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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by David E. Fisher
Based on 84 articles published since 2009
(Why 84 articles?)
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Between 2009 and 2019, D. E. Fisher wrote the following 84 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Editorial Red Hair, Light Skin, and UV-Independent Risk for Melanoma Development in Humans. 2016

Roider, Elisabeth M / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts. ·JAMA Dermatol · Pubmed #27050924.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Improving apoptotic responses to targeted therapy. 2013

Haq, Rizwan / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital. ·Oncotarget · Pubmed #23934756.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Disproportionate burden of melanoma mortality in young U.S. men: the possible role of biology and behavior. 2013

Fisher, David E / Geller, Alan C. ·Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. ·JAMA Dermatol · Pubmed #23804228.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Review Pathways in melanoma development. 2018

Erlich, Tal H / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA. · Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA - dfisher3@mgh.harvard.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ·G Ital Dermatol Venereol · Pubmed #29319276.

ABSTRACT: This review aimed to summarize the current advances in melanoma research and their clinical relevance. Until recently, melanoma was considered an incurable disease. However, in recent years tremendous advances have been made in therapeutics. This is due to profound understanding of the molecular pathways involved in melanoma development. Although new targets are always emerging, understanding how to overcome resistance to current treatments is of great interest.

5 Review Immune and molecular correlates in melanoma treated with immune checkpoint blockade. 2017

Byrne, Elizabeth H / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology and Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Cancer · Pubmed #28543699.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma has a decades-long history, and the relatively recent use of checkpoint inhibitors has revolutionized treatment. Durable and sometimes complete remission of metastatic melanoma is now achievable in some patients who receive checkpoint-blocking therapy. However, it is unclear why some patients fare better than others. This review highlights several molecular indicators of response to checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma, focusing on tumor programmed death ligand 1 expression, major histocompatibility complex class I expression, mutational load in the tumor, and T-cell infiltration into the tumor. In addition, clinical correlates of response, notably vitiligo and other immune-related adverse events, can potentially shed light on the mechanisms by which checkpoint blockade may achieve such great success, particularly in melanoma. The authors propose that microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-a key regulator of melanocyte survival, melanin production, and melanoma transformation-produces a molecular landscape in melanocytes and melanoma cells that can make melanomas particularly susceptible to checkpoint blockade and also can result in immune attack on normal melanocytes. Cancer 2017;123:2143-53. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

6 Review The master role of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanocyte and melanoma biology. 2017

Kawakami, Akinori / Fisher, David E. ·Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·Lab Invest · Pubmed #28263292.

ABSTRACT: Certain transcription factors have vital roles in lineage development, including specification of cell types and control of differentiation. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a key transcription factor for melanocyte development and differentiation. MITF regulates expression of numerous pigmentation genes to promote melanocyte differentiation, as well as fundamental genes for maintaining cell homeostasis, including genes encoding proteins involved in apoptosis (eg, BCL2) and the cell cycle (eg, CDK2). Loss-of-function mutations of MITF cause Waardenburg syndrome type IIA, whose phenotypes include depigmentation due to melanocyte loss, whereas amplification or specific mutation of MITF can be an oncogenic event that is seen in a subset of familial or sporadic melanomas. In this article, we review basic features of MITF biological function and highlight key unresolved questions regarding this remarkable transcription factor.

7 Review Signaling and Immune Regulation in Melanoma Development and Responses to Therapy. 2017

Lin, William M / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114. · Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114; email: dfisher3@partners.org. ·Annu Rev Pathol · Pubmed #27959628.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma is a complex and genomically diverse malignancy, and new genes and signaling pathways involved in pathogenesis continue to be discovered. Mechanistic insights into gene and immune regulation in melanoma have led to the development of numerous successful and innovative pharmacologic agents over recent years. Multiple targeted therapies and immunotherapies have already entered the clinic, becoming new standards of care and transforming the prognosis for many patients with malignant melanoma. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of signaling and immune regulation in melanoma and implications for responses to treatment, organized in the framework of hallmark characteristics in cancer.

8 Review Bioinformatic Analysis of Gene Expression for Melanoma Treatment. 2016

Kawakami, Akinori / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address: dfisher3@partners.org. ·J Invest Dermatol · Pubmed #27884291.

