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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Bart Neyns
Based on 55 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, B. Neyns wrote the following 55 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3
1 Review Optimized dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for melanoma: the TriMix-formula. 2014

Van Lint, Sandra / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Heirman, Carlo / Corthals, Jurgen / Breckpot, Karine / Bonehill, Aude / Neyns, Bart / Thielemans, Kris. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy & Dendritic Cell-bank, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103E, 1090, Brussels, Belgium, sandra.van.lint@vub.ac.be. ·Cancer Immunol Immunother · Pubmed #24878889.

ABSTRACT: Since decades, the main goal of tumor immunologists has been to increase the capacity of the immune system to mediate tumor regression. In this regard, one of the major focuses of cancer immunotherapy has been the design of vaccines promoting strong tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in cancer patients. Here, dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role as they are regarded as nature's adjuvant and as such have become the natural agents for antigen delivery in order to finally elicit strong T cell responses (Villadangos and Schnorrer in Nat Rev Immunol 7:543-555, 2007; Melief in Immunity 29:372-383, 2008; Palucka and Banchereau in Nat Rev Cancer 12:265-277, 2012; Vacchelli et al. in Oncoimmunology 2:e25771, 2013; Galluzzi et al. in Oncoimmunology 1:1111-1134, 2012). Therefore, many investigators are actively pursuing the use of DCs as an efficient way of inducing anticancer immune responses. Nowadays, DCs can be generated at a large scale in closed systems, yielding sufficient numbers of cells for clinical application. In addition, with the identification of tumor-associated antigens, which are either selectively or preferentially expressed by tumors, a whole range of strategies using DCs for immunotherapy have been designed and tested in clinical studies. Despite the evidence that DCs loaded with tumor-associated antigens can elicit immune responses in vivo, clinical responses remained disappointingly low. Therefore, optimization of the cellular product and route of administration was urgently needed. Here, we review the path we have followed in the development of TriMixDC-MEL, a potent DC-based cellular therapy, discussing its development as well as further modifications and applications.

2 Review Adoptive T-cell transfer therapy and oncogene-targeted therapy for melanoma: the search for synergy. 2013

Kwong, Mei Li M / Neyns, Bart / Yang, James C. ·Authors' Affiliations: Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland; and Department of Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #24089442.

ABSTRACT: The clinical strengths of immunotherapy and small-molecule inhibitors targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway appear to be largely complementary for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In current practice, most patients with BRAF V600 mutant melanomas will see both modalities. Several in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that combining immunotherapy with MAPK inhibition may have synergistic effects. First, mouse models show that adoptive cell therapy (ACT) can be enhanced by vaccination. Rapid tumor destruction by vemurafenib could provide a vaccine-like stimulus to adoptively transferred T cells. Second, both in mice and in early clinical trials, melanoma metastases treated with MAPK inhibitors seem to display increased T-cell infiltrates. Third, MAPK inhibition upregulates the expression of some melanoma antigens and, therefore, may enhance T-cell recognition of vemurafenib-treated melanomas. Fourth, vemurafenib may sensitize tumor cells to immune destruction. Finally, some investigators have found that an optimal antitumor effect from MAPK inhibition is dependent on an intact host immune response. Currently, the Surgery Branch of the National Cancer Institute has initiated a phase II trial combining the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib with ACT using tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with BRAF-mutant tumors to investigate the safety and efficacy of this combination. The proposed mechanisms for synergy between these two modalities can be complex, and their optimal combination may require testing a variety of sequences and schedules.

3 Review Dose-dense temozolomide regimens: antitumor activity, toxicity, and immunomodulatory effects. 2010

Neyns, Bart / Tosoni, Alicia / Hwu, Wen-Jen / Reardon, David A. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Oncology Center, UZ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. Bart.Neyns@uzbrussel.be ·Cancer · Pubmed #20564393.

