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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Dr. John Kirkwood
Based on 170 articles published since 2008

Between 2008 and 2019, J. Kirkwood wrote the following 170 articles about Melanoma.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7
51 Clinical Trial Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study. 2014

McArthur, Grant A / Chapman, Paul B / Robert, Caroline / Larkin, James / Haanen, John B / Dummer, Reinhard / Ribas, Antoni / Hogg, David / Hamid, Omid / Ascierto, Paolo A / Garbe, Claus / Testori, Alessandro / Maio, Michele / Lorigan, Paul / Lebbé, Celeste / Jouary, Thomas / Schadendorf, Dirk / O'Day, Stephen J / Kirkwood, John M / Eggermont, Alexander M / Dréno, Brigitte / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Flaherty, Keith T / Yin, Ming / Caro, Ivor / Cheng, Suzanne / Trunzer, Kerstin / Hauschild, Axel. ·Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: grant.mcarthur@petermac.org. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Institut Gustave Roussy, Paris, France. · Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK. · The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Princess Margaret Hospital and University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Pascale, Naples, Italy. · The University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. · Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy. · University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy. · University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · APHP Oncodermatology, Hôpital Saint Louis University, Paris, France. · Saint André Hospital, Bordeaux, France. · University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany. · Beverly Hills Cancer Center, Beverly Hills, CA, USA. · University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Gustave-Roussy Cancer Center and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif/Paris Sud, France. · Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France. · Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Genentech Inc, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Roche Molecular Systems Inc, Pleasanton, CA, USA. · F Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland. · University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #24508103.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the BRIM-3 trial, vemurafenib was associated with risk reduction versus dacarbazine of both death and progression in patients with advanced BRAF(V600) mutation-positive melanoma. We present an extended follow-up analysis of the total population and in the BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation subgroups. METHODS: Patients older than 18 years, with treatment-naive metastatic melanoma and whose tumour tissue was positive for BRAF(V600) mutations were eligible. Patients also had to have a life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, and adequate haematological, hepatic, and renal function. Patients were randomly assigned by interactive voice recognition system to receive either vemurafenib (960 mg orally twice daily) or dacarbazine (1000 mg/m(2) of body surface area intravenously every 3 weeks). Coprimary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival, analysed in the intention-to-treat population (n=675), with data censored at crossover. A sensitivity analysis was done. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01006980. FINDINGS: 675 eligible patients were enrolled from 104 centres in 12 countries between Jan 4, 2010, and Dec 16, 2010. 337 patients were randomly assigned to receive vemurafenib and 338 to receive dacarbazine. Median follow-up was 12·5 months (IQR 7·7-16·0) on vemurafenib and 9·5 months (3·1-14·7) on dacarbazine. 83 (25%) of the 338 patients initially randomly assigned to dacarbazine crossed over from dacarbazine to vemurafenib. Median overall survival was significantly longer in the vemurafenib group than in the dacarbazine group (13·6 months [95% CI 12·0-15·2] vs 9·7 months [7·9-12·8]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·70 [95% CI 0·57-0·87]; p=0·0008), as was median progression-free survival (6·9 months [95% CI 6·1-7·0] vs 1·6 months [1·6-2·1]; HR 0·38 [95% CI 0·32-0·46]; p<0·0001). For the 598 (91%) patients with BRAF(V600E) disease, median overall survival in the vemurafenib group was 13·3 months (95% CI 11·9-14·9) compared with 10·0 months (8·0-14·0) in the dacarbazine group (HR 0·75 [95% CI 0·60-0·93]; p=0·0085); median progression-free survival was 6·9 months (95% CI 6·2-7·0) and 1·6 months (1·6-2·1), respectively (HR 0·39 [95% CI 0·33-0·47]; p<0·0001). For the 57 (9%) patients with BRAF(V600K) disease, median overall survival in the vemurafenib group was 14·5 months (95% CI 11·2-not estimable) compared with 7·6 months (6·1-16·6) in the dacarbazine group (HR 0·43 [95% CI 0·21-0·90]; p=0·024); median progression-free survival was 5·9 months (95% CI 4·4-9·0) and 1·7 months (1·4-2·9), respectively (HR 0·30 [95% CI 0·16-0·56]; p<0·0001). The most frequent grade 3-4 events were cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma (65 [19%] of 337 patients) and keratoacanthomas (34 [10%]), rash (30 [9%]), and abnormal liver function tests (38 [11%]) in the vemurafenib group and neutropenia (26 [9%] of 287 patients) in the dacarbazine group. Eight (2%) patients in the vemurafenib group and seven (2%) in the dacarbazine group had grade 5 events. INTERPRETATION: Inhibition of BRAF with vemurafenib improves survival in patients with the most common BRAF(V600E) mutation and in patients with the less common BRAF(V600K) mutation. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche-Genentech.

52 Clinical Trial PD-1 and Tim-3 regulate the expansion of tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells induced by melanoma vaccines. 2014

Fourcade, Julien / Sun, Zhaojun / Pagliano, Ornella / Chauvin, Joe-Marc / Sander, Cindy / Janjic, Bratislav / Tarhini, Ahmad A / Tawbi, Hussein A / Kirkwood, John M / Moschos, Stergios / Wang, Hong / Guillaume, Philippe / Luescher, Immanuel F / Krieg, Arthur / Anderson, Ana C / Kuchroo, Vijay K / Zarour, Hassane M. ·Authors' Affiliations: Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine; Departments of Immunology and Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina; Pfizer, Cambridge; and Center for Neurologic Diseases, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; and Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Lausanne Branch, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland. ·Cancer Res · Pubmed #24343228.

ABSTRACT: Although melanoma vaccines stimulate tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells, objective clinical responses are rarely observed. To investigate this discrepancy, we evaluated the character of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells with regard to the inhibitory T-cell coreceptors PD-1 and Tim-3 in patients with metastatic melanoma who were administered tumor vaccines. The vaccines included incomplete Freund's adjuvant, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG), and the HLA-A2-restricted analog peptide NY-ESO-1 157-165V, either by itself or in combination with the pan-DR epitope NY-ESO-1 119-143. Both vaccines stimulated rapid tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses detected ex vivo, however, tumor antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells produced more IFN-γ and exhibited higher lytic function upon immunization with MHC class I and class II epitopes. Notably, the vast majority of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells upregulated PD-1 and a minority also upregulated Tim-3. Levels of PD-1 and Tim-3 expression by vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells at the time of vaccine administration correlated inversely with their expansion in vivo. Dual blockade of PD-1 and Tim-3 enhanced the expansion and cytokine production of vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Collectively, our findings support the use of PD-1 and Tim-3 blockades with cancer vaccines to stimulate potent antitumor T-cell responses and increase the likelihood of clinical responses in patients with advanced melanoma.

