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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Thomas F. Gajewski
Based on 44 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, T. Gajewski wrote the following 44 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Guideline The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumour immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. 2013

Kaufman, Howard L / Kirkwood, John M / Hodi, F Stephen / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Amatruda, Thomas / Bines, Steven D / Clark, Joseph I / Curti, Brendan / Ernstoff, Marc S / Gajewski, Thomas / Gonzalez, Rene / Hyde, Laura Jane / Lawson, David / Lotze, Michael / Lutzky, Jose / Margolin, Kim / McDermott, David F / Morton, Donald / Pavlick, Anna / Richards, Jon M / Sharfman, William / Sondak, Vernon K / Sosman, Jeffrey / Steel, Susan / Tarhini, Ahmad / Thompson, John A / Titze, Jill / Urba, Walter / White, Richard / Atkins, Michael B. ·Rush University Cancer Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. ·Nat Rev Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23982524.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is associated with durable clinical benefit in patients with melanoma. The goal of this article is to provide evidence-based consensus recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in the clinical management of patients with high-risk and advanced-stage melanoma in the USA. To achieve this goal, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer sponsored a panel of melanoma experts--including physicians, nurses, and patient advocates--to develop a consensus for the clinical application of tumour immunotherapy for patients with melanoma. The Institute of Medicine clinical practice guidelines were used as a basis for this consensus development. A systematic literature search was performed for high-impact studies in English between 1992 and 2012 and was supplemented as appropriate by the panel. This consensus report focuses on issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical end points and sequencing or combination of therapy. The literature review and consensus panel voting and discussion were used to generate recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in patients with melanoma, and to assess and rate the strength of the supporting evidence. From the peer-reviewed literature the consensus panel identified a role for interferon-α2b, pegylated-interferon-α2b, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and ipilimumab in the clinical management of melanoma. Expert recommendations for how to incorporate these agents into the therapeutic approach to melanoma are provided in this consensus statement. Tumour immunotherapy is a useful therapeutic strategy in the management of patients with melanoma and evidence-based consensus recommendations for clinical integration are provided and will be updated as warranted.

2 Review Molecular profiling of melanoma and the evolution of patient-specific therapy. 2011

Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·Semin Oncol · Pubmed #21421113.

ABSTRACT: It recently has become clear that multiple molecular subtypes of melanoma likely exist that may be associated with clinical response to defined therapeutic modalities. Gene expression profiling has revealed a signature that is associated with clinical benefit to melanoma vaccines, with preliminary work suggesting a correlation with response to other immunotherapy agents as well. Activating mutations in B-Raf and c-kit are associated with clinical response to the specific kinase inhibitors PLX4032 and imatinib, respectively. Several other signal transduction pathways have been found to be constitutively active or mutated in other subsets of melanoma tumors that are potentially targetable with new agents. Together, these emerging data suggest the evolution of a new paradigm in melanoma therapy in which molecular analysis of the tumor will be used to assign the most appropriate therapeutic modality for each individual patient, to maximize therapeutic success.

3 Review Gene signature in melanoma associated with clinical activity: a potential clue to unlock cancer immunotherapy. 2010

Gajewski, Thomas F / Louahed, Jamila / Brichard, Vincent G. ·University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·Cancer J · Pubmed #20693853.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapeutic approaches for melanoma and other cancers can impart profound clinical benefit but only for a subset of patients. Interpatient heterogeneity could, in principle, be due to somatic differences in the tumor between individuals or alternatively be accounted for distinct germline polymorphisms in immunoregulatory genes of the host. Analysis of these possibilities has been initiated by investigating gene expression profiling of the tumor microenvironment in the context of clinical trials of cancer vaccines. Distinct gene expression profiles have been identified on pretreatment biopsies that are associated with a positive or negative clinical outcome. These observations suggest that such profiling might be useful as a predictive biomarker for clinical benefit from vaccines and other immunotherapy approaches, and analysis of specific gene products has begun to suggest new therapeutic interventions to overcome mechanisms of tumor resistance.

4 Clinical Trial Oncolytic Virotherapy Promotes Intratumoral T Cell Infiltration and Improves Anti-PD-1 Immunotherapy. 2017

Ribas, Antoni / Dummer, Reinhard / Puzanov, Igor / VanderWalde, Ari / Andtbacka, Robert H I / Michielin, Olivier / Olszanski, Anthony J / Malvehy, Josep / Cebon, Jonathan / Fernandez, Eugenio / Kirkwood, John M / Gajewski, Thomas F / Chen, Lisa / Gorski, Kevin S / Anderson, Abraham A / Diede, Scott J / Lassman, Michael E / Gansert, Jennifer / Hodi, F Stephen / Long, Georgina V. ·University of California at Los Angeles, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address: aribas@mednet.ucla.edu. · University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · The West Clinic, Memphis, TN, USA. · University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Hospital Clinic i Provincial de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Austin Health, School of Cancer Medicine, LaTrobe University, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia. · Hopitaux Universitaires de Genève, Geneva, Switzerland. · University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and Hillman UPMC Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · The University of Chicago School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. · Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA. · Amgen Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA. · Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA. · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. · Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney and Royal North Shore and Mater Hospitals, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ·Cell · Pubmed #28886381.

ABSTRACT: Here we report a phase 1b clinical trial testing the impact of oncolytic virotherapy with talimogene laherparepvec on cytotoxic T cell infiltration and therapeutic efficacy of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab. Twenty-one patients with advanced melanoma were treated with talimogene laherparepvec followed by combination therapy with pembrolizumab. Therapy was generally well tolerated, with fatigue, fevers, and chills as the most common adverse events. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred. Confirmed objective response rate was 62%, with a complete response rate of 33% per immune-related response criteria. Patients who responded to combination therapy had increased CD8

5 Clinical Trial Safety and efficacy of the antiganglioside GD3 antibody ecromeximab (KW2871) combined with high-dose interferon-α2b in patients with metastatic melanoma. 2017

Tarhini, Ahmad A / Moschos, Stergios J / Lin, Yan / Lin, Hui-Min / Sander, Cindy / Yin, Yan / Venhaus, Ralph / Gajewski, Thomas F / Kirkwood, John M. ·aDepartment of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania bLudwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd, New York, New York cDepartment of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #28489678.