ABSTRACT: Temozolomide is an oral alkylating agent with established antitumor activity in patients with primary brain tumors and melanoma. The originally approved temozolomide dosing regimen is 150 to 200 mg/m(2) per day (Days 1 to 5 every 28-day cycle [5 of 28 days]). However, extended dosing regimens (eg, 7 of 14 days, 21 of 28 days, 6 of 8 weeks, or continuously daily) allow for administration of a higher cumulative dose per cycle and have been shown to deplete O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, which may enhance cytotoxic activity. This article reviews efficacy and safety data from studies that investigated dose-dense temozolomide regimens in patients with recurrent glioma and advanced metastatic melanoma. The clinical benefits of these dose-dense regimens compared with the standard 5 of 28-day regimen have yet to be established. Although the toxicity profile of dose-dense temozolomide is generally similar to that of the standard 5 of 28-day regimen, it is associated with an increased incidence and severity of lymphocytopenia. The clinical management of temozolomide-associated lymphodepletion and the potential risks and benefits of extended dosing with temozolomide are discussed. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that temozolomide-associated lymphodepletion may enhance the host immune response to tumor-associated antigens and/or immunotherapy and may overcome tumor-mediated immunosuppression. Further studies exploring the clinical implications of lymphodepletion are warranted.

4 Clinical Trial Pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab for advanced melanoma: final overall survival results of a multicentre, randomised, open-label phase 3 study (KEYNOTE-006). 2017

Schachter, Jacob / Ribas, Antoni / Long, Georgina V / Arance, Ana / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Mortier, Laurent / Daud, Adil / Carlino, Matteo S / McNeil, Catriona / Lotem, Michal / Larkin, James / Lorigan, Paul / Neyns, Bart / Blank, Christian / Petrella, Teresa M / Hamid, Omid / Zhou, Honghong / Ebbinghaus, Scot / Ibrahim, Nageatte / Robert, Caroline. ·Division of Oncology, Ella Lemelbaum Institute for Melanoma, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. Electronic address: jacob.schachter@sheba.health.gov.il. · Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology and Translational Research, Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, Mater Hospital and Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. · Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Dermatology and Skin Cancer, Aix Marseille University, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France. · Department of Dermatology, Université Lille, INSERM U1189, CHU Lille, F-59000, France. · Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Westmead and Blacktown Hospitals, Melanoma Institute Australia, and The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · Department of Medical Oncology, Chris O'Brien Lifehouse, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, and Melanoma Institute Australia, Camperdown, Australia. · Department of Melanoma and Cancer Immunotherapy, Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. · Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Medical Oncology University of Manchester and the Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK. · Department of Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Hematology/Oncology, The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Department of BARDS, Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA. · Department of Clinical Oncology, Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA. · Department of Oncology, Gustave Roussy and Paris-Sud University, Villejuif, France. ·Lancet · Pubmed #28822576.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Interim analyses of the phase 3 KEYNOTE-006 study showed superior overall and progression-free survival of pembrolizumab versus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. We present the final protocol-specified survival analysis. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 87 academic institutions, hospitals, and cancer centres in 16 countries (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Colombia, France, Germany, Israel, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Sweden, UK, and USA). We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1) to one of two dose regimens of pembrolizumab, or one regimen of ipilimumab, using a centralised, computer-generated allocation schedule. Treatment assignments used blocked randomisation within strata. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, at least one measurable lesion per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1), unresectable stage III or IV melanoma (excluding ocular melanoma), and up to one previous systemic therapy (excluding anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, or PD-L1 agents). Secondary eligibility criteria are described later. Patients were excluded if they had active brain metastases or active autoimmune disease requiring systemic steroids. The primary outcome was overall survival (defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause). Response was assessed per RECIST v1.1 by independent central review at week 12, then every 6 weeks up to week 48, and then every 12 weeks thereafter. Survival was assessed every 12 weeks, and final analysis occurred after all patients were followed up for at least 21 months. Primary analysis was done on the intention-to-treat population (all randomly assigned patients) and safety analyses were done in the treated population (all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study treatment). Data cutoff date for this analysis was Dec 3, 2015. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01866319. FINDINGS: Between Sept 18, 2013, and March 3, 2014, 834 patients with advanced melanoma were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive intravenous pembrolizumab every 2 weeks (n=279), intravenous pembrolizumab every 3 weeks (n=277), or intravenous ipilimumab every 3 weeks (ipilimumab for four doses; n=278). One patient in the pembrolizumab 2 week group and 22 patients in the ipilimumab group withdrew consent and did not receive treatment. A total of 811 patients received at least one dose of study treatment. Median follow-up was 22·9 months; 383 patients died. Median overall survival was not reached in either pembrolizumab group and was 16·0 months with ipilimumab (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68, 95% CI 0·53-0·87 for pembrolizumab every 2 weeks vs ipilimumab; p=0·0009 and 0·68, 0·53-0·86 for pembrolizumab every 3 weeks vs ipilimumab; p=0·0008). 24-month overall survival rate was 55% in the 2-week group, 55% in the 3-week group, and 43% in the ipilimumab group. INTERPRETATION: Substantiating the results of the interim analyses of KEYNOTE-006, pembrolizumab continued to provide superior overall survival versus ipilimumab, with no difference between pembrolizumab dosing schedules. These conclusions further support the use of pembrolizumab as a standard of care for advanced melanoma. FUNDING: Merck & Co.