53 Clinical Trial ECOG phase II trial of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b in patients with metastatic melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (E2602). 2013

Go, Ronald S / Lee, Sandra J / Shin, Donghoon / Callister, Steven M / Jobe, Dean A / Conry, Robert M / Tarhini, Ahmad A / Kirkwood, John M. ·Authors' Affiliations: Gundersen Health System; Gundersen Medical Foundation, La Crosse, Wisconsin; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts; University of Alabama Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, Alabama; and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #24122792.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We investigated the use of graded-dose peginterferon α-2b (Peg-IFN) in patients with stage IV melanoma overexpressing basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2). The primary objective was suppression of plasma FGF-2 to within reference range (≤ 7.5 pg/mL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Plasma FGF-2 was measured at baseline (step 1), and patients with concentrations of 15 pg/mL or more were eligible for study treatment (step 2). Peg-IFN was given weekly at a starting dose of 0.5 μg/kg/wk with increment every 3 weeks based on serial FGF-2 concentrations. RESULTS: Two hundred seven patients entered step 1; 45 (22%) overexpressed FGF-2 (median = 22 pg/dL). Twenty-nine eligible patients entered step 2 and received treatment. Patients' median age was 64 years (range, 29-84 years). Most had more than two prior therapies. FGF-2 decreased in 28 (97%) patients, with suppression to reference range in 10 (35%). Median time to FGF-2 suppression was 30 days. The best clinical responses were partial response (7%) and stable disease (17%). Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 2.0 and 9.7 months, respectively. Patients who achieved FGF-2 suppression were more likely than those who did not to have a response or stable disease (P = 0.03). VEGF concentrations decreased in 27 patients (93%) during treatment and paralleled those of FGF-2 over time. We found no compensatory increase in VEGF among those with FGF-2 suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Graded-dose Peg-IFN suppresses FGF-2 in patients with metastatic melanoma who overexpress FGF-2. Over one third of patients had complete suppression of plasma FGF-2, which correlated with clinical response to this therapy.

54 Clinical Trial A randomized phase II trial of multiepitope vaccination with melanoma peptides for cytotoxic T cells and helper T cells for patients with metastatic melanoma (E1602). 2013

Slingluff, Craig L / Lee, Sandra / Zhao, Fengmin / Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A / Olson, Walter C / Butterfield, Lisa H / Whiteside, Theresa L / Leming, Philip D / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Surgery, Human Immune Therapy Center, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. cls8h@virginia.edu ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #23653149.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This multicenter randomized trial was designed to evaluate whether melanoma helper peptides augment cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to a melanoma vaccine and improve clinical outcome in patients with advanced melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: One hundred seventy-five patients with measurable stage IV melanoma were enrolled into 4 treatment groups, vaccinated with 12 MHC class I-restricted melanoma peptides to stimulate CTL (12 MP, group A), plus a tetanus peptide (group B), or a mixture of 6 melanoma helper peptides (6 MHP, group C) to stimulate helper T lymphocytes (HTL), or with 6 melanoma helper peptide (6 MHP) alone (group D), in incomplete Freund's adjuvant plus granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. CTL responses were assessed using an in vitro-stimulated IFN-γ ELIspot assay, and HTL responses were assessed using a proliferation assay. RESULTS: In groups A to D, respectively, CTL response rates to 12 melanoma peptides were 43%, 47%, 28%, and 5%, and HTL response rates to 6 MHP were in 3%, 0%, 40%, and 41%. Best clinical response was partial response in 7 of 148 evaluable patients (4.7%) without significant difference among study arms. Median overall survival (OS) was 11.8 months. Immune response to 6 MHP was significantly associated with both clinical response (P = 0.036) and OS (P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Each vaccine regimen was immunogenic, but MHPs did not augment CTL responses to 12 melanoma peptides. The association of survival and immune response to 6 MHP supports further investigation of helper peptide vaccines. For patients with advanced melanoma, multipeptide vaccines should be studied in combination with other potentially synergistic active therapies.

55 Clinical Trial Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standard-of-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma. 2013

Ribas, Antoni / Kefford, Richard / Marshall, Margaret A / Punt, Cornelis J A / Haanen, John B / Marmol, Maribel / Garbe, Claus / Gogas, Helen / Schachter, Jacob / Linette, Gerald / Lorigan, Paul / Kendra, Kari L / Maio, Michele / Trefzer, Uwe / Smylie, Michael / McArthur, Grant A / Dreno, Brigitte / Nathan, Paul D / Mackiewicz, Jacek / Kirkwood, John M / Gomez-Navarro, Jesus / Huang, Bo / Pavlov, Dmitri / Hauschild, Axel. ·Division of Hematology-Oncology, 11-934 Factor Building, UCLA Medical Center, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1782, USA. aribas@mednet.ucla.edu ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23295794.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: In phase I/II trials, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab induced durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase III study evaluated overall survival (OS) and other safety and efficacy end points in patients with advanced melanoma treated with tremelimumab or standard-of-care chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with treatment-naive, unresectable stage IIIc or IV melanoma were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to tremelimumab (15 mg/kg once every 90 days) or physician's choice of standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide or dacarbazine). RESULTS: In all, 655 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The test statistic crossed the prespecified futility boundary at second interim analysis after 340 deaths, but survival follow-up continued. At final analysis with 534 events, median OS by intent to treat was 12.6 months (95% CI, 10.8 to 14.3) for tremelimumab and 10.7 months (95% CI, 9.36 to 11.96) for chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.88; P = .127). Objective response rates were similar in the two arms: 10.7% in the tremelimumab arm and 9.8% in the chemotherapy arm. However, response duration (measured from date of random assignment) was significantly longer after tremelimumab (35.8 v 13.7 months; P = .0011). Diarrhea, pruritus, and rash were the most common treatment-related adverse events in the tremelimumab arm; 7.4% had endocrine toxicities. Seven deaths in the tremelimumab arm and one in the chemotherapy arm were considered treatment related by either investigators or sponsor. CONCLUSION: This study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage of treatment with tremelimumab over standard-of-care chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.

