Melanoma Treated in the OPTiM Phase III Clinical Trial. 2016

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Ross, Merrick / Puzanov, Igor / Milhem, Mohammed / Collichio, Frances / Delman, Keith A / Amatruda, Thomas / Zager, Jonathan S / Cranmer, Lee / Hsueh, Eddy / Chen, Lisa / Shilkrut, Mark / Kaufman, Howard L. ·Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. Robert.Andtbacka@hci.utah.edu. · University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA. · University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN, USA. · Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. · University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA. · Saint Louis University Cancer Center, St Louis, MO, USA. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. · Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, NJ, USA. ·Ann Surg Oncol · Pubmed #27342831.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an oncolytic immunotherapy designed to induce tumor regression of injected lesions through direct lytic effects, and of uninjected lesions through induction of systemic antitumor immunity. In this study, we describe the patterns and time course of response to T-VEC from the phase III OPTiM trial of 436 patients with unresected stages IIIB-IV melanoma. METHODS: Lesion-level response analyses were performed based on the type of lesion (injected or uninjected cutaneous, subcutaneous, or nodal lesions; or visceral lesions [uninjected]), and the best percentage change from baseline of the sum of products of the longest diameters was calculated. Patients randomized to T-VEC (n = 295) who experienced a durable response (continuous partial or complete response for ≥6 months) were evaluated for progression prior to response (PPR), defined as the appearance of a new lesion or >25 % increase in total baseline tumor area. RESULTS: T-VEC resulted in a decrease in size by ≥50 % in 64 % of injected lesions (N = 2116), 34 % of uninjected non-visceral lesions (N = 981), and 15 % of visceral lesions (N = 177). Complete resolution of lesions occurred in 47 % of injected lesions, 22 % of uninjected non-visceral lesions, and 9 % of visceral lesions. Of 48 patients with durable responses, 23 (48 %) experienced PPR, including 14 who developed new lesions only. No difference in overall survival was observed, and median duration of response was not reached in patients with PPR versus those without PPR. CONCLUSIONS: Responses in uninjected lesions provide validation of T-VEC-induced systemic immunotherapeutic effects against melanoma. PPR did not negatively impact the clinical effectiveness of T-VEC.

7 Clinical Trial Dendritic Versus Tumor Cell Presentation of Autologous Tumor Antigens for Active Specific Immunotherapy in Metastatic Melanoma: Impact on Long-Term Survival by Extent of Disease at the Time of Treatment. 2015

Dillman, Robert O / McClay, Edward F / Barth, Neil M / Amatruda, Thomas T / Schwartzberg, Lee S / Mahdavi, Khosrow / de Leon, Cristina / Ellis, Robin E / DePriest, Carol. ·1 Caladrius Biosciences, Inc. , Irvine, California. · 2 California Cancer Associates for Research and Excellence (cCARE) , Institute for Melanoma Research & Education , Encinitas California. · 3 Genomics Institute Inc. , Laguna Beach, California. · 4 Minnesota Oncology , Fridley, Minnesota. · 5 The West Clinic , Memphis, Tennessee. · 6 Newport Doctors Medical Group , Newport Beach, California. · 7 Hoag Institute for Research and Education , Newport Beach, California. · 8 Cancer Biotherapy Research Group , Franklin, Tennessee. ·Cancer Biother Radiopharm · Pubmed #26083950.