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the safety and clinical benefit of ecromeximab (KW2871) combined with high-dose interferon-α2b (HDI) in patients with metastatic melanoma. We also carried out pharmacokinetic and immune monitoring studies of this combination. This was an open-label, phase 1/2 study of ecromeximab plus HDI in patients with measurable metastatic melanoma. Eligible patients received ecromeximab-HDI combination therapy: ecromeximab administered intravenously once every 2 weeks and HDI at a dose of 20 million units (MU)/m administered intravenously for 5 consecutive days per week for the first 4 weeks (induction phase) and then at 10 MU/m subcutaneously thrice weekly through week 14 (maintenance phase). Patients were treated with combination therapy until disease progression or limiting toxicity. Three dose-escalation cohorts (5, 10, and 20 mg/m) of ecromeximab were planned. Thirty-six evaluable patients were enrolled including six in each of cohorts 1 and 2, and 24 in cohort 3. Median progression-free survival was 2.53 months [95% confidence interval (CI):1.93-3.83] and it was 1.93 months (95% CI: 1.00-3.80) in cohort 3. The median overall survival was 10.28 months (95% CI: 6.93-16.77) and 7.78 months (95% CI: 6.03-13.97) in cohort 3. There was no significant difference in progression-free survival or overall survival by BRAF mutation status. The response rate was 5.6% (95% CI: 0.68-18.7), with two patients showing an objective response (one complete response and one partial response), and the clinical benefit rate was 78% (95% CI: 61-90). Stable disease as best response was observed in 26 (72%) patients including five in each of cohorts 1 and 2, and 16 in cohort 3. Treatment-emergent adverse events considered related to ecromeximab treatment occurred in four (66.7%) patients in cohort 1, five (83.3%) patients in cohort 2, and seven (29.2%) patients in cohort 3. Among TEAEs with a maximum severity of grade 3 or 4, those that occurred only in cohort 3 were related to pain, electrolyte imbalance, blood cell decreases, and allergic reaction. Safety and efficacies considered related to ecromeximab occurred in cohort 3 and included grade 3 hypersensitivity [one (4.2%)] and grade 2 hypotension [one (4.2%)]. Regimen-limiting toxicities occurred in two (8.3%) patients in cohort 3: hypersensitivity (with hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia, bronchospasm, chills, and dyspnea) and hypotension. One patient out of 31 examined showed a low-level transient positivity for human antichimeric antibodies against ecromeximab. Pharmacokinetic measurements by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determined that administration of HDI does not influence serum levels of ecromeximab at 5, 10, and 20 mg/m dose levels. Ecromeximab in combination with HDI was generally well tolerated in patients with metastatic melanoma and has shown low immunogenicity. However, the clinical activity was limited, suggesting that future development of this combination should be deprioritized and that other combinations, such as with immune checkpoint inhibitors, should be considered.

6 Clinical Trial Relationship between physician-adjudicated adverse events and patient-reported health-related quality of life in a phase II clinical trial (NCT01143402) of patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. 2017

Atkinson, Thomas M / Hay, Jennifer L / Shoushtari, Alexander / Li, Yuelin / Paucar, Daniel J / Smith, Sloane C / Kudchadkar, Ragini R / Doyle, Austin / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Quevedo, Jorge Fernando / Milhem, Mohammed M / Joshua, Anthony M / Linette, Gerald P / Gajewski, Thomas F / Lutzky, Jose / Lawson, David H / Lao, Christopher D / Flynn, Patrick J / Albertini, Mark R / Sato, Takami / Lewis, Karl / Marr, Brian / Abramson, David H / Dickson, Mark Andrew / Schwartz, Gary K / Carvajal, Richard D. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 641 Lexington Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY, 10022, USA. atkinsot@mskcc.org. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 641 Lexington Ave., 7th Floor, New York, NY, 10022, USA. · Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein Cancer Center, Bronx, NY, USA. · Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA. · Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA, USA. · Princess Margaret Hospital University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, USA. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Minnesota Oncology, Woodbury, MN, USA. · Univeristy of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA. · Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · University of Colorado - Denver, Denver, CO, USA. · Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. ·J Cancer Res Clin Oncol · Pubmed #27921276.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Clinical trials commonly use physician-adjudicated adverse event (AE) assessment via the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) for decision-making. Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data are becoming more frequent in oncology; however, the relationship between physician-adjudicated AE assessment and HRQoL is understudied. METHODS: Data from a phase II trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01143402) where patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were randomized to receive selumetinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, or chemotherapy were analyzed. Patients reported HRQoL at baseline, after 1 month, and end of treatment (n = 118), whereas physicians adjudicated AEs via CTCAE. Mean HRQoL scores were compared between patient randomization arms, as well as between those patients who did/did not receive dose modifications. RESULTS: Ninety-four percent had a CTCAE grade ≥1 for at least one treatment-associated AE, with 18% undergoing dose modification due to toxicity. Mean HRQoL scores did not significantly differ at each of the three time points. Patient and physician-adjudicated reports of nausea were significantly correlated at the start (r = 0.31, p < 0.01) and end of treatment (r = 0.42, p < 0.05). There were no significant correlations between need for dose modification and HRQoL scores. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the high rate of physician-adjudicated AEs and need for dose modifications with selumetinib, patient-reported HRQoL was not impacted by treatment. Since HRQoL did not differ in the subgroup of patients who received dosage reductions due to AEs, patients may be willing to tolerate select AEs without dose modification (if medically appropriate). More research is needed to determine how to best integrate HRQoL data into clinical trial conduct.