56 Clinical Trial Phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with or without sorafenib in metastatic melanoma. 2013

Flaherty, Keith T / Lee, Sandra J / Zhao, Fengmin / Schuchter, Lynn M / Flaherty, Lawrence / Kefford, Richard / Atkins, Michael B / Leming, Philip / Kirkwood, John M. ·Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit St, Yawkey 9E, Boston, MA 02114, USA. kflaherty@partners.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23248256.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether carboplatin, paclitaxel, and sorafenib (CPS) improve overall survival (OS) compared with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) in chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III study, all patients received carboplatin at area under the [concentration-time] curve 6 and paclitaxel 225 mg/m(2) intravenously once every 21 days with random assignment to sorafenib 400 mg orally twice per day on days 2 through 19 every 21 days or placebo. The primary end point was OS, and secondary end points included progression-free survival, objective tumor response, and toxicity. RESULTS: In all, 823 patients were enrolled over 34 months. At final analysis, the median OS was 11.3 months (95% CI, 9.8 to 12.2 months) for CP and 11.1 months (95% CI, 10.3 to 12.3 months) for CPS; the difference in the OS distribution was not statistically significant by the stratified log-rank test, stratified on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and prior therapy (P = .878). Median progression-free survival was 4.9 months for CPS and 4.2 months for CP (P = .092, stratified log-rank test). Response rate was 20% for CPS and 18% for CP (P = .427). More patients on the CPS arm had grade 3 or higher toxicities (84% v 78%; P = .027), with increased rash, hand-foot syndrome, and thrombocytopenia accounting for most of the difference. CONCLUSION: Sorafenib does not improve OS when given in combination with CP for chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic melanoma. This study establishes benchmark end points for the CP regimen in first-line therapy of metastatic melanoma.

57 Clinical Trial Safety and efficacy of decitabine in combination with temozolomide in metastatic melanoma: a phase I/II study and pharmacokinetic analysis. 2013

Tawbi, H A / Beumer, J H / Tarhini, A A / Moschos, S / Buch, S C / Egorin, M J / Lin, Y / Christner, S / Kirkwood, J M. ·Department of Medicine/Division of Hematology/Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh 15232, USA. tawbih@upmc.edu ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #23172636.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for chemotherapy of metastatic melanoma. We hypothesized that epigenetic modulators will reverse chemotherapy resistance, and in this article, we report studies that sought to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), safety, and efficacy of decitabine (DAC) combined with TMZ. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In phase I, DAC was given at two dose levels: 0.075 and 0.15 mg/kg intravenously daily × 5 days/week for 2 weeks, TMZ orally 75 mg/m(2) qd for weeks 2-5 of a 6-week cycle. The phase II portion used a two-stage Simon design with a primary end point of objective response rate (ORR). RESULTS: The RP2D is DAC 0.15 mg/kg and TMZ 75 mg/m(2). The phase II portion enrolled 35 patients, 88% had M1c disease; 42% had history of brain metastases. The best responses were 2 complete response (CR), 4 partial response (PR), 14 stable disease (SD), and 13 progressive disease (PD); 18% ORR and 61% clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD). The median overall survival (OS) was 12.4 months; the 1-year OS rate was 56%. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was common but lasted >7 days in six patients. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of DAC and TMZ is safe, leads to 18% ORR and 12.4-month median OS, suggesting possible superiority over the historical 1-year OS rate, and warrants further evaluation in a randomized setting.

58 Clinical Trial Dabrafenib in patients with Val600Glu or Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma metastatic to the brain (BREAK-MB): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial. 2012

Long, Georgina V / Trefzer, Uwe / Davies, Michael A / Kefford, Richard F / Ascierto, Paolo A / Chapman, Paul B / Puzanov, Igor / Hauschild, Axel / Robert, Caroline / Algazi, Alain / Mortier, Laurent / Tawbi, Hussein / Wilhelm, Tabea / Zimmer, Lisa / Switzky, Julie / Swann, Suzanne / Martin, Anne-Marie / Guckert, Mary / Goodman, Vicki / Streit, Michael / Kirkwood, John M / Schadendorf, Dirk. ·Melanoma Institute Australia, Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, and Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. georgina.long@sydney.edu.au ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #23051966.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are common in patients with metastatic melanoma and median overall survival from their diagnosis is typically 17-22 weeks. We assessed dabrafenib in patients with Val600Glu or Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma metastatic to the brain. METHODS: We undertook a multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial in 24 centres in six countries. We enrolled patients with histologically confirmed Val600Glu or Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma and at least one asymptomatic brain metastasis (≥5 mm and ≤40 mm in diameter). Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and had adequate organ function. Patients were split into two cohorts: those in cohort A had not received previous local treatment for brain metastases and those in cohort B had progressive brain metastases after previous local treatments. Patients received 150 mg oral dabrafenib twice a day until disease progression, death, or unacceptable adverse events. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with Val600Glu BRAF-mutant melanoma who achieved an overall intracranial response, which was defined as a complete response or partial response assessed with a modified form of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1). We included patients who received at least one dose of dabrafenib in efficacy and safety analyses. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01266967. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2, 2011, and Aug 5, 2011, we enrolled 172 patients: 89 (52%) in cohort A and 83 (48%) in cohort B. 139 (81%) had Val600Glu BRAF-mutant melanoma. 29 (39·2%, 95% CI 28·0-51·2) of 74 patients with Val600Glu BRAF-mutant melanoma in cohort A achieved an overall intracranial response, as did 20 (30·8%, 19·9-43·4) of 65 in cohort B. One (6·7%, 0·2-31·9) of 15 patients with Val600Lys BRAF-mutant melanoma achieved an overall intracranial response in cohort A, as did four (22·2%, 6·4-47·6) of 18 such patients in cohort B. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 38 (22%) patients. Eleven (6%) patients developed squamous-cell carcinoma (five [6%] patients in cohort A, of whom one also had keratoacanthoma; six [7%] in cohort B). Four grade 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in cohort A: one blood amylase increase, one convulsion, one lipase increase, and one neutropenia. Two grade 4 events occurred in cohort B: one agranulocytosis and one intracranial haemorrhage. 51 (30%) patients had a serious adverse event. The three most frequent serious adverse events were pyrexia (ten [6%] patients), intracranial haemorrhage (ten [6%]; one treatment-related), and squamous-cell carcinoma (11 [6%]). INTERPRETATION: Dabrafenib has activity and an acceptable safety profile in patients with Val600Glu BRAF-mutant melanoma and brain metastases irrespective of whether they are untreated or have been previously treated but have progressed. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline.

59 Clinical Trial Safety and immunogenicity of vaccination with MART-1 (26-35, 27L), gp100 (209-217, 210M), and tyrosinase (368-376, 370D) in adjuvant with PF-3512676 and GM-CSF in metastatic melanoma. 2012

Tarhini, Ahmad A / Leng, Siyang / Moschos, Stergios J / Yin, Yan / Sander, Cindy / Lin, Yan / Gooding, William E / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA. tarhiniaa@upmc.edu ·J Immunother · Pubmed #22495394.