ABSTRACT: In patients with metastatic melanoma, sequential single-arm and randomized phase II trials with a therapeutic vaccine consisting of autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with antigens from self-renewing, proliferating, irradiated autologous tumor cells (DC-TC) showed superior survival compared with similar patients immunized with irradiated tumor cells (TC). We wished to determine whether this difference was evident in cohorts who at the time of treatment had (1) no evidence of disease (NED) or (2) had detectable disease. Eligibility criteria and treatment schedules were the same for all three trials. Pooled data confirmed that overall survival (OS) was longer in 72 patients treated with DC-TC compared with 71 patients treated with TC (median OS 60 versus 22 months; 5-year OS 51% versus 32%, p=0.004). Treatment with DC-TC was associated with longer OS in both cohorts. Among 70 patients who were NED at the time that treatment was started, OS was better for DC-TC: 5-year OS 73% versus 43% (p=0.015). Among 73 patients who had detectable metastases, OS was better for DC-TC: median 38.8 months versus 14.7 months, 5-year OS 33% versus 20% (p=0.025). This approach is promising as an adjunct to other therapies in patients who have had metastatic melanoma.

8 Clinical Trial Talimogene Laherparepvec Improves Durable Response Rate in Patients With Advanced Melanoma. 2015

Andtbacka, Robert H I / Kaufman, Howard L / Collichio, Frances / Amatruda, Thomas / Senzer, Neil / Chesney, Jason / Delman, Keith A / Spitler, Lynn E / Puzanov, Igor / Agarwala, Sanjiv S / Milhem, Mohammed / Cranmer, Lee / Curti, Brendan / Lewis, Karl / Ross, Merrick / Guthrie, Troy / Linette, Gerald P / Daniels, Gregory A / Harrington, Kevin / Middleton, Mark R / Miller, Wilson H / Zager, Jonathan S / Ye, Yining / Yao, Bin / Li, Ai / Doleman, Susan / VanderWalde, Ari / Gansert, Jennifer / Coffin, Robert S. ·Robert H.I. Andtbacka, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT · Howard L. Kaufman, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ · Frances Collichio, University of North Carolina Medical Center, Chapel Hill, NC · Thomas Amatruda, Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN · Neil Senzer, Mary Crowley Cancer Research Center, Dallas · Merrick Ross, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX · Jason Chesney, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY · Keith A. Delman, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA · Lynn E. Spitler, Northern California Melanoma Center, San Francisco · Gregory A. Daniels, University of California San Diego Medical Center, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla · Yining Ye, Bin Yao, Ai Li, Ari Vander Walde, and Jennifer Gansert, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA · Igor Puzanov, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN · Sanjiv S. Agarwala, St Luke's University Hospital and Health Network, Bethlehem, and Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA · Mohammed Milhem, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA · Lee Cranmer, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ · Brendan Curti, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR · Karl Lewis, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO · Troy Guthrie, Baptist Cancer Institute, Jacksonville · Jonathan S. Zager, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL · Gerald P. Linette, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO · Kevin Harrington, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, London · Mark R. Middleton, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, United Kingdom · Wilson H. Miller Jr, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada · and Susan Doleman and Robert S. Coffin, Amgen, Woburn, MA. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #26014293.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex virus type 1-derived oncolytic immunotherapy designed to selectively replicate within tumors and produce granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to enhance systemic antitumor immune responses. T-VEC was compared with GM-CSF in patients with unresected stage IIIB to IV melanoma in a randomized open-label phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with injectable melanoma that was not surgically resectable were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to intralesional T-VEC or subcutaneous GM-CSF. The primary end point was durable response rate (DRR; objective response lasting continuously ≥ 6 months) per independent assessment. Key secondary end points included overall survival (OS) and overall response rate. RESULTS: Among 436 patients randomly assigned, DRR was significantly higher with T-VEC (16.3%; 95% CI, 12.1% to 20.5%) than GM-CSF (2.1%; 95% CI, 0% to 4.5%]; odds ratio, 8.9; P < .001). Overall response rate was also higher in the T-VEC arm (26.4%; 95% CI, 21.4% to 31.5% v 5.7%; 95% CI, 1.9% to 9.5%). Median OS was 23.3 months (95% CI, 19.5 to 29.6 months) with T-VEC and 18.9 months (95% CI, 16.0 to 23.7 months) with GM-CSF (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.00; P = .051). T-VEC efficacy was most pronounced in patients with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease and in patients with treatment-naive disease. The most common adverse events (AEs) with T-VEC were fatigue, chills, and pyrexia. The only grade 3 or 4 AE occurring in ≥ 2% of T-VEC-treated patients was cellulitis (2.1%). No fatal treatment-related AEs occurred. CONCLUSION: T-VEC is the first oncolytic immunotherapy to demonstrate therapeutic benefit against melanoma in a phase III clinical trial. T-VEC was well tolerated and resulted in a higher DRR (P < .001) and longer median OS (P = .051), particularly in untreated patients or those with stage IIIB, IIIC, or IVM1a disease. T-VEC represents a novel potential therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma.