7 Clinical Trial A phase II study of cediranib, an oral VEGF inhibitor, in previously untreated patients with metastatic or recurrent malignant melanoma. 2016

McWhirter, Elaine / Quirt, Ian / Gajewski, Thomas / Pond, Gregory / Wang, Lisa / Hui, June / Oza, Amit. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton Health Sciences Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada. emcwhirt@hhsc.ca. · Department of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Drug Development Program, Toronto, ON, Canada. · University of Chicago Medical Centre, Chicago, IL, USA. · Ontario Clinical Oncology Group, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. ·Invest New Drugs · Pubmed #26841902.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: A two stage multi-institution Phase II study was undertaken by the Princess Margaret Hospital Consortium to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of oral cediranib, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2, in patients with previously untreated advanced malignant melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between May 2006 and April 2008, 24 patients (median age 65 years) with advanced malignant melanoma were treated with oral cediranib. Cediranib was given on a continuous, oral once daily schedule of 45 mg, on a 28 day cycle. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients evaluable for response, there was stable disease in 8 patients, and progressive disease in 9 patients, with no objective responses seen. Only 2 patients had stable disease >/= 6 months, thus the study was terminated at the end of stage 1 accrual. The overall median survival was 9.9 months, and the median time to progression was 3.5 months. The most frequent non-hematologic adverse events were hypertension (78%), fatigue (69%), diarrhea (69%) and anorexia and nausea (each 57%). CONCLUSIONS: Although 2 patients had stable disease at 6 months, the short median time to progression and lack of any objective responses indicate that single agent cediranib at this dose and schedule is not sufficiently active to warrant study continuation.

8 Clinical Trial Phase II Study of Nilotinib in Melanoma Harboring KIT Alterations Following Progression to Prior KIT Inhibition. 2015

Carvajal, Richard D / Lawrence, Donald P / Weber, Jeffrey S / Gajewski, Thomas F / Gonzalez, Rene / Lutzky, Jose / O'Day, Steven J / Hamid, Omid / Wolchok, Jedd D / Chapman, Paul B / Sullivan, Ryan J / Teitcher, Jerrold B / Ramaiya, Nikhil / Giobbie-Hurder, Anita / Antonescu, Cristina R / Heinrich, Michael C / Bastian, Boris C / Corless, Christopher L / Fletcher, Jonathan A / Hodi, F Stephen. ·Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. · The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · The University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado. · Mount Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami Beach, Florida. · Beverly Hills Cancer Center, Beverly Hills, California. · Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, California. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. · Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. · The University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. · Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. Stephen_hodi@dfci.harvard.edu. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #25695690.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Although durable responses can be achieved with tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib in melanomas harboring KIT mutations, the efficacy of alternative inhibitors after progression to imatinib and the activity of these agents on brain metastases are unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We conducted a phase II study of nilotinib 400 mg twice a day in two cohorts of patients with melanomas harboring KIT mutations or amplification: (A) those refractory or intolerant to a prior KIT inhibitor; and (B) those with brain metastases. The primary endpoint was 4-month disease control rate. Secondary endpoints included response rate, time-to-progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS). A Simon two-stage and a single-stage design was planned to assess for the primary endpoint in cohorts A and B, respectively. RESULTS: Twenty patients were enrolled and 19 treated (11 in cohort A; 8 in cohort B). Three patients on cohort A [27%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 8%-56%] and 1 on cohort B (12.5%; 90% CI, 0.6%-47%) achieved the primary endpoint. Two partial responses were observed in cohort A (18.2%; 90% CI, 3%-47%); none were observed in cohort B. The median TTP and OS was 3.3 (90% CI, 2.1-3.9 months) and 9.1 months (90% CI, 4.3-14.2 months), respectively, in all treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib may achieve disease control in patients with melanoma harboring KIT alterations and whose disease progressed after imatinib therapy. The efficacy of this agent in KIT-altered melanoma with brain metastasis is limited.

9 Clinical Trial Phase 2 study of RO4929097, a gamma-secretase inhibitor, in metastatic melanoma: SWOG 0933. 2015

Lee, Sylvia M / Moon, James / Redman, Bruce G / Chidiac, Tarek / Flaherty, Lawrence E / Zha, Yuanyuan / Othus, Megan / Ribas, Antoni / Sondak, Vernon K / Gajewski, Thomas F / Margolin, Kim A. ·Seattle Cancer Care Alliance/University of Washington, Seattle, WA. · SWOG Statistical Center, Seattle, WA. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. · Columbus CCOP/Mid-Ohio Onc/Hem Inc, Columbus, OH. · Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI. · University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. · UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA. · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL. ·Cancer · Pubmed #25250858.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Aberrant Notch activation confers a proliferative advantage to many human tumors, including melanoma. This phase 2 trial assessed the antitumor activity of RO4929097, a gamma-secretase inhibitor of Notch signaling, with respect to the progression-free and overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: Chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous or unknown origin were treated orally with RO4929097 at a dose of 20 mg daily 3 consecutive days per week. A 2-step accrual design was used with an interim analysis of the first 32 patients and with continuation of enrollment if 4 or more of the 32 patients responded. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients from 23 institutions were enrolled; 32 patients were evaluable. RO4929097 was well tolerated, and most toxicities were grade 1 or 2. The most common toxicities were nausea (53%), fatigue (41%), and anemia (22%). There was 1 confirmed partial response lasting 7 months, and there were 8 patients with stable disease lasting at least through week 12, with 1 of these continuing for 31 months. The 6-month progression-free survival rate was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2%-22%), and the 1-year overall survival rate was 50% (95% CI, 32%-66%). Peripheral blood T-cell assays showed no significant inhibition of the production of interleukin-2, a surrogate pharmacodynamic marker of Notch inhibition, and this suggested that the drug levels were insufficient to achieve Notch target inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: RO4929097 showed minimal clinical activity against metastatic melanoma in this phase 2 trial, possibly because of inadequate exposure to therapeutic drug levels. Although Notch inhibition remains a compelling target in melanoma, the results do not support further investigation of RO4929097 with this dose and schedule.