ABSTRACT: The effectivenes of cancer vaccines in inducing CD8(+) T-cell responses remains a challenge, resulting in a need for testing more potent adjuvants. Our objective was to determine the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination against melanoma-related antigens employing MART-1, gp100, and tysosinase paptides combined with the TLR9 agonist PF-3512676 and local granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in oil emulsion. Using continuous monitoring of safety and a 2-stage design for immunologic efficacy, 20 immune response evaluable patients were targetted. Vaccinations were given subcutaneously on days 1 and 15 per cycle (1cycle=28 d) for up to 13 cycles. Interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot was used as the primary assay measuring the frequency of peripheral antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells at days 50 and 90 compared with baseline (target ≥ 9/20 immunologic responses). Clinical responses were measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors every 8 weeks. Twenty-two (including 20 immune response evaluable) melanoma patients were enrolled. All had American Joint Committe on Cancer stage IV (5M1a, 6M1b, 11M1c) and most had previously received therapy. Eight had previously treated brain metastases. An average of 3.5 cycles of vaccination per patient was administered. Clinical response data were available for 21 patients. There were 2 partial response and 8 stable disease lasting 2-7 months. One patient with ongoing partial response continued on treatment. At a median follow-up of 7.39 months (range, 3.22-20.47 mo), median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (90% confidence interval, 1.84-3.68) and median overall survival was 13.4 months (90% confidence interval,11.3-∞). No regimen-related grade 3/4/5 toxicities were observed. There were 9/20 patients with positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot at day 50 and/or day 90. Our adjuvant regimen combining PF-3512676 and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor was safe and is worthy of further testing with these or alternative peptides, potentially in combination with antibodies that target immunoregulatory checkpoints.

60 Clinical Trial Randomized phase II trial of sorafenib with temsirolimus or tipifarnib in untreated metastatic melanoma (S0438). 2012

Margolin, Kim A / Moon, James / Flaherty, Lawrence E / Lao, Christopher D / Akerley, Wallace L / Othus, Megan / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Kirkwood, John M / Sondak, Vernon K. ·University of Washington, SWOG Statistical Center, Seattle, WA98109., USA. kmargoli@seattlecca.org ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #22228638.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Signaling pathway stimulation by activating mutations of oncogenes occurs in most melanomas and can provide excellent targets for therapy, but the short-term therapeutic success is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathways are activated in most cutaneous melanomas. The purpose of this trial was to prospectively evaluate 2 molecularly targeted drug combinations in patients with untreated metastatic melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This randomized phase II study enrolled patients between May 2008 and November 2009 with nonocular melanoma, no prior systemic chemotherapy, and no history of brain metastasis. Arm A received oral sorafenib 200 mg twice daily plus i.v. temsirolimus 25 mg weekly; and arm B received oral sorafenib 400 mg every morning, 200 mg every night daily plus oral tipifarnib 100 mg twice daily, 3 weeks of every 4. The primary objectives were to evaluate progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate, and toxicity for the 2 regimens. RESULTS: On arm A (63 evaluable patients), the median PFS was 2.1 months and median overall survival (OS) was 7 months. Three patients achieved partial response (PR). Thirty-nine evaluable patients were accrued to arm B, which closed after first-stage accrual; the median PFS was 1.8 months and OS was 7 months, with 1 patient achieving PR. CONCLUSIONS: The combinations of molecularly targeted agents tested did not show sufficient activity to justify further use. Newer agents and improved patient selection by characterization of the molecular targets in individual tumors show great promise and should be incorporated into future studies, along with appropriate laboratory correlates.

61 Clinical Trial Safety and efficacy of combination immunotherapy with interferon alfa-2b and tremelimumab in patients with stage IV melanoma. 2012

Tarhini, Ahmad A / Cherian, John / Moschos, Stergios J / Tawbi, Hussein A / Shuai, Yongli / Gooding, William E / Sander, Cindy / Kirkwood, John M. ·University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Cancer Pavilion, 5150 Centre Ave, Fifth Fl, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA. tarhiniaa@upmc.edu ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #22184371.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that the combination of tremelimumab and interferon alfa-2b acting via different and possibly synergistic mechanisms would overcome tumor immune tolerance and lead to significant and durable clinical responses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase II study in which patients were administered tremelimumab 15 mg/kg/course (three cycles [one cycle = 4 weeks]) intravenously every 12 weeks. High-dose interferon alfa-2b (HDI) was administered concurrently, including intravenous induction at 20 MU/m2/d for 5 d/wk for 4 weeks followed by maintenance at 10 MU/m2/d subcutaneously three times a week for 8 weeks per course. From course 2 onward, HDI maintenance was administered subcutaneously. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV (9M1a, 6M1b, and 22M1c) were enrolled. Two patients had previously treated brain metastases. Grades 3 and 4 toxicities included neutropenia (six patients; 17%), diarrhea/colitis (four patients; 11%), liver enzyme increase (four patients; 11%), rash (four patients; 11%), fatigue (15 patients; 40%), and anxiety/depression (five patients; 14%). Response data were available for 35 patients. The best objective response rate (RR; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) by intention to treat was 24% (90% CI, 13% to 36%; four complete responses [CRs] and five partial responses [PRs] that lasted 6, 6, > 12, > 14, > 18, 20, > 28, 30, and > 37 months, respectively). Fourteen patients (38%) had stable disease (SD) that lasted 1.5 to 21 months. The median progression-free survival was 6.4 months (95% CI, 3.3 to 12.1 months). The median overall survival (OS) was 21 months (95% CI, 9.5 to not reached). There was a weak association between therapy-induced autoimmunity and clinical benefits (CR/PR/SD; P = .0059), baseline C-reactive protein (CRP) less than or equal to 2.7× the upper limit of normal and clinical benefits (P = .0494) and improved probability of survival (P = .0032), and baseline lymphocyte count of at least 1,000/μL and response (CR/PR; P = .0183) and clinical benefits (CR/PR/SD; P = .0255). Biomarker associations were not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: HDI can be administered combined with tremelimumab with acceptable toxicity and promising durable antitumor efficacy that warrant further testing in a randomized trial.

62 Clinical Trial Phase II, open-label, randomized trial of the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib as monotherapy versus temozolomide in patients with advanced melanoma. 2012

Kirkwood, John M / Bastholt, Lars / Robert, Caroline / Sosman, Jeff / Larkin, James / Hersey, Peter / Middleton, Mark / Cantarini, Mireille / Zazulina, Victoria / Kemsley, Karin / Dummer, Reinhard. ·Departments of Medicine and Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. KirkwoodJM@upmc.edu ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #22048237.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP)/extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor selumetinib versus temozolomide in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This phase II, open-label, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group study examined the effect of 100 mg oral selumetinib twice daily in 28-day cycles versus oral temozolomide (200 mg/m(2)/d for 5 days, then 23 days off-treatment). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were randomized. Progression-free survival did not differ significantly between selumetinib and temozolomide (median time to event 78 and 80 days, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.07; 80% confidence interval, 0.86-1.32). Objective response was observed in six (5.8%) patients receiving selumetinib and nine (9.4%) patients in the temozolomide group. Among patients with BRAF mutations, objective responses were similar between selumetinib and temozolomide groups (11.1% and 10.7%, respectively). However, five of the six selumetinib partial responders were BRAF mutated. Frequently reported adverse events with selumetinib were dermatitis acneiform (papular pustular rash; 59.6%), diarrhea (56.6%), nausea (50.5%), and peripheral edema (40.4%), whereas nausea (64.2%), constipation (47.4%), and vomiting (44.2%) were reported with temozolomide. CONCLUSIONS: No significant difference in progression-free survival was observed between patients with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma unselected for BRAF/NRAS mutations, who received therapy with selumetinib or temozolomide. Five of six patients with partial response to selumetinib had BRAF mutant tumors.