ABSTRACT: Bioinformatic analysis of genome-wide gene expression allows us to characterize cells, including melanomas. Gene expression profiles have been generated in various stages of melanomas and analyzed by researchers in unique ways. Lauss et al. compared their melanoma subtypes with those of The Cancer Genome Atlas Network and found consistency between the two studies.

9 Review Metastatic melanoma and immunotherapy. 2016

Herzberg, Benjamin / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, United States. Electronic address: bherzberg@partners.org. · Department of Dermatology and MGH Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·Clin Immunol · Pubmed #27430520.

ABSTRACT: Harnessing the immune system to attack cancer cells has represented a holy grail for greater than 100years. While prospects of tumor-selective durable immune based therapies have provided small clinical signals for many decades, recent years have demonstrated a virtual explosion in progress. Melanoma has led the field of cancers in which immunotherapy has produced major clinical inroads. The most significant and impactful immunotherapies for melanoma utilize immune checkpoint inhibition to stimulate T cell mediated tumor killing. The major targets of checkpoint blockade have thus far been CTLA4 and PD1, two key receptors for central and peripheral immune tolerance. This review discusses current understanding of how these checkpoint blockade therapeutics have led to major clinical responses in patients with advanced melanoma. It is likely that we are poised to see significantly greater anti-cancer immunotherapy efficacy, both in improving response rates and durability for melanoma, and for other less immunogenic malignancies.

10 Review Melanoma. 2015

Schadendorf, Dirk / Fisher, David E / Garbe, Claus / Gershenwald, Jeffrey E / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Halpern, Allan / Herlyn, Meenhard / Marchetti, Michael A / McArthur, Grant / Ribas, Antoni / Roesch, Alexander / Hauschild, Axel. ·Department of Dermatology, University Duisburg-Essen, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147 Essen, Germany. · German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Dermatology, University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. · Department of Dermatology and Skin Cancers, APHM Timone Hospital Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. · Dermatology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA. · Melanoma Research Center, Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · Division of Cancer Medicine and Research, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Departments of Medicine, Surgery, and Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA. · Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Kiel, Germany. ·Nat Rev Dis Primers · Pubmed #27188223.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma is a common cancer in the Western world with an increasing incidence. Sun exposure is still considered to be the major risk factor for melanoma. The prognosis of patients with malignant (advanced-stage) melanoma differs widely between countries, but public campaigns advocating early detection have led to significant reductions in mortality rates. As well as sun exposure, distinct genetic alterations have been identified as associated with melanoma. For example, families with melanoma who have germline mutations in CDKN2A are well known, whereas the vast majority of sporadic melanomas have mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, which is the pathway with the highest oncogenic and therapeutic relevance for this disease. BRAF and NRAS mutations are typically found in cutaneous melanomas, whereas KIT mutations are predominantly observed in mucosal and acral melanomas. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations prevail in uveal melanomas. Additionally, the PI3K-AKT-PTEN pathway and the immune checkpoint pathways are important. The finding that programmed cell death protein 1 ligand 1 (PDL1) and PDL2 are expressed by melanoma cells, T cells, B cells and natural killer cells led to the recent development of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1)-specific antibodies (for example, nivolumab and pembrolizumab). Alongside other new drugs - namely, BRAF inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib) and MEK inhibitors (trametinib and cobimetinib) - these agents are very promising and have been shown to significantly improve prognosis for patients with advanced-stage metastatic disease. Early signs are apparent that these new treatment modalities are also improving long-term clinical benefit and the quality of life of patients. This Primer summarizes the current understanding of melanoma, from mechanistic insights to clinical progress. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/vX2N9s.

11 Review The melanoma revolution: from UV carcinogenesis to a new era in therapeutics. 2014

Lo, Jennifer A / Fisher, David E. ·Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology and MGH Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. · Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology and MGH Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. dfisher3@partners.org. ·Science · Pubmed #25414302.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, is an aggressive disease that is rising in incidence. Although melanoma is a historically treatment-resistant malignancy, in recent years unprecedented breakthroughs in targeted therapies and immunotherapies have revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced disease. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in our understanding of melanoma risk factors, genomics, and molecular pathogenesis and how these insights have driven advances in melanoma treatment. In addition, we review benefits and limitations of current therapies and look ahead to continued progress in melanoma prevention and therapy. Remarkable achievements in the field have already produced a paradigm shift in melanoma treatment: Metastatic melanoma, once considered incurable, can now be treated with potentially curative rather than palliative intent.