5 Clinical Trial Open-label, multicentre safety study of vemurafenib in 3219 patients with BRAF 2017

Blank, Christian U / Larkin, James / Arance, Ana M / Hauschild, Axel / Queirolo, Paola / Del Vecchio, Michele / Ascierto, Paolo A / Krajsova, Ivana / Schachter, Jacob / Neyns, Bart / Garbe, Claus / Chiarion Sileni, Vanna / Mandalà, Mario / Gogas, Helen / Espinosa, Enrique / Hospers, Geke A P / Miller, Wilson H / Robson, Susan / Makrutzki, Martina / Antic, Vladan / Brown, Michael P. ·The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, Amsterdam 1066CX, The Netherlands. Electronic address: c.blank@nki.nl. · The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address: James.Larkin@rmh.nhs.uk. · Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: AMARANCE@clinic.ub.es. · Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein (UKSH), Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany. Electronic address: ahauschild@dermatology.uni-kiel.de. · IRCCS San Martino-IST, Genova, Italy. Electronic address: paola.queirolo@hsanmartino.it. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address: Michele.delvecchio@istitutotumori.mi.it. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Pascale, Naples, Italy. Electronic address: paolo.ascierto@gmail.com. · General University Hospital, Dermatooncology U, Prague, Czech Republic. Electronic address: Ivana.Krajsova@vfn.cz. · Chaim Sheba Medical Centre, Oncology Institute, Ramat-Gan, Israel. Electronic address: Jacob.schachter@sheba.health.gov.il. · Afdelingshoofd, Medische Oncologie, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: bart.neyns@uzbrussel.be. · Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany. Electronic address: claus.garbe@med.uni-tuebingen.de. · Oncology Institute of Veneto-IRCCS, Padova, Italy. Electronic address: vanna.chiarion@ioveneto.it. · Papa Giovanni XIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. Electronic address: mariomandala@tin.it. · University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: hgogas@hol.gr. · Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: eespinosa00@hotmail.com. · University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: g.a.p.hospers@umcg.nl. · McGill University, Segal Cancer Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address: wilsonmiller@gmail.com. · F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: susan.robson@roche.com. · F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: martina.makrutzki@roche.com. · F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address: vladan.antic@roche.com. · Cancer Clinical Trials Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, Australia; Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology and University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia; Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. Electronic address: MichaelP.brown@sa.gov.au. ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #28501764.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The orally available BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib is an effective and tolerable treatment option for patients with metastatic melanoma harbouring BRAF METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre study of vemurafenib (960 mg bid) in patients with previously treated or untreated BRAF mutation-positive metastatic melanoma (cobas RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 32.2 months (95% CI, 31.1-33.2 months), 3079/3219 patients (96%) had discontinued treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were largely consistent with previous reports; the most common all-grade treatment-related AEs were arthralgia (37%), alopecia (25%) and hyperkeratosis (23%); the most common grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs were squamous cell carcinoma of the skin (8%) and keratoacanthoma (8%). In the exploratory analysis, patients with DOR ≥12 months (n = 287) or ≥24 months (n = 133) were more likely to experience grade 3/4 AEs than the overall population. No new specific safety signals were observed with longer vemurafenib exposure. CONCLUSIONS: After 2 years' follow-up, safety was maintained in this large group of patients with BRAF

6 Clinical Trial Phase II Study of Autologous Monocyte-Derived mRNA Electroporated Dendritic Cells (TriMixDC-MEL) Plus Ipilimumab in Patients With Pretreated Advanced Melanoma. 2016