10 Clinical Trial Metabolic response by FDG-PET to imatinib correlates with exon 11 KIT mutation and predicts outcome in patients with mucosal melanoma. 2014

Zukotynski, Katherine / Yap, Jeffrey T / Giobbie-Hurder, Anita / Weber, Jeffrey / Gonzalez, Rene / Gajewski, Thomas F / O'Day, Steven / Kim, Kevin / Hodi, F Stephen / Van den Abbeele, Annick D. · ·Cancer Imaging · Pubmed #25609545.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In patients with metastatic melanoma and KIT amplifications and/or mutations, therapy with imatinib mesylate may prolong survival. 18F-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT may be used to assess metabolic response. We investigated associations of metabolic response, mutational status, progression-free survival and overall survival in this population. METHODS: Baseline and 4-week follow-up 18F-FDG-PET/CT were evaluated in 17 patients with metastatic melanoma and KIT amplifications and/or mutations treated with imatinib in a multicenter phase II clinical trial. The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) were measured in up to 10 lesions on each scan. Metabolic response was classified using modified EORTC criteria. Each patient had a diagnostic CT or MR at baseline, after 6 weeks of therapy and then at intervals of 2 months and anatomic response was classified using RECIST 1.0. Median follow-up was 9.8 months. RESULTS: Partial metabolic response (PMR), stable metabolic disease (SMD) and progressive metabolic disease (PMD) was seen in 5 (29%), 5 (29%), and 7 (41%) patients respectively. Five patients (29%) had a KIT mutation in exon 11, four of whom (80%) had PMR while 1 (20%) had SMD. Twelve patients (71%) did not have a KIT mutation in exon 11, and only 1 (8%) had PMR, 4 (33%) had SMD and 7 (58%) had PMD. There was agreement of metabolic and anatomic classification in 12 of 17 patients (71%). Four of 17 patients (24%) had PR on both metabolic and anatomic imaging and all had a KIT mutation in exon 11. Survival of patients with PMD was lower than with SMD or PMR. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic response by 18F-FDG-PET/CT is associated with mutational status in metastatic melanoma patients treated with imatinib. 18F-FDG-PET/CT may be a predictor of outcome, although a larger study is needed to verify this. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00424515.

11 Clinical Trial Combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib in patients with advanced BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma: a phase 1b study. 2014

Ribas, Antoni / Gonzalez, Rene / Pavlick, Anna / Hamid, Omid / Gajewski, Thomas F / Daud, Adil / Flaherty, Lawrence / Logan, Theodore / Chmielowski, Bartosz / Lewis, Karl / Kee, Damien / Boasberg, Peter / Yin, Ming / Chan, Iris / Musib, Luna / Choong, Nicholas / Puzanov, Igor / McArthur, Grant A. ·Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, CO, USA. · New York University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · Hematology/Oncology Division, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI, USA. · Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USA. · Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, USA. · Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA. · Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: grant.mcarthur@petermac.org. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #25037139.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Addition of a MEK inhibitor to a BRAF inhibitor enhances tumour growth inhibition, delays acquired resistance, and abrogates paradoxical activation of the MAPK pathway in preclinical models of BRAF-mutated melanoma. We assessed the safety and efficacy of combined BRAF inhibition with vemurafenib and MEK inhibition with cobimetinib in patients with advanced BRAF-mutated melanoma. METHODS: We undertook a phase 1b study in patients with advanced BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma. We included individuals who had either recently progressed on vemurafenib or never received a BRAF inhibitor. In the dose-escalation phase of our study, patients received vemurafenib 720 mg or 960 mg twice a day continuously and cobimetinib 60 mg, 80 mg, or 100 mg once a day for either 14 days on and 14 days off (14/14), 21 days on and 7 days off (21/7), or continuously (28/0). The primary endpoint was safety of the drug combination and to identify dose-limiting toxic effects and the maximum tolerated dose. Efficacy was a key secondary endpoint. All patients treated with vemurafenib and cobimetinib were included in safety and efficacy analyses (intention-to-treat). The study completed accrual and all analyses are final. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01271803. FINDINGS: 129 patients were treated at ten dosing regimens combining vemurafenib and cobimetinib: 66 had recently progressed on vemurafenib and 63 had never received a BRAF inhibitor. Dose-limiting toxic effects arose in four patients. One patient on a schedule of vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day and cobimetinib 80 mg once a day 14/14 had grade 3 fatigue for more than 7 days; one patient on a schedule of vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day and cobimetinib 60 mg once a day 21/7 had a grade 3 prolongation of QTc; and two patients on a schedule of vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day and cobimetinib 60 mg 28/0 had dose-limiting toxic effects-one developed grade 3 stomatitis and fatigue and one developed arthralgia and myalgia. The maximum tolerated dose was established as vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day in combination with cobimetinib 60 mg 21/7. Across all dosing regimens, the most common adverse events were diarrhoea (83 patients, 64%), non-acneiform rash (77 patients, 60%), liver enzyme abnormalities (64 patients, 50%), fatigue (62 patients, 48%), nausea (58 patients, 45%), and photosensitivity (52 patients, 40%). Most adverse events were mild-to-moderate in severity. The most common grade 3 or 4 adverse events were cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (12 patients, 9%; all grade 3), raised amounts of alkaline phosphatase (11 patients, 9%]), and anaemia (nine patients, 7%). Confirmed objective responses were recorded in ten (15%) of 66 patients who had recently progressed on vemurafenib, with a median progression-free survival of 2·8 months (95% CI 2·6-3·4). Confirmed objective responses were noted in 55 (87%) of 63 patients who had never received a BRAF inhibitor, including six (10%) who had a complete response; median progression-free survival was 13·7 months (95% CI 10·1-17·5). INTERPRETATION: The combination of vemurafenib and cobimetinib was safe and tolerable when administered at the respective maximum tolerated doses. The combination has promising antitumour activity and further clinical development is warranted in patients with advanced BRAF(V600)-mutated melanoma, particularly in those who have never received a BRAF inhibitor; confirmatory clinical testing is ongoing. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech.