12 Review The roles of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and pigmentation in melanoma. 2014

Hsiao, Jennifer J / Fisher, David E. ·Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ·Arch Biochem Biophys · Pubmed #25111671.

ABSTRACT: MITF and pigmentation play important roles in both normal melanocyte and transformed melanoma cell biology. MITF is regulated by many pathways and it also regulates many targets, some of which are still being discovered and functionally validated. MITF is involved in a wide range of processes in melanocytes, including pigment synthesis and lineage survival. Pigmentation itself plays an important role as the interface between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to melanoma.

13 Review Understanding the biology of melanoma and therapeutic implications. 2014

Sullivan, Ryan J / Fisher, David E. ·Center for Melanoma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. · Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Bartlett 6, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address: dfisher3@partners.org. ·Hematol Oncol Clin North Am · Pubmed #24880940.

ABSTRACT: From 1976 to 2010, only 2 medications were approved for treating metastatic melanoma. Between 2011 and 2013, 4 agents were approved and other therapies have shown great promise in clinical trials. Fundamental discoveries, such as the identification of oncogenic mutations in most melanomas, the elucidation of the molecular signaling resulting from these mutations, and the revelation that several cell surface molecules serve as regulators of immune activation, have been instrumental in this progress. This article summarizes the molecular pathogenesis of melanoma, describes the current efforts to target oncogene-driven signaling, and presents the rationale for combining immune and molecular targeting.

14 Review Pathways and therapeutic targets in melanoma. 2014

Shtivelman, Emma / Davies, Michael Q A / Hwu, Patrick / Yang, James / Lotem, Michal / Oren, Moshe / Flaherty, Keith T / Fisher, David E. ·Cancer Commons, Palo Alto, CA, USA. ·Oncotarget · Pubmed #24743024.

ABSTRACT: This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of molecular pathways and their clinical relevance in melanoma. Metastatic melanoma was a grim diagnosis, but in recent years tremendous advances have been made in treatments. Chemotherapy provided little benefit in these patients, but development of targeted and new immune approaches made radical changes in prognosis. This would not have happened without remarkable advances in understanding the biology of disease and tremendous progress in the genomic (and other "omics") scale analyses of tumors. The big problems facing the field are no longer focused exclusively on the development of new treatment modalities, though this is a very busy area of clinical research. The focus shifted now to understanding and overcoming resistance to targeted therapies, and understanding the underlying causes of the heterogeneous responses to immune therapy.

15 Review Current status of diagnostic and prognostic markers in melanoma. 2014

Levine, Danielle / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ·Methods Mol Biol · Pubmed #24258980.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most life-threatening common form of skin cancer. While most cutaneous melanomas are cured by surgical resection, a minority will relapse locally, regionally, or distantly. Biomarkers have represented a focal point for research aimed at improving diagnostic accuracy as well as providing prognostic information that may help to guide therapeutic decisions. While systemic melanoma therapies were of extremely limited utility for patients with advanced disease in the past, two drugs have been approved the FDA within the past several years, and it is possible that they may provide even greater impact if employed earlier in the disease process. To optimally employ these therapies, prognostic biomarkers may offer significant value. This article reviews methodologies for both discovery and routine testing of melanoma biomarkers. It also focuses on specific commonly used markers, as well as approaches to studying their applications to specific clinical settings. As the armamentarium of melanoma drugs grows, it is hoped that specific biomarkers will aid in guiding the use of these agents for patients in the clinic.

16 Review Targeting melanoma by small molecules: challenges ahead. 2013

Haq, Rizwan / Fisher, David E. ·Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·Pigment Cell Melanoma Res · Pubmed #23611259.

ABSTRACT: Significant progress has been made in targeting melanoma using small molecule inhibitors, but challenges remain. Here we describe the history of screening approaches in melanoma and their limitations. We propose several approaches to refine our screening models to enhance the discovery process. It is hoped that this discussion will stimulate further improvements in our development of small molecules inhibitors for treatment of melanoma patients.