Wilgenhof, Sofie / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / van Baren, Nicolas / Lucas, Sophie / Kvistborg, Pia / Thielemans, Kris / Neyns, Bart. ·Sofie Wilgenhof, Kris Thielemans, and Bart Neyns, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel · Sofie Wilgenhof, Jurgen Corthals, Carlo Heirman, Kris Thielemans, and Bart Neyns, Vrije Universiteit Brussel · Nicolas van Baren, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research · Sophie Lucas, de Duve Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium · and Pia Kvistborg, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #26926680.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with synthetic mRNA (TriMixDC-MEL) are immunogenic and have antitumor activity as a monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab, an immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody directed against the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 receptor that counteracts physiologic suppression of T-cell function, improves the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase II study investigated the combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were treated with TriMixDC-MEL (4 × 10(6) cells administered intradermally and 20 × 10(6) cells administered intravenously) plus ipilimumab (10 mg/kg every 3 weeks for a total of four administrations, followed by maintenance therapy every 12 weeks in patients who remained progression free). Six-month disease control rate according to the immune-related response criteria served as the primary end point. RESULTS: The 6-month disease control rate was 51% (95% CI, 36% to 67%), and the overall tumor response rate was 38% (including eight complete and seven partial responses). Seven complete responses and one partial tumor response are ongoing after a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 22 to 43 months). The most common treatment-related adverse events (all grades) consisted of local DC injection site skin reactions (100%), transient post-DC infusion chills (38%) and flu-like symptoms (84%), dermatitis (64%), hepatitis (13%), hypophysitis (15%), and diarrhea/colitis (15%). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 36% of patients. There was no grade 5 adverse event. CONCLUSION: The combination of TriMixDC-MEL and ipilimumab is tolerable and results in an encouraging rate of highly durable tumor responses in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma.

7 Clinical Trial Biomarker Analysis in a Phase II Study of Sunitinib in Patients with Advanced Melanoma. 2015

Decoster, Lore / Vande Broek, Isabelle / Neyns, Bart / Majois, Françoise / Baurain, Jean François / Rottey, Sylvie / Rorive, Andrée / Anckaert, Ellen / De Mey, Johan / De Brakeleer, Sylvia / De Grève, Jacques. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Oncology Centre, University Hospital Brussel, Brussels, Belgium lore.decoster@uzbrussel.be. · Iridium Cancer Network, AZ Nikolaas, Sint Niklaas, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, Oncology Centre, University Hospital Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, Jolimont Hospital, Haine Saint Paul, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, St. Luc University Hospital, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Gent, Gent, Belgium. · Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Sart Tilman, Liège, Belgium. · Department of Clinical Chemistry and Radioimmunology, University Hospital Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Radiology, University Hospital Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Laboratory of Molecular and Medical Oncology, University Hospital Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. ·Anticancer Res · Pubmed #26637913.

ABSTRACT: AIM: To investigate the efficacy of sunitinib in patients with advanced melanoma and to correlate angiogenic biomarkers with response and survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a phase II study in patients with advanced pre-treated melanoma. The primary endpoint was tumor response. Blood samples for biomarker analysis including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors VEGFR1 and -2, placental growth factor (PlGF) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were collected at baseline and during the first cycle. RESULTS: Four out of 39 patients (13%) achieved a partial response and eight (26%) stable disease. Time to progression was at least six months in seven patients. High baseline VEGFR1 levels and high baseline PlGF levels were both associated with a non-significant worse survival (p=0.08 for both). CONCLUSION: Sunitinib demonstrates limited activity in unselected patients with refractory advanced melanoma, but a minority of patients experienced long-term disease control. Identification of these patients remains a challenge.

8 Clinical Trial Granulomatous nephritis and dermatitis in a patient with BRAF V600E mutant metastatic melanoma treated with dabrafenib and trametinib. 2015

Jansen, Yanina J / Janssens, Peter / Hoorens, Anne / Schreuer, Max S / Seremet, Teofila / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Neyns, Bart. ·Departments of aMedical Oncology bNephrology cPathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #26512791.

ABSTRACT: A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with stage IIIB BRAF V600E mutant melanoma in October 2012. He was treated with a combination therapy of dabrafenib and trametinib. He remained in complete remission for 18 months and the treatment was well tolerated after dose reduction because of pyrexia. In March 2013, he developed bilateral pitting edema of the legs with an erythematous, slightly infiltrated rash on his back and upper arms. His face was edematous, with a heliotrope rash-like aspect. Eye examination showed bilateral blepharitis. Additional blood test showed inflammation and acute kidney injury Rifle category failure. A skin and kidney biopsy indicated a granulomatous inflammation. A complete workup for other causes of granulomatous inflammation was negative. Treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib was stopped and corticosteroids were initiated, with a rapid beneficial effect on both the kidney function and skin rash. When corticosteroids were halted after 1 month, a rapid decline in the kidney function was observed. After reintroduction of corticosteroids, kidney function normalized and steroids could be tapered gradually over 6 months. To our knowledge, interstitial nephritis has not been described in patients on BRAF-targeted nor MEK-targeted therapy for melanoma, although it has been described in a melanoma patient treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor, ipilimumab. Currently, the patient has no sign of local or distal recurrence of melanoma, notwithstanding that treatment with dabrafenib and trametinib has been stopped for 10 months and no other antimelanoma therapy was initiated.