9 Clinical Trial A randomized phase 2 study of temozolomide and bevacizumab or nab-paclitaxel, carboplatin, and bevacizumab in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma : a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study, N0775. 2013

Kottschade, Lisa A / Suman, Vera J / Perez, Domingo G / McWilliams, Robert R / Kaur, Judith S / Amatruda, Thomas T / Geoffroy, Francois J / Gross, Howard M / Cohen, Peter A / Jaslowski, Anthony J / Kosel, Matthew L / Markovic, Svetomir N. ·Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. kottschade.lisa@mayo.edu ·Cancer · Pubmed #22915053.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows chemotherapy in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition is a clinically active therapy for patients with metastatic melanoma (MM). METHODS: A phase 2 trial was conducted in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable stage IV MM who were randomized to temozolomide (200 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 5) and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 15) every 28 days (Regimen TB) or nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m(2) , or 80 mg/m(2) post-addendum 5 secondary to toxicity, on days 1, 8, and 15), bevacizumab (10 mg/kg on days 1 and 15), and carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 6 on day 1, or AUC 5 post-addendum 5) every 28 days (Regimen ABC). Accrual goal was 41 patients per regimen. The primary aim of this study was to estimate progression-free survival rate at 6 months (PFS6) in each regimen. A regimen would be considered promising if its PFS6 rate was > 60%. RESULTS: Ninety-three eligible patients (42 TB and 51 ABC) were enrolled. The majority of patients had M1c disease (20 TB and 26 ABC). The median PFS and overall survival times with ABC were 6.7 months and 13.9 months, respectively. Median PFS time and median overall survival with TB were 3.8 months and 12.3 months, respectively. The most common severe toxicities (≥ grade 3) in both regimens were cytopenias, fatigue, and thrombosis. Among the first 41 patients enrolled onto each regimen, PFS6 rate was 32.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.1%-51.2%) for TB and 56.1% (90% confidence interval: 44.7%-70.4%) for ABC. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bevacizumab to nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin shows promising activity despite tolerability issues.

10 Clinical Trial Tumor stem cell antigens as consolidative active specific immunotherapy: a randomized phase II trial of dendritic cells versus tumor cells in patients with metastatic melanoma. 2012

Dillman, Robert O / Cornforth, Andrew N / Depriest, Carol / McClay, Edward F / Amatruda, Thomas T / de Leon, Cristina / Ellis, Robin E / Mayorga, Cheryl / Carbonell, Denysha / Cubellis, James M. ·Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA 92658, USA. robert.dillman@hoag.org ·J Immunother · Pubmed #22996370.