12 Clinical Trial Effect of selumetinib vs chemotherapy on progression-free survival in uveal melanoma: a randomized clinical trial. 2014

Carvajal, Richard D / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Quevedo, Jorge Fernando / Milhem, Mohammed M / Joshua, Anthony M / Kudchadkar, Ragini R / Linette, Gerald P / Gajewski, Thomas F / Lutzky, Jose / Lawson, David H / Lao, Christopher D / Flynn, Patrick J / Albertini, Mark R / Sato, Takami / Lewis, Karl / Doyle, Austin / Ancell, Kristin / Panageas, Katherine S / Bluth, Mark / Hedvat, Cyrus / Erinjeri, Joseph / Ambrosini, Grazia / Marr, Brian / Abramson, David H / Dickson, Mark Andrew / Wolchok, Jedd D / Chapman, Paul B / Schwartz, Gary K. ·Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York2Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York. · Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Department of Hematology-Oncology, Nashville, Tennessee. · Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. · University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics, Iowa City. · Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. · Washington University, St Louis, Missouri. · University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · Mount Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miami Beach, Florida. · Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. · Metro Minnesota Community Clinical Oncology Program, St Louis Park. · University of Wisconsin, Madison. · Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · University of Colorado, Aurora. · Investigational Drug Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland. · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. ·JAMA · Pubmed #24938562.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Uveal melanoma is characterized by mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, resulting in mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of selumetinib, a selective, non-adenosine triphosphate competitive inhibitor of MEK1 and MEK2, in uveal melanoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized, open-label, phase 2 clinical trial comparing selumetinib vs chemotherapy conducted from August 2010 through December 2013 among 120 patients with metastatic uveal melanoma at 15 academic oncology centers in the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: One hundred one patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive selumetinib, 75 mg orally twice daily on a continual basis (n = 50), or chemotherapy (temozolomide, 150 mg/m2 orally daily for 5 of every 28 days, or dacarbazine, 1000 mg/m2 intravenously every 21 days [investigator choice]; n = 51) until disease progression, death, intolerable adverse effects, or withdrawal of consent. After primary outcome analysis, 19 patients were registered and 18 treated with selumetinib without randomization to complete the planned 120-patient enrollment. Patients in the chemotherapy group could receive selumetinib at the time of radiographic progression. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Progression-free survival, the primary end point, was assessed as of April 22, 2013. Additional end points, including overall survival, response rate, and safety/toxicity, were assessed as of December 31, 2013. RESULTS: Median progression-free survival among patients randomized to chemotherapy was 7 weeks (95% CI, 4.3-8.4 weeks; median treatment duration, 8 weeks; interquartile range [IQR], 4.3-16 weeks) and among those randomized to selumetinib was 15.9 weeks (95% CI, 8.4-21.1 weeks; median treatment duration, 16.1 weeks; IQR, 8.1-25.3 weeks) (hazard ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.30-0.71; P < .001). Median overall survival time was 9.1 months (95% CI, 6.1-11.1 months) with chemotherapy and 11.8 months (95% CI, 9.8-15.7 months) with selumetinib (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.41-1.06; P = .09). No objective responses were observed with chemotherapy. Forty-nine percent of patients treated with selumetinib achieved tumor regression, with 14% achieving an objective radiographic response to therapy. Treatment-related adverse events were observed in 97% of patients treated with selumetinib, with 37% requiring at least 1 dose reduction. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this hypothesis-generating study of patients with advanced uveal melanoma, selumetinib compared with chemotherapy resulted in a modestly improved progression-free survival and response rate; however, no improvement in overall survival was observed. Improvement in clinical outcomes was accompanied by a high rate of adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01143402.

13 Clinical Trial Imatinib for melanomas harboring mutationally activated or amplified KIT arising on mucosal, acral, and chronically sun-damaged skin. 2013

Hodi, F Stephen / Corless, Christopher L / Giobbie-Hurder, Anita / Fletcher, Jonathan A / Zhu, Meijun / Marino-Enriquez, Adrian / Friedlander, Philip / Gonzalez, Rene / Weber, Jeffrey S / Gajewski, Thomas F / O'Day, Steven J / Kim, Kevin B / Lawrence, Donald / Flaherty, Keith T / Luke, Jason J / Collichio, Frances A / Ernstoff, Marc S / Heinrich, Michael C / Beadling, Carol / Zukotynski, Katherine A / Yap, Jeffrey T / Van den Abbeele, Annick D / Demetri, George D / Fisher, David E. ·F. Stephen Hodi, Anita Giobbie-Hurder, Philip Friedlander, Jason J. Luke, Katherine A. Zukotynski, Jeffrey T. Yap, Annick D. Van den Abbeele, and George D. Demetri, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute · Jonathan A. Fletcher, Meijun Zhu, and Adrian Marino-Enriquez, Brigham and Women's Hospital · Donald Lawrence, Keith T. Flaherty, and David E. Fisher, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA · Christopher L. Corless, Michael C. Heinrich, and Carol Beadling, Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center and Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR · Philip Friedlander, Mount Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY · Rene Gonzalez, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO · Jeffrey S. Weber, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL · Thomas F. Gajewski, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL · Steven J. O'Day, Beverly Hills Cancer Center, Beverly Hills, CA · Kevin B. Kim, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX · Frances A. Collichio, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC · and Marc S. Ernstoff, Geisel School of Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Hanover, NH. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23775962.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Amplifications and mutations in the KIT proto-oncogene in subsets of melanomas provide therapeutic opportunities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter phase II trial of imatinib in metastatic mucosal, acral, or chronically sun-damaged (CSD) melanoma with KIT amplifications and/or mutations. Patients received imatinib 400 mg once per day or 400 mg twice per day if there was no initial response. Dose reductions were permitted for treatment-related toxicities. Additional oncogene mutation screening was performed by mass spectroscopy. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled (24 evaluable). Eight patients (33%) had tumors with KIT mutations, 11 (46%) with KIT amplifications, and five (21%) with both. Median follow-up was 10.6 months (range, 3.7 to 27.1 months). Best overall response rate (BORR) was 29% (21% excluding nonconfirmed responses) with a two-stage 95% CI of 13% to 51%. BORR was significantly greater than the hypothesized null of 5% and statistically significantly different by mutation status (7 of 13 or 54% KIT mutated v 0% KIT amplified only). There were no statistical differences in rates of progression or survival by mutation status or by melanoma site. The overall disease control rate was 50% but varied significantly by KIT mutation status (77% mutated v 18% amplified). Four patients harbored pretreatment NRAS mutations, and one patient acquired increased KIT amplification after treatment. CONCLUSION: Melanomas that arise on mucosal, acral, or CSD skin should be assessed for KIT mutations. Imatinib can be effective when tumors harbor KIT mutations, but not if KIT is amplified only. NRAS mutations and KIT copy number gain may be mechanisms of therapeutic resistance to imatinib.