17 Review Developing melanoma therapeutics: overview and update. 2013

Korman, John B / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med · Pubmed #23408545.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma is a common, often deadly malignancy, historically associated with limited treatment options for advanced disease. In recent years, systems-based research has resulted in significant clinical advancements. Strategic inhibition of mutated oncoproteins and targeting of immune checkpoints have emerged as very promising approaches. Vemurafenib, which received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2011, selectively inhibits BRAF(V600E) , a hyperactivated mutant signaling kinase in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Another recently FDA-approved drug, ipilimumab, blocks the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) pathway from inhibiting T cell activation. Despite this apparent progress, compelling challenges remain for both researchers and clinicians. Responses to therapy remain unacceptably incomplete and, in most cases, resistance mechanisms quickly develop that lead to relapse and subsequent patient mortality. Combining therapeutic modalities may increase the percentage of responding patients as well as the magnitude and durability of response. Notably, combined therapies involving selective BRAF inhibitors (SBIs) and other inhibitors of MAPK-dependent or MAPK-independent resistance pathways appear particularly promising. Preclinical and clinical studies are needed to comprehensively evaluate the optimal combinations of therapies, to identify melanoma subtypes that will be most responsive, and to determine optimal dosing, timing, and route of delivery.

18 Review Melanoma: from mutations to medicine. 2012

Tsao, Hensin / Chin, Lynda / Garraway, Levi A / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ·Genes Dev · Pubmed #22661227.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma is often considered one of the most aggressive and treatment-resistant human cancers. It is a disease that, due to the presence of melanin pigment, was accurately diagnosed earlier than most other malignancies and that has been subjected to countless therapeutic strategies. Aside from early surgical resection, no therapeutic modality has been found to afford a high likelihood of curative outcome. However, discoveries reported in recent years have revealed a near avalanche of breakthroughs in the melanoma field-breakthroughs that span fundamental understanding of the molecular basis of the disease all the way to new therapeutic strategies that produce unquestionable clinical benefit. These discoveries have been born from the successful fruits of numerous researchers working in many-sometimes-related, although also distinct-biomedical disciplines. Discoveries of frequent mutations involving BRAF(V600E), developmental and oncogenic roles for the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) pathway, clinical efficacy of BRAF-targeted small molecules, and emerging mechanisms underlying resistance to targeted therapeutics represent just a sample of the findings that have created a striking inflection in the quest for clinically meaningful progress in the melanoma field.

19 Review From genes to drugs: targeted strategies for melanoma. 2012

Flaherty, Keith T / Hodi, F Stephen / Fisher, David E. ·Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ·Nat Rev Cancer · Pubmed #22475929.

ABSTRACT: The past decade has revealed that melanoma is comprised of multiple subclasses that can be categorized on the basis of key features, including the clinical stage of disease, the oncogenic molecular 'drivers', the anatomical location or the behaviour of the primary lesion and the expression of specific biomarkers. Although exercises in subclassification are not new in oncology, progress in this area has produced both conceptual and clinical breakthroughs, which, for melanoma, are unprecedented in the modern history of the disease. This Review focuses on these recent striking advances in the strategy of molecularly targeted approaches to the therapy of melanoma in humans.

20 Review New strategies in metastatic melanoma: oncogene-defined taxonomy leads to therapeutic advances. 2011

Flaherty, Keith T / Fisher, David E. ·Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA 02129, USA. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #21670085.

ABSTRACT: The discovery of BRAF and KIT mutations provided the first basis for a molecular classification of cutaneous melanoma on therapeutic grounds. As BRAF-targeted therapy quickly moves toward regulatory approval and incorporation as standard therapy for patients with metastatic disease, proof of concept has also been established for targeting mutated KIT in melanoma. NRAS mutations have long been known to be present in a subset of melanomas and represent an elusive subgroup for targeted therapies. Matching patient subgroups defined by genetic aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase and p16/cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) pathways with appropriate targeted therapies has not yet been realized. And, an increasing understanding of lineage-specific transcriptional regulators, most notably MITF, and how they may play a role in melanoma pathophysiology, has provided another axis to approach with therapies. The foundation has been established for individual oncogene targeting, and current investigations seek to understand the intersection of these susceptibilities and other described potential targets and pathways. The melanoma field stands poised to take the lead among cancer subtypes in advancing combination therapy strategies that simultaneously target multiple biologic underpinnings of the disease.

21 Review A new era: melanoma genetics and therapeutics. 2011

Ko, Justin M / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·J Pathol · Pubmed #21125678.