ABSTRACT: Only 10% of metastatic melanoma patients survive 5 years, even though many can achieve substantial tumor reduction by surgical resection and/or radiation therapy and/or systemic therapy. An effective, nontoxic, consolidation immunotherapy could benefit such patients. We initiated a randomized trial to compare 2 promising patient-specific immunotherapy cell products. Patients had to have a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma and availability of an autologous melanoma cell line. Patients were stratified by whether their most advanced stage had been regional or distant metastases, and by whether they had measurable disease at the time of treatment, then they were randomized to receive irradiated autologous proliferating tumor cells or autologous dendritic cells (DC) loaded with antigens from such cells. Both products were injected subcutaneously in 500 µg of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, weekly for 3 weeks and then monthly for 5 months. Patients in the 2 arms did not differ in baseline characteristics. All patients received prescribed therapy. Treatment was well tolerated. At the time of initial analysis, with no patients lost to follow-up, 50% of patients deceased, and all surviving patients followed for at least 6 months after randomization, survival is superior in the DC arm (hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.098-0.729) with median survival not reached versus 15.9 months, and 2-year survival rates of 72% versus 31% (P=0.007). This trial provides evidence that a DC vaccine is associated with longer survival compared with a tumor cell vaccine, and is consistent with previous data suggesting a survival benefit from this patient-specific immunotherapy.

11 Clinical Trial A phase II trial of nab-paclitaxel (ABI-007) and carboplatin in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma : a North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study, N057E(1). 2011

Kottschade, Lisa A / Suman, Vera J / Amatruda, Thomas / McWilliams, Robert R / Mattar, Bassam I / Nikcevich, Daniel A / Behrens, Robert / Fitch, Tom R / Jaslowski, Anthony J / Markovic, Svetomir N. ·Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA. kottschade.lisa@mayo.edu ·Cancer · Pubmed #21472717.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that paclitaxel and carboplatin are clinically active in the treatment of metastatic melanoma (MM). ABI-007 is an albumin-bound formulation of paclitaxel that has demonstrated single-agent activity against metastatic melanoma. METHODS: A parallel phase II trial was conducted in patients with unresectable stage IV melanoma who were either chemotherapy naive (CN) or previously treated (PT). The treatment regimen consisted of ABI-007 (100 mg/m(2) ) and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC2) administered on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days. The primary aim of this study was objective response rate (RECIST). RESULTS: Seventy-six patients (41 CN and 35 PT) were enrolled between November 2006 and July 2007. Three patients withdrew consent prior to starting treatment. The median number of treatment cycles was 4. There were 10 (25.6%) responses (1 complete response [CR] and 9 partial responses [PRs]) in the CN cohort (90% CI, 16.7%-42.3%) and 3 (8.8%) responses (3 PRs) in the PT cohort (90% CI, 2.5%-21.3%). Median progression-free survival was 4.5 months in the CN cohort and 4.1 months in the PT cohort. Median overall survival (OS) was 11.1 months in the CN group and 10.9 months in the PT group. Severe toxicities in both groups (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Effects v.3.0 ≥grade 3) included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, neurosensory problems, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. CONCLUSIONS: The weekly combination of ABI-007 and carboplatin appears to be moderately well tolerated, with promising clinical activity as therapy in patients who are chemotherapy naive and with modest antitumor activity in those previously treated.

12 Article Observational study of talimogene laherparepvec use for melanoma in clinical practice in the United States (COSMUS-1). 2019

Perez, Matthew C / Zager, Jonathan S / Amatruda, Thomas / Conry, Robert / Ariyan, Charlotte / Desai, Anupam / Kirkwood, John M / Treichel, Sheryl / Cohan, David / Raskin, Leon. ·Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL 33612, USA. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN 55432, USA. · The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10065, USA. · Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. · UPMC Hillman Center, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA. ·Melanoma Manag · Pubmed #31406563.

ABSTRACT: Aim: Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is an intralesional treatment for unresectable cutaneous, subcutaneous and nodal melanoma. COSMUS-1 was conducted to examine how T-VEC is used in US clinical practice. Materials & methods: A chart review was conducted at seven centers, with 78 patients screened and 76 eligible. Results: Patients began treatment with T-VEC between October 2015 and December 2016. Median follow-up was 9.4 months. Twenty percent of patients (n = 15) completed T-VEC treatment with no remaining injectable lesions or pathologic complete response. Flu-like symptoms were the most commonly reported adverse events (n = 8; 10.5%), followed by lesion ulceration (n = 4; 5.3%). No herpetic lesions or infections were reported. Conclusion: T-VEC was well tolerated and showed clinical utility.