14 Clinical Trial Phase II study of the Src kinase inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530) in metastatic melanoma. 2013

Gangadhar, Tara C / Clark, Joseph I / Karrison, Theodore / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC2115, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA. ·Invest New Drugs · Pubmed #23151808.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Src kinases are activated in melanoma, and inhibition of Src kinase activity has pre-clinical anti-tumor effects. Targeting this pathway could therefore have therapeutic activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multi-center, open-label study of the Src kinase inhibitor saracatanib (AZD0530) in patients with metastatic melanoma. Twenty-three patients received saracatanib at a dose of 175 mg daily. The primary objectives were to determine whether this agent had clinical activity in patients with advanced melanoma and whether it increased progression free survival. Functional effects on circulating T cells were also assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients received oral saracatanib on a continuous daily dosing regimen. There were no objective clinical responses. Saracatanib was generally well tolerated with few grade 3-4 adverse events. T cell function was inhibited in most patients, based on decreased superantigen-induced IL-2 production in post- versus pre-treatment samples. CONCLUSIONS: Saracatanib has minimal clinical activity as a single agent in an unselected population of patients with advanced melanoma, as evidenced by a lack of objective responses in this study. Reduced T cell cytokine production in most treated patients suggests potential immune suppressive activity by this agent.

15 Clinical Trial Phase II study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor R115777 in advanced melanoma (CALGB 500104). 2012

Gajewski, Thomas F / Salama, April K S / Niedzwiecki, Donna / Johnson, Jeffrey / Linette, Gerald / Bucher, Cynthia / Blaskovich, Michelle A / Sebti, Said M / Haluska, Frank / Anonymous3810744. ·The University of Chicago, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 5841 S, Maryland Ave, MC2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu ·J Transl Med · Pubmed #23228035.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Multiple farnesylated proteins are involved in signal transduction in cancer. Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have been developed as a strategy to inhibit the function of these proteins. As FTIs inhibit proliferation of melanoma cell lines, we undertook a study to assess the impact of a FTI in advanced melanoma. As farnesylated proteins are also important for T cell activation, measurement of effects on T cell function was also pursued. METHODS: A 3-stage trial design was developed with a maximum of 40 patients and early stopping if there were no responders in the first 14, or fewer than 2 responders in the first 28 patients. Eligibility included performance status of 0-1, no prior chemotherapy, at most 1 prior immunotherapy, no brain metastases, and presence of at least 2 cutaneous lesions amenable to biopsy. R115777 was administered twice per day for 21 days of a 28-day cycle. Patients were evaluated every 2 cycles by RECIST. Blood and tumor were analyzed pre-treatment and during week 7. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were enrolled. Two patients had grade 3 toxicities, which included myelosuppression, nausea/vomiting, elevated BUN, and anorexia. There were no clinical responses. All patients analyzed showed potent inhibition of FT activity (85-98%) in tumor tissue; inhibition of phosphorylated ERK and Akt was also observed. T cells showed evidence of FT inhibition and diminished IFN-γ production. CONCLUSIONS: Despite potent target inhibition, R115777 showed no evidence of clinical activity in this cohort of melanoma patients. Inhibition of T cell function by FTIs has potential clinical implications. Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00060125.

16 Clinical Trial Efficacy and safety of ipilimumab monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: a multicenter single-arm phase II study. 2010

O'Day, S J / Maio, M / Chiarion-Sileni, V / Gajewski, T F / Pehamberger, H / Bondarenko, I N / Queirolo, P / Lundgren, L / Mikhailov, S / Roman, L / Verschraegen, C / Humphrey, R / Ibrahim, R / de Pril, V / Hoos, A / Wolchok, J D. ·The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Santa Monica, CA, USA.SODay@theangelesclinic.org ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #20147741.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This phase II study evaluated the safety and activity of ipilimumab, a fully human mAb that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, in patients with advanced melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with previously treated, unresectable stage III/stage IV melanoma received 10 mg/kg ipilimumab every 3 weeks for four cycles (induction) followed by maintenance therapy every 3 months. The primary end point was best overall response rate (BORR) using modified World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We also carried out an exploratory analysis of proposed immune-related response criteria (irRC). RESULTS: BORR was 5.8% with a disease control rate (DCR) of 27% (N = 155). One- and 2-year survival rates (95% confidence interval) were 47.2% (39.5% to 55.1%) and 32.8% (25.4% to 40.5%), respectively, with a median overall survival of 10.2 months (7.6-16.3). Of 43 patients with disease progression by modified WHO criteria, 12 had disease control by irRC (8% of all treated patients), resulting in a total DCR of 35%. Adverse events (AEs) were largely immune related, occurring mainly in the skin and gastrointestinal tract, with 19% grade 3 and 3.2% grade 4. Immune-related AEs were manageable and generally reversible with corticosteroids. CONCLUSION: Ipilimumab demonstrated clinical activity with encouraging long-term survival in a previously treated advanced melanoma population.