63 Clinical Trial Function but not phenotype of melanoma peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells correlate with survival in a multiepitope peptide vaccine trial (ECOG 1696). 2012

Schaefer, Carsten / Butterfield, Lisa H / Lee, Sandra / Kim, Grace G / Visus, Carmen / Albers, Andreas / Kirkwood, John M / Whiteside, Theresa L. ·Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·Int J Cancer · Pubmed #22021080.

ABSTRACT: ECOG 1696 was a Phase II multi-center trial testing vaccination with melanoma peptides, gp100, MART-1 and tyrosinase delivered alone, with GM-CSF, IFN-α2b or both cytokines to HLA-A2(+) patients with metastatic melanoma. Here, the frequency of circulating CD8(+) tetramer(+) (tet(+) ) T cells and maturation stages of responding T cells were serially monitored and compared with baseline values in a subset of patients (n = 37) from this trial. Multiparameter flow cytometry was used to measure the frequency of CD8(+) T cells specific for gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase and influenza (FLU) peptides. Expression of CD45RA/CCR7 on CD8(+) tet(+) T cells and CD25, CD27, CD28 on all circulating T cells was determined. Vaccine-induced changes in the CD8(+) tet(+) T cell frequency and phenotype were compared with results of IFN-γ ELISPOT assays and with clinical responses. The frequency of CD8(+) tet(+) T cells in the circulation was increased for the melanoma peptides (p < 0.03-0.0001) but not for FLU (p < 0.9). Only gp100- and MART-1-specific T cells differentiated to CD45RA(+) CCR7(-) effector/memory T cells. In contrast to the IFN-γ ELISPOT frequency, previously correlated with overall survival (Kirkwood et al., Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:1443-51), neither the frequency nor differentiation stage of CD8(+) tet(+) T cells correlated with clinical responses. Delivery of GM-CSF and/or IFN-α2b had no effects on the frequency or differentiation of CD8(+) tet(+) , CD8+ or CD4+ T cells. Phenotypic analyses of CD8(+) tet(+) T cells did not correlate with clinical responses to the vaccine, indicating that functional assessments of peptide-specific T cells are preferable for monitoring of anti-tumor vaccines.

64 Clinical Trial Phase I/II and pharmacodynamic study of dovitinib (TKI258), an inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors and VEGF receptors, in patients with advanced melanoma. 2011

Kim, Kevin B / Chesney, Jason / Robinson, Douglas / Gardner, Humphrey / Shi, Michael M / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #21976540.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Dovitinib (TKI258) is an orally available inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), VEGF, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. This phase I/II dose-escalation study was conducted to evaluate the safety, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary efficacy of dovitinib in the treatment of advanced melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced melanoma resistant or refractory to standard therapies or for whom no standard therapy was available were enrolled. Dovitinib was administered at doses ranging from 200 to 500 mg/d. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were enrolled. The most frequently reported adverse events were fatigue (77%; grade ≥3, 28%), diarrhea (77%; grade ≥3, 11%), and nausea (77%; grade ≥3, 9%). Six dose-limiting toxicities were observed in the 400-mg and 500-mg dose cohorts, which consisted of grade 3 nausea, fatigue, and diarrhea and grade 4 fatigue events. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg/d. The best tumor response was stable disease, which was observed in 12 patients. Increases in plasma FGF23, VEGF, and placental growth factor and decreases in soluble VEGF receptor 2 were noted during the first cycle of treatment, consistent with FGF receptor (FGFR) and VEGF receptor (VEGFR) inhibition. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI analysis showed a dose-dependent decrease in tumor blood flow and vascular permeability with dovitinib therapy. A decrease in FGFR phosphorylation was observed in paired tumor biopsy samples from a patient treated with dovitinib at a dose of 400 mg/d. CONCLUSIONS: At a dose of 400 mg/d, dovitinib showed an acceptable safety profile and limited clinical benefit and inhibited FGFR and VEGFR.

65 Clinical Trial Aflibercept (VEGF Trap) in inoperable stage III or stage iv melanoma of cutaneous or uveal origin. 2011

Tarhini, Ahmad A / Frankel, Paul / Margolin, Kim A / Christensen, Scott / Ruel, Christopher / Shipe-Spotloe, Janice / Gandara, David R / Chen, Alice / Kirkwood, John M. ·University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. tarhiniaa@upmc.edu ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #21880788.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Aflibercept is a soluble decoy VEGF receptor and angiogenesis inhibitor with potent preclinical antitumor activity in melanoma. We conducted a multicenter phase II study in patients with inoperable stage III or IV melanoma and no prior chemotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A two-stage design was adopted to evaluate 4-month progression-free survival rate (PFSR) and response rate. Aflibercept was given at 4 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. Response was assessed every 8 weeks. First-stage accrual of 21 patients was specified and with an adequate 4-month PFSR accrual continued to a total of 41. RESULTS: Forty-one patients of ages 23 to 84 (median = 57) were enrolled. Thirty-nine had American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV (5 M1a, 7 M1b, and 27 M1c) and 2 had inoperable stage IIIC (N3). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status was 0 (27 patients) or 1 (14 patients). Ten patients had primary uveal melanoma, 28 cutaneous, and 3 had unknown primaries. A median of 7 cycles were initiated (range: 1-56). Grade 3 and 4 toxicities included hypertension in 9 patients (22%) and proteinuria in 6 (15%). Among 40 patients evaluable for efficacy (those who initiated aflibercept), 3 (7.5%) had a confirmed partial response and 20 had progression-free survival of 4 months or above. The predicted 1-year survival rate derived from the Korn meta-analysis model is 36% (N = 39), whereas we observed a corresponding 56.4% survival rate at 1 year (95% CI, 43-74, P < 0.005). Median overall survival in this trial is 16.3 months (95% CI, 9.2 to not reached). We observed a significant association between severity of hypertension following aflibercept and survival improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Aflibercept showed promising activity in patients with metastatic melanoma of cutaneous or uveal origin. Further evaluation of aflibercept as a single agent and in combination is warranted.