13 Article Estimating Survival in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases: An Update of the Graded Prognostic Assessment for Melanoma Using Molecular Markers (Melanoma-molGPA). 2017

Sperduto, Paul W / Jiang, Wen / Brown, Paul D / Braunstein, Steve / Sneed, Penny / Wattson, Daniel A / Shih, Helen A / Bangdiwala, Ananta / Shanley, Ryan / Lockney, Natalie A / Beal, Kathryn / Lou, Emil / Amatruda, Thomas / Sperduto, William A / Kirkpatrick, John P / Yeh, Norman / Gaspar, Laurie E / Molitoris, Jason K / Masucci, Laura / Roberge, David / Yu, James / Chiang, Veronica / Mehta, Minesh. ·Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address: psperduto@mropa.com. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. · Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · University of Minnesota Biostatistics, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · US Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. · University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado. · University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland. · Centre Hospitalier de l' Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada. · Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. · Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida. ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #29063850.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To update the Diagnosis-Specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) for a markedly heterogeneous patient population, patients with melanoma and brain metastases, using a larger, more current cohort, including molecular markers. METHODS: The original Melanoma-GPA is based on data from 483 patients whose conditions were diagnosed between 1985 and 2005. This is a multi-institutional retrospective database analysis of 823 melanoma patients with newly diagnosed brain metastases from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015. Multivariable analyses identified significant prognostic factors, which were weighted and included in the updated index (Melanoma-molGPA). Multiple Cox regression was used to select and weight prognostic factors in proportion to their hazard ratios to design the updated Melanoma-molGPA in which scores of 4.0 and 0.0 are associated with the best and worst prognoses, as with all of the diagnosis-specific GPA indices. Log-rank tests were used to compare adjacent classes. RESULTS: There were 5 significant prognostic factors for survival (age, Karnofsky performance status [KPS], extracranial metastases [ECM], number of brain metastases, and BRAF status), whereas only KPS and the number of brain metastases were significant in the original Melanoma-GPA. Median survival improved from 6.7 to 9.8 months between the 2 treatment eras, and the median survival times for patients with Melanoma-molGPA of 0 to 1.0, 1.5 to 2.0, 2.5 to 3.0, and 3.5 to 4.0 were 4.9, 8.3, 15.8, and 34.1 months (P<.0001 between each adjacent group). CONCLUSIONS: Survival and our ability to estimate survival in melanoma patients with brain metastases has improved significantly. The updated Melanoma-molGPA, a user-friendly tool to estimate survival, will facilitate clinical decision making regarding whether and which treatment is appropriate and will also be useful for stratification of future clinical trials. To further simplify use, a free online/smart phone app is available at brainmetgpa.com.