17 Clinical Trial A phase II study of oxaliplatin, docetaxel, and GM-CSF in patients with previously treated advanced melanoma. 2010

Locke, Frederick / Clark, Joseph I / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ·Cancer Chemother Pharmacol · Pubmed #19597729.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Although much focus has been placed on immunotherapy for melanoma, further development of chemotherapy approaches is needed. Melanoma is responsive to platinum compounds and taxanes, but there is limited experience with combinations of these agents. Oxaliplatin has been reported to have detectable activity in melanoma, and a phase I study has identified a tolerable dose and schedule of oxaliplatin in combination with docetaxel and hematopoietic growth factor support. GM-CSF has a theoretical advantage of immune potentiation. These considerations supported the study of oxaliplatin, docetaxel, and GM-CSF in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: Eligibility included adequate organ function, PSThis combination of oxaliplatin, docetaxel, and GM-CSF has limited clinical activity in previously treated patients with advanced melanoma. Exploration in treatment-naïve patients may still be warranted.

18 Clinical Trial Phase I/II trial of tremelimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. 2009

Camacho, Luis H / Antonia, Scott / Sosman, Jeffrey / Kirkwood, John M / Gajewski, Thomas F / Redman, Bruce / Pavlov, Dmitri / Bulanhagui, Cecile / Bozon, Viviana A / Gomez-Navarro, Jesus / Ribas, Antoni. ·Oncology Consultants, Department of Research, 920 Frostwood, Ste 780, Houston, TX 77024, USA. lcamacho@oncologyconsultants.com ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #19139427.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) blockade with tremelimumab (CP-675,206), a fully human anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody, was tolerated and demonstrated antitumor activity in a single dose, dose-escalation phase I trial in patients with solid tumors. This phase I/II trial was conducted to examine safety of multiple doses of tremelimumab, to further assess efficacy, and to identify an appropriate dosing regimen for further development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with metastatic melanoma received monthly intravenous infusions of tremelimumab at 3, 6, or 10 mg/kg for up to 1 year to determine recommended monthly phase II dose. During phase II, 89 patients received tremelimumab 10 mg/kg once every month or 15 mg/kg every 3 months. RESULTS: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed in phase I once every month dosing. In phase II, 8 (10%) of 84 response-assessable patients attained objective antitumor responses; best overall objective response was one complete response and three partial responses in each dosing regimen. Most responses were durable (range, 3 to 30+ months). Most frequent treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhea, rash, and pruritus. Frequency of grade 3/4 AEs was 13% in the 15 mg/kg every 3 months arm and 27% in the 10 mg/kg once every month. Serious AEs were also less frequent in the 15 mg/kg once every 3 months cohort (9% v 23% in 10 mg/kg arm). CONCLUSION: Multiple infusions of tremelimumab were generally tolerable and demonstrated single-agent antitumor activity. Both phase II regimens generated durable tumor responses. Based on its more favorable safety profile, 15 mg/kg every 3 months was selected for further clinical testing.

19 Article The commensal microbiome is associated with anti-PD-1 efficacy in metastatic melanoma patients. 2018

Matson, Vyara / Fessler, Jessica / Bao, Riyue / Chongsuwat, Tara / Zha, Yuanyuan / Alegre, Maria-Luisa / Luke, Jason J / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Center for Research Informatics, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ·Science · Pubmed #29302014.

ABSTRACT: Anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy has had a major impact on cancer treatment but has only benefited a subset of patients. Among the variables that could contribute to interpatient heterogeneity is differential composition of the patients' microbiome, which has been shown to affect antitumor immunity and immunotherapy efficacy in preclinical mouse models. We analyzed baseline stool samples from metastatic melanoma patients before immunotherapy treatment, through an integration of 16

20 Article Intratumoral CD8 2018

Horton, Brendan L / Williams, Jason B / Cabanov, Alexandra / Spranger, Stefani / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · The Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu. · Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. ·Cancer Immunol Res · Pubmed #29097422.

ABSTRACT: Subsets of human tumors are infiltrated with tumor antigen-specific CD8

21 Article Tumor and Microenvironment Evolution during Immunotherapy with Nivolumab. 2017

Riaz, Nadeem / Havel, Jonathan J / Makarov, Vladimir / Desrichard, Alexis / Urba, Walter J / Sims, Jennifer S / Hodi, F Stephen / Martín-Algarra, Salvador / Mandal, Rajarsi / Sharfman, William H / Bhatia, Shailender / Hwu, Wen-Jen / Gajewski, Thomas F / Slingluff, Craig L / Chowell, Diego / Kendall, Sviatoslav M / Chang, Han / Shah, Rachna / Kuo, Fengshen / Morris, Luc G T / Sidhom, John-William / Schneck, Jonathan P / Horak, Christine E / Weinhold, Nils / Chan, Timothy A. ·Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, OR 97213, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. · Medical Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. · Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. · Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. · Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. · Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Department of Surgery and University of Virginia Cancer Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08648, USA. · Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: weinholn@mskcc.org. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: chant@mskcc.org. ·Cell · Pubmed #29033130.

ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which immune checkpoint blockade modulates tumor evolution during therapy are unclear. We assessed genomic changes in tumors from 68 patients with advanced melanoma, who progressed on ipilimumab or were ipilimumab-naive, before and after nivolumab initiation (CA209-038 study). Tumors were analyzed by whole-exome, transcriptome, and/or T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing. In responding patients, mutation and neoantigen load were reduced from baseline, and analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity during therapy demonstrated differential clonal evolution within tumors and putative selection against neoantigenic mutations on-therapy. Transcriptome analyses before and during nivolumab therapy revealed increases in distinct immune cell subsets, activation of specific transcriptional networks, and upregulation of immune checkpoint genes that were more pronounced in patients with response. Temporal changes in intratumoral TCR repertoire revealed expansion of T cell clones in the setting of neoantigen loss. Comprehensive genomic profiling data in this study provide insight into nivolumab's mechanism of action.