66 Clinical Trial Inhibition of DNA repair with MGMT pseudosubstrates: phase I study of lomeguatrib in combination with dacarbazine in patients with advanced melanoma and other solid tumours. 2011

Tawbi, H A / Villaruz, L / Tarhini, A / Moschos, S / Sulecki, M / Viverette, F / Shipe-Spotloe, J / Radkowski, R / Kirkwood, J M. ·Melanoma and Skin Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. tawbih@upmc.edu ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #21811257.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) reverses the O6-methylguanine (O6-meG) lesion induced by dacarbazine. Depletion of MGMT can be achieved using O6-meG pseudosubstrates. Herein, we report the first phase I experience of the novel O6-meG pseudosubstrate lomeguatrib, combined with dacarbazine. METHODS: This is a phase I dose-escalation study to determine the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of lomeguatrib combined with a single dose of dacarbazine on a 21-day schedule. RESULTS: The vast majority of the 41 patients enrolled had metastatic melanoma (36/41) and most had no previous chemotherapy (30/41). The most frequent non-hematological adverse events (AEs) were nausea (52%), and fatigue (42%). The most frequent AEs of grade 3-4 severity were neutropaenia (42%), leukopaenia (17%), and thrombocytopaenia (12%). Only 1 patient had a partial response and 10 patients had stable disease. CONCLUSION: The RP2D of lomeguatrib was 40 mg orally twice daily for 10 days combined with 400 mg m(-2) of dacarbazine IV on day 2. Oral administration of lomeguatrib substantially increases the haematological toxicity of dacarbazine consistent with experience with other O6-meG pseudosubstrates.

67 Clinical Trial Improved survival with vemurafenib in melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation. 2011

Chapman, Paul B / Hauschild, Axel / Robert, Caroline / Haanen, John B / Ascierto, Paolo / Larkin, James / Dummer, Reinhard / Garbe, Claus / Testori, Alessandro / Maio, Michele / Hogg, David / Lorigan, Paul / Lebbe, Celeste / Jouary, Thomas / Schadendorf, Dirk / Ribas, Antoni / O'Day, Steven J / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Kirkwood, John M / Eggermont, Alexander M M / Dreno, Brigitte / Nolop, Keith / Li, Jiang / Nelson, Betty / Hou, Jeannie / Lee, Richard J / Flaherty, Keith T / McArthur, Grant A / Anonymous4380696. ·Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. chapmanp@mskcc.org ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #21639808.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Phase 1 and 2 clinical trials of the BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib (PLX4032) have shown response rates of more than 50% in patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3 randomized clinical trial comparing vemurafenib with dacarbazine in 675 patients with previously untreated, metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either vemurafenib (960 mg orally twice daily) or dacarbazine (1000 mg per square meter of body-surface area intravenously every 3 weeks). Coprimary end points were rates of overall and progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the response rate, response duration, and safety. A final analysis was planned after 196 deaths and an interim analysis after 98 deaths. RESULTS: At 6 months, overall survival was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 78 to 89) in the vemurafenib group and 64% (95% CI, 56 to 73) in the dacarbazine group. In the interim analysis for overall survival and final analysis for progression-free survival, vemurafenib was associated with a relative reduction of 63% in the risk of death and of 74% in the risk of either death or disease progression, as compared with dacarbazine (P<0.001 for both comparisons). After review of the interim analysis by an independent data and safety monitoring board, crossover from dacarbazine to vemurafenib was recommended. Response rates were 48% for vemurafenib and 5% for dacarbazine. Common adverse events associated with vemurafenib were arthralgia, rash, fatigue, alopecia, keratoacanthoma or squamous-cell carcinoma, photosensitivity, nausea, and diarrhea; 38% of patients required dose modification because of toxic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Vemurafenib produced improved rates of overall and progression-free survival in patients with previously untreated melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. (Funded by Hoffmann-La Roche; BRIM-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01006980.).

68 Clinical Trial A phase 2 study of tasisulam sodium (LY573636 sodium) as second-line treatment for patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma. 2011

Kirkwood, John M / Gonzalez, Rene / Reintgen, Douglas / Clingan, Philip R / McWilliams, Robert R / de Alwis, Dinesh P / Zimmermann, Annamaria / Brown, Michael P / Ilaria, Robert L / Millward, Michael J. ·Melanoma and Skin Cancer Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pennsylvania, USA. kirkwoodjm@pmc.edu ·Cancer · Pubmed #21456002.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tasisulam sodium (hereafter, tasisulam) is a novel anticancer agent that induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway and has antiangiogenic activity in preclinical models. Tasisulam demonstrated activity across a broad range of tumors, including melanoma. The primary objective of this phase 2 study was to determine the objective response rate (ORR) in patients who had received 1 previous systemic chemotherapy for unresectable/metastatic melanoma; secondary objectives were to evaluate the clinical response rate (CRR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), duration of response, safety, and pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Tasisulam was administered intravenously on Day 1 of 21-day cycles according to a lean body weight-based dosing algorithm targeting a peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of 420 μg/mL. RESULTS: In 68 enrolled patients, the median age was 59 years (range, 26-83 years). No patients had a complete response (CR), 8 patients had a partial response (PR), and 24 patients had stable disease (SD); the ORR (CR + PR) was 11.8%, and the CRR (CR + PR + SD) was 47.1%. The median PFS was 2.6 months, and the median OS was 9.6 months. The predominant treatment-related grade 3/4 toxicity was thrombocytopenia (20.6% of patients). Tasisulam exhibited a biexponential disposition with a predicted distribution half-life of 0.3 hours to 2.8 hours and a median terminal elimination half-life of 10 days (consistent with the turnover of albumin), suggesting that tasisulam is very tightly bound to albumin. CONCLUSIONS: Tasisulam administered at a targeted C(max) of 420 μg/mL on Day 1 of 21-day cycles demonstrated activity and tolerable toxicity as second-line treatment in malignant melanoma. These results led to a registration trial in metastatic melanoma.

69 Clinical Trial A multi-center phase II evaluation of the small molecule survivin suppressor YM155 in patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. 2011

Lewis, Karl D / Samlowski, Wolfram / Ward, John / Catlett, Joseph / Cranmer, Lee / Kirkwood, John / Lawson, David / Whitman, Eric / Gonzalez, Rene. ·University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO, USA. karl.lewis@ucdenver.edu ·Invest New Drugs · Pubmed #19830389.