14 Article The Prognostic Value of BRAF, C-KIT, and NRAS Mutations in Melanoma Patients With Brain Metastases. 2017

Sperduto, Paul W / Jiang, Wen / Brown, Paul D / Braunstein, Steve / Sneed, Penny / Wattson, Daniel A / Shih, Helen A / Bangdiwala, Ananta / Shanley, Ryan / Lockney, Natalie A / Beal, Kathryn / Lou, Emil / Amatruda, Thomas / Sperduto, William A / Kirkpatrick, John P / Yeh, Norman / Gaspar, Laurie E / Molitoris, Jason K / Masucci, Laura / Roberge, David / Yu, James / Chiang, Veronica / Mehta, Minesh. ·Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address: psperduto@mropa.com. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. · Minneapolis Radiation Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · Department of Medical Oncology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · US Oncology, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. · University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado. · University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland. · Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. · Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. · Miami Cancer Institute, Miami, Florida. ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #28721890.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Brain metastases are a common problem in patients with melanoma, but little is known about the effect of gene mutations on survival in these patients. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We created a retrospective multi-institutional database of 823 patients with melanoma and brain metastases diagnosed between 2006 and 2015. Clinical parameters, gene mutation status (BRAF, C-KIT, NRAS), and treatment were correlated with survival. Treatment patterns and outcomes were compared with a prior era (1985-2005). RESULTS: BRAF status was known in 584 of 823 patients (71%). BRAF, NRAS, and C-KIT mutations were present in 51%, 22%, and 11% of tested patients, respectively. The median time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis was 32 months, and overall median survival (MS) from the time of initial treatment of brain metastases was 10 months. MS for BRAF-positive and BRAF-negative patients was 13 months and 9 months, respectively (P=.02). There was no significant difference in MS in patients with or without NRAS or C-KIT mutations. The time from primary diagnosis to brain metastasis did not vary by mutation and was not associated with survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases. MS for the 1985 to 2005 and 2006 to 2015 cohorts was 6.7 months and 10.0 months, respectively (P<.01). Reflecting treatment-trend changes, use of whole-brain radiation therapy decreased from 48% to 26% during this period. Among BRAF-positive patients, 71% received targeted BRAF and/or MEK inhibitors and 57% received some combination of targeted therapy, chemotherapy, and/or immunotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: For melanoma patients with brain metastases, BRAF-positive patients survive longer than BRAF-negative patients and overall survival has improved from 1985-2005 to 2006-2015.

15 Article Systemic versus local responses in melanoma patients treated with talimogene laherparepvec from a multi-institutional phase II study. 2016

Kaufman, Howard L / Amatruda, Thomas / Reid, Tony / Gonzalez, Rene / Glaspy, John / Whitman, Eric / Harrington, Kevin / Nemunaitis, John / Zloza, Andrew / Wolf, Michael / Senzer, Neil N. ·Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, 195 Little Albany Street, Room 2004, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN USA. · University of California San Diego Medical Center, La Jolla, CA USA. · University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO USA. · UCLA Jonsson Comprehesive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA USA. · Carol G. Simon Cancer Center, Morristown, NJ USA. · The Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, London, UK. · Mary Crowley Cancer Research Centers, Dallas, TX USA. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA USA. ·J Immunother Cancer · Pubmed #26981242.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: We previously reported that talimogene laherparepvec, an oncolytic herpes virus encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), resulted in an objective response rate of 26 % in patients with advanced melanoma in a phase II clinical trial. The response of individual lesions, however, was not reported. Since talimogene laherparepvec is thought to mediate anti-tumor activity through both direct tumor cytolysis and induction of systemic tumor-specific immunity, we sought to determine the independent response rate in virus-injected and non-injected lesions. METHODS: Fifty patients with stage IIIC or IV melanoma were treated with talimogene laherparepvec in a multi-institutional single-arm open-label phase II clinical trial. In this study patients were treated until a complete response was achieved, all accessible tumors disappeared, clinically significant disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity. This report is a post hoc analysis of the systemic effects of talimogene laherparepvec in injected lesions and two types of uninjected lesions-non-visceral lesions and visceral lesions. RESULTS: Eleven of 23 patients (47.8 %) had a ≥ 30 % reduction in the total burden of uninjected non-visceral lesions, and 2 of 12 patients (16.7 %) had a ≥ 30 % reduction in the total burden of visceral lesions. Among 128 evaluable lesions directly injected with talimogene laherparepvec, 86 (67.2 %) decreased in size by ≥ 30 % and 59 (46.1 %) completely resolved. Of 146 uninjected non-visceral lesions, 60 (41.1 %) decreased in size by ≥ 30 %, the majority of which (44 [30.1 %]) completely resolved. Of 32 visceral lesions, 4 (12.5 %) decreased in size by ≥ 30 %, and 3 (9.4 %) completely resolved. The median time to lesion response was shortest for lesions that were directly injected (18.4 weeks), followed by uninjected non-visceral lesions (23.1 weeks) and visceral lesions (51.3 weeks), consistent with initiation of a delayed regional and systemic anti-tumor immune response to talimogene laherparepvec. CONCLUSIONS: These results support a regional and systemic effect of talimogene laherparepvec immunotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma.