ABSTRACT: We have recently witnessed an explosion in our understanding of melanoma. Knowledge of the molecular basis of melanoma and the successes of targeted therapies have pushed melanoma care to the precipice of a new era. Identification of significant pathways and oncogenes has translated to the development of targeted therapies, some of which have produced major clinical responses. In this review, we provide an overview of selected key pathways and melanoma oncogenes as well as the targeted agents and therapeutic approaches whose successes suggest the promise of a new era in melanoma and cancer therapy. Despite these advances, the conversion of transient remissions to stable cures remains a vital challenge. Continued progress towards a better understanding about the complexity and redundancy responsible for melanoma progression may provide direction for anti-cancer drug development.

22 Review Melanocyte photobiology, ultraviolet radiation and melanoma. 2010

Seo, S-J / Fisher, D E. ·Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. ·G Ital Dermatol Venereol · Pubmed #20930695.

ABSTRACT: Of all the organs of the human body, the skin is most commonly affected by malignancy, and ultraviolet radiation has long been implicated as the primary mutagenic exposure leading to the development of many cutaneous cancers. However, as research in this field has continued, it has become clear that the effect of ultraviolet radiation on the skin is quite complex. Distinct cell types within the skin exhibit differing responses to ultraviolet radiation, and even within the same cell type, divergent effects may be observed; depending on the dose or wavelength of the radiation, or the maturational state of the affected cell, unique responses can be elicited. Melanocytes form a minor component of the outermost layer of skin, but they have an enormous impact on not only the appearance of the skin, but also the ability of the skin to withstand exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In addition, melanocytes give rise to melanoma, one of the most deadly types of skin cancer. Clearly, it is critical that we achieve a better understanding of the effect of ultraviolet radiation on melanocytes, and that we clarify its role in the oncogenesis of melanoma. Although the picture is far from complete, the mechanisms by which melanocytes respond to ultraviolet radiation are beginning to be elucidated, and, as these pathways emerge, they offer new targets for chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic intervention.

23 Review How sunlight causes melanoma. 2010

Garibyan, Lilit / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·Curr Oncol Rep · Pubmed #20623386.

ABSTRACT: The incidence of melanoma has continued to rise dramatically over the past few decades, especially in young females. Due to the deadly nature of this disease, melanoma has become an important public health problem. It is generally accepted that ultraviolet light radiation (UVR) from sunlight is a major risk factor for melanoma skin cancer development. However, the mechanistic details of how sunlight via UVR causes melanoma are still being elucidated. Currently, it is thought that carcinogenic, inflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of UVR all contribute to initiation, progression, and metastasis of primary melanoma. We review current findings on how sunlight-generated UVR generates DNA damage, inflammation, and immune suppression, thus leading to melanoma.

24 Review Indoor ultraviolet tanning and skin cancer: health risks and opportunities. 2009

Schulman, Joshua M / Fisher, David E. ·Department of Dermatology, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, and Melanoma Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ·Curr Opin Oncol · Pubmed #19532016.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skin cancer incidence is higher than that of any other human malignancy, and yet one of its root causes [ultraviolet (UV) radiation] is perhaps better understood than any other human carcinogen. The roles of UV radiation exposure and indoor tanning behaviors on skin cancer risk are explored here. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies from the past several years have shown a significant association between ever-use of an indoor tanning facility and an increased risk of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. The association between indoor tanning and skin cancer is particularly strong among those who first used a tanning facility in early adulthood. Elevated vitamin D levels have been suggested to protect against various internal malignancies and other disease states, but sources of vitamin D that do not require UV exposure are easily available. SUMMARY: Although additional research is needed to understand fully the relationship between UV and skin cancer, it is already clear that indoor tanning bed use represents an avoidable risk factor for melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer - both of which may be lethal. Acting upon this information provides a unique opportunity for protecting the public health.

25 Review Transcriptional regulation in melanoma. 2009

Mitra, Devarati / Fisher, David E. ·Biology and Biomedical Sciences Program, Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ·Hematol Oncol Clin North Am · Pubmed #19464596.

ABSTRACT: Transcriptional regulation in melanoma is a complex process that tends to hijack the normal melanocyte signaling pathways involved in melanocyte development, pigmentation, and survival. At the center of these often overlapping networks of transcriptional activation and repression is microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a melanocyte lineage marker that increases pigment production and exhibits diverse effects on cell survival, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The particular conditions that allow MITF to produce these potentially contradictory roles have not yet been fully elucidated, but analysis of the pathways involved provides opportunities to learn about new therapeutic strategies.

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