ABSTRACT: METHODS: This was an open-label, multi-center, study of YM155 monotherapy in subjects with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Thirty-four chemotherapy naïve subjects were treated with YM155 at a dose of 4.8 mg/m(2)/day administered by continuous infusion for 168-hours (7 days) followed by a 14-day rest period, for up to 6 cycles or until disease progression. RESULTS: One subject had a partial response to treatment seen at cycle two and lasting through cycle eight. Median progression-free survival was 1.3 months (95% CI; 1.3-2.7). Median overall survival was 9.9 months (95% CI; 7.0-14.5). Overall, YM155 was well tolerated with the most common (>20%) adverse events reported as fatigue, nausea, pyrexia, headache, arthralgia and back pain. Only four subjects required dose reductions. CONCLUSIONS: YM155 was well tolerated in subjects with advanced melanoma; however, the pre-specified primary end-point for efficacy which required two responders in 29 evaluable subjects was not achieved.

70 Clinical Trial Regulatory T cell frequency in patients with melanoma with different disease stage and course, and modulating effects of high-dose interferon-alpha 2b treatment. 2010

Ascierto, Paolo A / Napolitano, Maria / Celentano, Egidio / Simeone, Ester / Gentilcore, Giusy / Daponte, Antonio / Capone, Mariaelena / Caracò, Corrado / Calemma, Rosa / Beneduce, Gerardo / Cerrone, Margherita / De Rosa, Vincenzo / Palmieri, Giuseppe / Castello, Giuseppe / Kirkwood, John M / Marincola, Francesco M / Mozzillo, Nicola. ·Unit of Medical Oncology and Innovative Therapy and Melanoma Cooperative Group, National Tumor Institute, Naples, Italy. paolo.ascierto@gmail.com ·J Transl Med · Pubmed #20712892.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: High-dose interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha 2b) is the only approved systemic therapy in the United States for the adjuvant treatment of melanoma. The study objective was to explore the immunomodulatory mechanism of action for IFN-alpha 2b by measuring serum regulatory T cell (Treg), serum transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), interleukin (IL)-10, and autoantibody levels in patients with melanoma treated with the induction phase of the high-dose IFN-alpha 2b regimen. METHODS: Patients with melanoma received IFN-alpha 2b administered intravenously (20 MU/m2 each day from day 1 to day 5 for 4 consecutive weeks). Serum Treg levels were measured as whole lymphocytes in CD4+ cells using flow cytometry while TGF-beta, IL-10, and autoantibody levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with melanoma received IFN-alpha 2b treatment and were evaluated for Treg levels. Before treatment, Treg levels were significantly higher in patients with melanoma when compared with data from 20 healthy subjects (P = 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Although a trend for reduction of Treg levels following IFN-α 2b treatment was observed (average decrease 0.29% per week), statistical significance was not achieved. Subgroup analyses indicated higher baseline Treg levels for stage III versus IV disease (P = 0.082), early recurrence versus no recurrence (P = 0.017), deceased versus surviving patients (P = 0.021), and preoperative neoadjuvant versus postoperative adjuvant treatment groups (not significant). No significant effects were observed on the levels of TGF-beta, IL-10, and autoantibodies in patients with melanoma treated with IFN-alpha 2b. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with melanoma in this study showed increased basal levels of Treg that may be relevant to their disease and its progression. Treg levels shifted in patients with melanoma treated with IFN-alpha 2b, although no firm conclusions regarding the role of Tregs as a marker of treatment response or outcome can be made at present.

71 Clinical Trial Immunogenicity for CD8+ and CD4+ T cells of 2 formulations of an incomplete freund's adjuvant for multipeptide melanoma vaccines. 2010

Slingluff, Craig L / Petroni, Gina R / Smolkin, Mark E / Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A / Smith, Kelly / Murphy, Cheryl / Galeassi, Nadedja / Neese, Patrice Y / Grosh, William W / Nail, Carmel J / Ross, Merrick / von Mehren, Margaret / Haas, Naomi / Boisvert, Marc E / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Surgery/Division of Surgical Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. cls8h@virginia.edu ·J Immunother · Pubmed #20551833.

ABSTRACT: An incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) commonly used in experimental cancer vaccines has recently been reformulated. Oleic acid used in the surfactant was purified from a vegetable source (olives, IFA-VG) rather than an animal source (beef tallow, IFA-AN). To provide an insight into the adjuvant properties of the new formulation, we reviewed T-cell responses, by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, to multipeptide vaccines in 2 sequential clinical trials that spanned this transition of adjuvants. Analyses included 194 patients who received either IFA-AN or IFA-VG for all vaccines, and a subset of 93 patients best matched by study arm for vaccine antigens (12 melanoma peptides restricted by major histocompatibility complex class I, 12MP; plus a tetanus helper peptide, tet) administered with IFA but without granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Inflammation was observed at vaccine sites clinically for almost all patients, even including ulceration in a subset with each IFA formulation. CD8 T-cell response rates to the 12 melanoma peptides were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI), 44%, 61%)] for IFA-AN and 46% [95% CI, 32%, 59%)] for IFA-VG. In the 93 patient subset, these rates were 73% [95% CI, 61%, 83%)] and 70% [95% CI, 47%, 87%)], respectively. CD4 T-cell responses to tetanus helper peptide were identified in 94% [95% CI, 86%, 98%)] and 96% [95% CI, 78%, 100%)], respectively. Responses to individual human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A1, A2, and DR associated peptides were largely preserved, but reactivity trended lower for some HLA-A3 associated peptides. Despite the necessarily retrospective nature of the analysis and limitations of multiple comparisons, our summary data support the use of IFA-VG as an adjuvant with multipeptide vaccines in melanoma patients.

72 Clinical Trial Pharmacodynamic (phase 0) study using etaracizumab in advanced melanoma. 2010

Moschos, Stergios J / Sander, Cindy A / Wang, Wenjun / Reppert, Shelley L / Drogowski, Laura M / Jukic, Drazen M / Rao, Uma N M / Athanassiou, Charalambos / Buzoianu, Manuela / Mandic, Maja / Richman, Laura / McKinney, LuAnn / Leininger, Joel / Tice, David A / Hammershaimb, Luz / Kirkwood, John M. ·University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, PA, USA. ·J Immunother · Pubmed #20445352.

ABSTRACT: AlphaVbeta3 (alphavbeta3) is an important molecule for tumor-induced angiogenesis and is upregulated in metastatic melanoma (MM). We proposed to study the mechanism of action of etaracizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting alphavbeta3, in MM. Patients with MM and biopsiable tumor were treated with etaracizumab in 3 dose cohorts starting from 8 mg/kg. Tumor saturation by etaracizumab using LM609 immunohistochemical staining of tumor sections was the primary endpoint. Subsequent dose cohorts were defined based on the tumor saturation by etaracizumab. Secondary end points were analysis of clinical benefit and changes from baseline of several tumor and peripheral blood biomarkers. Eighteen patients were enrolled at 3 dose levels. Etaracizumab showed better melanoma cell saturation at the 8mg/kg and 1 mg/kg dose compared with the 4 mg/kg dose and better vascular endothelial cell saturation at 8 mg/kg compared with lower dose groups. Etaracizumab demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. The optimal biologic dose out of those selected for investigation was 8 mg/kg. Patients treated at the highest dose may have had better clinical benefit secondary to suppression of the activated immediate downstream effector of alphavbeta3 signaling, FAK, in melanoma cells, but this alone did not ultimately affect melanoma cell proliferation or apoptosis. No apparent antiangiogenic or immunomodulatory effects of etaracizumab were noted.