9 Clinical Trial Pembrolizumab versus Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma. 2015

Robert, Caroline / Schachter, Jacob / Long, Georgina V / Arance, Ana / Grob, Jean Jacques / Mortier, Laurent / Daud, Adil / Carlino, Matteo S / McNeil, Catriona / Lotem, Michal / Larkin, James / Lorigan, Paul / Neyns, Bart / Blank, Christian U / Hamid, Omid / Mateus, Christine / Shapira-Frommer, Ronnie / Kosh, Michele / Zhou, Honghong / Ibrahim, Nageatte / Ebbinghaus, Scot / Ribas, Antoni / Anonymous4340827. ·The authors' affiliations are listed in the Appendix. ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #25891173.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The immune checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab is the standard-of-care treatment for patients with advanced melanoma. Pembrolizumab inhibits the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint and has antitumor activity in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this randomized, controlled, phase 3 study, we assigned 834 patients with advanced melanoma in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive pembrolizumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) every 2 weeks or every 3 weeks or four doses of ipilimumab (at 3 mg per kilogram) every 3 weeks. Primary end points were progression-free and overall survival. RESULTS: The estimated 6-month progression-free-survival rates were 47.3% for pembrolizumab every 2 weeks, 46.4% for pembrolizumab every 3 weeks, and 26.5% for ipilimumab (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.58; P<0.001 for both pembrolizumab regimens versus ipilimumab; 95% confidence intervals [CIs], 0.46 to 0.72 and 0.47 to 0.72, respectively). Estimated 12-month survival rates were 74.1%, 68.4%, and 58.2%, respectively (hazard ratio for death for pembrolizumab every 2 weeks, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.47 to 0.83; P=0.0005; hazard ratio for pembrolizumab every 3 weeks, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.90; P=0.0036). The response rate was improved with pembrolizumab administered every 2 weeks (33.7%) and every 3 weeks (32.9%), as compared with ipilimumab (11.9%) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Responses were ongoing in 89.4%, 96.7%, and 87.9% of patients, respectively, after a median follow-up of 7.9 months. Efficacy was similar in the two pembrolizumab groups. Rates of treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 to 5 severity were lower in the pembrolizumab groups (13.3% and 10.1%) than in the ipilimumab group (19.9%). CONCLUSIONS: The anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival and had less high-grade toxicity than did ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. (Funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme; KEYNOTE-006 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01866319.).

10 Clinical Trial Nivolumab versus chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma who progressed after anti-CTLA-4 treatment (CheckMate 037): a randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial. 2015