22 Article Tumor-Residing Batf3 Dendritic Cells Are Required for Effector T Cell Trafficking and Adoptive T Cell Therapy. 2017

Spranger, Stefani / Dai, Daisy / Horton, Brendan / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Department of Pathology, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue, MC2115, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu. ·Cancer Cell · Pubmed #28486109.

ABSTRACT: Effector T cells have the capability of recognizing and killing cancer cells. However, whether tumors can become immune resistant through exclusion of effector T cells from the tumor microenvironment is not known. By using a tumor model resembling non-T cell-inflamed human tumors, we assessed whether adoptive T cell transfer might overcome failed spontaneous priming. Flow cytometric assays combined with intra-vital imaging indicated failed trafficking of effector T cells into tumors. Mechanistically, this was due to the absence of CXCL9/10, which we found to be produced by CD103

23 Article Density of immunogenic antigens does not explain the presence or absence of the T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment in melanoma. 2016

Spranger, Stefani / Luke, Jason J / Bao, Riyue / Zha, Yuanyuan / Hernandez, Kyle M / Li, Yan / Gajewski, Alexander P / Andrade, Jorge / Gajewski, Thomas F. ·Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. · Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. · Center for Research Informatics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. · Human Immune Monitoring Facility, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637. · Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637; tgajewsk@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu. ·Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A · Pubmed #27837020.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma metastases can be categorized by gene expression for the presence of a T-cell-inflamed tumor microenvironment, which correlates with clinical efficacy of immunotherapies. T cells frequently recognize mutational antigens corresponding to nonsynonymous somatic mutations (NSSMs), and in some cases shared differentiation or cancer-testis antigens. Therapies are being pursued to trigger immune infiltration into non-T-cell-inflamed tumors in the hope of rendering them immunotherapy responsive. However, whether those tumors express antigens capable of T-cell recognition has not been explored. To address this question, 266 melanomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were categorized by the presence or absence of a T-cell-inflamed gene signature. These two subsets were interrogated for cancer-testis, differentiation, and somatic mutational antigens. No statistically significant differences were observed, including density of NSSMs. Focusing on hypothetical HLA-A2

24 Article Lymphatic vessels regulate immune microenvironments in human and murine melanoma. 2016

Lund, Amanda W / Wagner, Marek / Fankhauser, Manuel / Steinskog, Eli S / Broggi, Maria A / Spranger, Stefani / Gajewski, Thomas F / Alitalo, Kari / Eikesdal, Hans P / Wiig, Helge / Swartz, Melody A. · ·J Clin Invest · Pubmed #27525437.

ABSTRACT: Lymphatic remodeling in tumor microenvironments correlates with progression and metastasis, and local lymphatic vessels play complex and poorly understood roles in tumor immunity. Tumor lymphangiogenesis is associated with increased immune suppression, yet lymphatic vessels are required for fluid drainage and immune cell trafficking to lymph nodes, where adaptive immune responses are mounted. Here, we examined the contribution of lymphatic drainage to tumor inflammation and immunity using a mouse model that lacks dermal lymphatic vessels (K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice). Melanomas implanted in these mice grew robustly, but exhibited drastically reduced cytokine expression and leukocyte infiltration compared with those implanted in control animals. In the absence of local immune suppression, transferred cytotoxic T cells more effectively controlled tumors in K14-VEGFR3-Ig mice than in control mice. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of human melanoma samples revealed that patient immune parameters are markedly stratified by levels of lymphatic markers. This work suggests that the establishment of tumor-associated inflammation and immunity critically depends on lymphatic vessel remodeling and drainage. Moreover, these results have implications for immunotherapies, the efficacies of which are regulated by the tumor immune microenvironment.

25 Article Loss of PTEN Promotes Resistance to T Cell-Mediated Immunotherapy. 2016

Peng, Weiyi / Chen, Jie Qing / Liu, Chengwen / Malu, Shruti / Creasy, Caitlin / Tetzlaff, Michael T / Xu, Chunyu / McKenzie, Jodi A / Zhang, Chunlei / Liang, Xiaoxuan / Williams, Leila J / Deng, Wanleng / Chen, Guo / Mbofung, Rina / Lazar, Alexander J / Torres-Cabala, Carlos A / Cooper, Zachary A / Chen, Pei-Ling / Tieu, Trang N / Spranger, Stefani / Yu, Xiaoxing / Bernatchez, Chantale / Forget, Marie-Andree / Haymaker, Cara / Amaria, Rodabe / McQuade, Jennifer L / Glitza, Isabella C / Cascone, Tina / Li, Haiyan S / Kwong, Lawrence N / Heffernan, Timothy P / Hu, Jianhua / Bassett, Roland L / Bosenberg, Marcus W / Woodman, Scott E / Overwijk, Willem W / Lizée, Gregory / Roszik, Jason / Gajewski, Thomas F / Wargo, Jennifer A / Gershenwald, Jeffrey E / Radvanyi, Laszlo / Davies, Michael A / Hwu, Patrick. ·Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Department of Translational Molecular Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Institute for Applied Cancer Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. · Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. phwu@mdanderson.org mdavies@mdanderson.org. ·Cancer Discov · Pubmed #26645196.

ABSTRACT: SIGNIFICANCE: This study adds to the growing evidence that oncogenic pathways in tumors can promote resistance to the antitumor immune response. As PTEN loss and PI3K-AKT pathway activation occur in multiple tumor types, the results support the rationale to further evaluate combinatorial strategies targeting the PI3K-AKT pathway to increase the efficacy of immunotherapy.

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