73 Clinical Trial A randomized phase 2 study of etaracizumab, a monoclonal antibody against integrin alpha(v)beta(3), + or - dacarbazine in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma. 2010

Hersey, Peter / Sosman, Jeffrey / O'Day, Steven / Richards, Jon / Bedikian, Agop / Gonzalez, Rene / Sharfman, William / Weber, Robert / Logan, Theodore / Buzoianu, Manuela / Hammershaimb, Luz / Kirkwood, John M / Anonymous2640649. ·Newcastle Melanoma Unit, Newcastle, Australia. ·Cancer · Pubmed #20108344.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The alpha (v) beta (3) (alpha(v)beta(3)) integrin is involved in intracellular signaling regulating cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation and is important for tumor-induced angiogenesis. METHODS: This phase 2, randomized, open-label, 2-arm study was designed to capture safety data and evaluate the antitumor efficacy of etaracizumab (Abegrin), an IgG1 humanized monoclonal antibody against the alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, in patients with previously untreated metastatic melanoma. The objective was to evaluate whether etaracizumab + or - dacarbazine had sufficient clinical activity to warrant further study in a phase 3 clinical trial. RESULTS: One hundred twelve patients were randomized to receive etaracizumab alone (N = 57) or etaracizumab + dacarbazine (N = 55). Safety of etaracizumab + or - dacarbazine was acceptable with infusion-related, gastrointestinal, and metabolic reactions being the most common adverse events (AEs). The majority of AEs were grade 1 or 2 in severity in both study arms; most events were not considered serious, except for cardiovascular (myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation) and thromboembolic events, which occurred in 3 and 5 patients, respectively. None of the patients in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 12.7% of patients in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm achieved an objective response. The median duration of objective response in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm was 4.2 months. Stable disease rate, time to progression (TTP), and progression-free survival (PFS) appeared to be similar between the 2 treatment arms. Stable disease occurred in 45.6% of patients in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 40.0% of patients in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm. Median TTP and median PFS were both 1.8 months in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 2.5 and 2.6 months in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm, respectively. Median overall survival was 12.6 months in the etaracizumab-alone study arm and 9.4 months in the etaracizumab + dacarbazine study arm. CONCLUSIONS: The survival results in both treatment arms of this study were considered unlikely to result in clinically meaningful improvement over dacarbazine alone.

74 Clinical Trial Phase II trial of tremelimumab (CP-675,206) in patients with advanced refractory or relapsed melanoma. 2010

Kirkwood, John M / Lorigan, Paul / Hersey, Peter / Hauschild, Axel / Robert, Caroline / McDermott, David / Marshall, Margaret A / Gomez-Navarro, Jesus / Liang, Jane Q / Bulanhagui, Cecile A. ·University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. kirkwoodjm@upmc.edu ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #20086001.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This phase II study assessed the antitumor activity of tremelimumab, a fully human, anti-CTL-associated antigen 4 monoclonal antibody, in patients with melanoma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with refractory/relapsed melanoma received 15 mg/kg tremelimumab every 90 days. After 4 doses, patients with tumor response or stable disease were eligible to receive < or =4 additional doses. Primary endpoint was best overall tumor response assessed by an independent endpoint review committee, and secondary endpoints included duration of response, overall survival, progression-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: Of 251 patients enrolled, 246 (241 response-evaluable) received tremelimumab. Objective response rate was 6.6% (16 partial responses); duration of response was 8.9 to 29.8 months. Eight (50%) objective responses occurred in patients with stage IV M(1c) disease, and 11 (69%) were ongoing at last tumor assessment. Eight (3.3%) patients achieved responses in target lesions (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) despite progressive disease within the first cycle. All 8 survived for >20 months; 5 (63%) remained alive. Clinical benefit rate (overall response + stable disease) was 21% (16 partial responses and 35 stable disease), and median overall survival was 10.0 months. Progression-free survival at 6 months was 15%, and survival was 40.3% at 12 months and 22% at 24 months. Common treatment-related adverse events were generally mild to moderate, and grade 3/4 adverse events included diarrhea (n = 28, 11%), fatigue (n = 6, 2%), and colitis (n = 9, 4%). There were 2 (0.8%) treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Tremelimumab showed an objective response rate of 6.6%, with all responses being durable > or =170 days since enrollment, suggesting a potential role for tremelimumab in melanoma.

75 Clinical Trial Effect of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor on circulating CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses to a multipeptide melanoma vaccine: outcome of a multicenter randomized trial. 2009

Slingluff, Craig L / Petroni, Gina R / Olson, Walter C / Smolkin, Mark E / Ross, Merrick I / Haas, Naomi B / Grosh, William W / Boisvert, Marc E / Kirkwood, John M / Chianese-Bullock, Kimberly A. ·Department of Surgery/Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Public Health Sciences, and Department of Medicine/Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #19903780.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) administered locally together with vaccines can augment T-cell responses in animal models. Human experience has been limited to small and uncontrolled trials. Thus, a multicenter randomized phase II trial was done to determine whether local administration of GM-CSF augments immunogenicity of a multipeptide vaccine. It also assessed immunogenicity of administration in one versus two vaccine sites. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: One hundred twenty-one eligible patients with resected stage IIB to IV melanoma were vaccinated with 12 MHC class I-restricted melanoma peptides to stimulate CD8+ T cells plus a HLA-DR-restricted tetanus helper peptide to stimulate CD4+ T cells, emulsified in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, with or without 110 microg GM-CSF. Among 119 evaluable patients, T-cell responses were assessed by IFN-gamma ELIspot assay and tetramer analysis. Clinical outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: CD8+ T-cell response rates to the 12 MHC class I-restricted melanoma peptides (by day 50) with or without GM-CSF were 34% and 73%, respectively (P < 0.001), by direct ELIspot assay. Tetramer analyses corroborated the functional data. CD4+ T-cell responses to tetanus helper peptide were higher without GM-CSF (95% versus 77%; P = 0.005). There was no significant difference by number of vaccine sites. Three-year overall and disease-free survival estimates (95% confidence interval) were 76% (67-83%) and 52% (43-61%), respectively, with too few events to assess differences by study group. CONCLUSIONS: High immune response rates for this multipeptide vaccine were achieved, but CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were lower when administered with GM-CSF. These data challenge the value of local GM-CSF as a vaccine adjuvant in humans.

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