16 Article Prognostic significance of microscopic tumor burden in sentinel lymph node in patients with cutaneous melanoma. 2015

Kim, Chul / Economou, Sam / Amatruda, Thomas T / Martin, Jena C / Dudek, Arkadiusz Z. ·Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A. · Plastic Surgery Consultants, Edina, MN, U.S.A. · Minnesota Oncology, Fridley, MN, U.S.A. · Hospital Pathology Associates, Minneapolis, MN, U.S.A. · University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, U.S.A. adudek@uic.edu. ·Anticancer Res · Pubmed #25550564.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIM: Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy provides useful prognostic information for patients with melanoma. The present study sought to determine the prognostic value of SLN tumor burden on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). We also assessed its association with non-sentinel lympth node (NSLN) involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 138 patients with cutaneous melanoma, who were found to have positive SLNs from 2000 to 2011. SLN tumor burden was measured in the maximum diameter of the largest tumor focus. OS and DFS were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the association between SLN tumor burden and NSLN positivity. RESULTS: On multivariable analysis, SLN tumor burden was significantly associated with OS (hazard ratio (HR)>1 vs. ≤ 1 mm=5.15; 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.32-11.44; p<0.0001) and DFS rate (HR>1 vs. ≤ 1 mm=3.02; 95% CI=1.37-6.67; p=0.0064). On univariate analysis, SLN tumor burden was significantly associated with NSLN positivity (OR>1 vs. ≤ 1 mm=3.41; 95% CI=1.03-11.27; p=0.04). CONCLUSION: SLN tumor burden, by measuring the maximum diameter of the largest tumor focus, is significantly associated with OS, DFS and NSLN involvement.

17 Article Serial monitoring of circulating tumor cells predicts outcome of induction biochemotherapy plus maintenance biotherapy for metastatic melanoma. 2010

Koyanagi, Kazuo / O'Day, Steven J / Boasberg, Peter / Atkins, Michael B / Wang, He-Jing / Gonzalez, Rene / Lewis, Karl / Thompson, John A / Anderson, Clay M / Lutzky, Jose / Amatruda, Thomas T / Hersh, Evan / Richards, Jon / Weber, Jeffrey S / Hoon, Dave S B. ·Department of Molecular Oncology, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Santa Monica, California 90404, USA. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #20371696.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Molecular biomarkers in blood are promising for assessment of tumor progression and treatment response. We hypothesized that serial monitoring of circulating tumor cells (CTC) with the use of multimarker quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR assays could be a surrogate predictor of outcome for melanoma patients enrolled in a multicenter phase II clinical trial of biochemotherapy (BCT) combined with maintenance biotherapy (mBT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Blood specimens were collected from 87 patients before and during induction BCT and mBT for stage IV melanoma. Expression of five melanoma-associated CTC biomarkers (MART-1, GalNAc-T, PAX-3, MAGE-A3, and Mitf) was assessed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, and correlated with treatment response and disease outcome. RESULTS: The number of positive CTC biomarkers decreased overall during induction BCT (P < 0.0001). CTC biomarker detection after two cycles of BCT was correlated with treatment response (P = 0.005) and overall survival (P = 0.001): an increase in the number of CTC biomarkers was associated with poor response (P = 0.006) and overall survival (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses with the use of a Cox proportional hazards model identified the change in CTC biomarkers after two cycles of BCT as an independent prognostic factor for disease progression (risk ratio, 12.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.78-33.4; P < 0.0001) and overall survival (risk ratio, 6.11; 95% confidence interval, 2.37-15.7; P = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: Serial monitoring of CTC during induction BCT may be useful for predicting therapeutic efficacy and disease outcome in patients receiving BCT and mBT for stage IV melanoma.