Weber, Jeffrey S / D'Angelo, Sandra P / Minor, David / Hodi, F Stephen / Gutzmer, Ralf / Neyns, Bart / Hoeller, Christoph / Khushalani, Nikhil I / Miller, Wilson H / Lao, Christopher D / Linette, Gerald P / Thomas, Luc / Lorigan, Paul / Grossmann, Kenneth F / Hassel, Jessica C / Maio, Michele / Sznol, Mario / Ascierto, Paolo A / Mohr, Peter / Chmielowski, Bartosz / Bryce, Alan / Svane, Inge M / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Krackhardt, Angela M / Horak, Christine / Lambert, Alexandre / Yang, Arvin S / Larkin, James. ·Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. Electronic address: jeffrey.weber@moffitt.org. · Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. · California Pacific Center for Melanoma Research, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. · Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. · Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. · Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA. · Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lyon, Lyon, France. · Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK. · Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. · German Cancer Research Centre University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany. · Medical Oncology and Immunotherapy, University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy. · Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT, USA. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G Pascale, Naples, Italy. · Elbe Kliniken Buxtehude, Buxtehude, Germany. · Department of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA. · Department of Oncology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Aix-Marseille University, Hopital de la Timone, Marseille, France. · Technische Universität München School of Medicine, II Medical Department, Munich, Germany. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ, USA. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Braine-I'Alleud, Belgium. · Royal Marsden Hospital, London, UK. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #25795410.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nivolumab, a fully human IgG4 PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, can result in durable responses in patients with melanoma who have progressed after ipilimumab and BRAF inhibitors. We assessed the efficacy and safety of nivolumab compared with investigator's choice of chemotherapy (ICC) as a second-line or later-line treatment in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients at 90 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients were 18 years or older, had unresectable or metastatic melanoma, and progressed after ipilimumab, or ipilimumab and a BRAF inhibitor if they were BRAF(V 600) mutation-positive. Participating investigators randomly assigned (with an interactive voice response system) patients 2:1 to receive an intravenous infusion of nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or ICC (dacarbazine 1000 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks or paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) combined with carboplatin area under the curve 6 every 3 weeks) until progression or unacceptable toxic effects. We stratified randomisation by BRAF mutation status, tumour expression of PD-L1, and previous best overall response to ipilimumab. We used permuted blocks (block size of six) within each stratum. Primary endpoints were the proportion of patients who had an objective response and overall survival. Treatment was given open-label, but those doing tumour assessments were masked to treatment assignment. We assessed objective responses per-protocol after 120 patients had been treated with nivolumab and had a minimum follow-up of 24 weeks, and safety in all patients who had had at least one dose of treatment. The trial is closed and this is the first interim analysis, reporting the objective response primary endpoint. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01721746. FINDINGS: Between Dec 21, 2012, and Jan 10, 2014, we screened 631 patients, randomly allocating 272 patients to nivolumab and 133 to ICC. Confirmed objective responses were reported in 38 (31·7%, 95% CI 23·5-40·8) of the first 120 patients in the nivolumab group versus five (10·6%, 3·5-23·1) of 47 patients in the ICC group. Grade 3-4 adverse events related to nivolumab included increased lipase (three [1%] of 268 patients), increased alanine aminotransferase, anaemia, and fatigue (two [1%] each); for ICC, these included neutropenia (14 [14%] of 102), thrombocytopenia (six [6%]), and anaemia (five [5%]). We noted grade 3-4 drug-related serious adverse events in 12 (5%) nivolumab-treated patients and nine (9%) patients in the ICC group. No treatment-related deaths occurred. INTERPRETATION: Nivolumab led to a greater proportion of patients achieving an objective response and fewer toxic effects than with alternative available chemotherapy regimens for patients with advanced melanoma that has progressed after ipilimumab or ipilimumab and a BRAF inhibitor. Nivolumab represents a new treatment option with clinically meaningful durable objective responses in a population of high unmet need. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

11 Clinical Trial Long-term clinical outcome of melanoma patients treated with messenger RNA-electroporated dendritic cell therapy following complete resection of metastases. 2015

Wilgenhof, Sofie / Corthals, Jurgen / Van Nuffel, An M T / Benteyn, Daphné / Heirman, Carlo / Bonehill, Aude / Thielemans, Kris / Neyns, Bart. ·Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090, Brussels, Belgium, Sofie.Wilgenhof@vub.ac.be. ·Cancer Immunol Immunother · Pubmed #25548092.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Melanoma patients with a high risk of recurrence may benefit from immunotherapy with mRNA-electroporated autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Further benefit may be found in combining DC-therapy with interferon alfa-2b. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The long-term clinical outcome of AJCC stage III/IV melanoma patients who had no evidence of disease at the time of treatment with autologous mRNA-electroporated DCs in a single-center pilot clinical trial was analyzed. Antigen loading was accomplished by co-electroporation of mRNA encoding a fusion protein between MAGE-A1, -A3, -C2, Tyrosinase, MelanA/MART-1, or gp100, and an HLA class II-targeting sequence. DCs were administered by 4-6 bi-weekly intradermal injections. IFN-α-2b (5 MIU TIW) was initiated either at recurrence (cohort 1), concomitant with DCs (cohorts 2 and 3), or following the fourth DC administration (cohort 4). RESULTS: Thirty melanoma patients were recruited between April 2006 and June 2009. DC-related adverse events included grade 2 local injection site reactions in all patients, grade 2 fever and flu-like symptoms in one patient, and skin depigmentation in seven patients. After a median follow-up of over 6 years, the median relapse-free survival is 22 months (95% CI 12-32 months). Twelve patients have died. The median overall survival has not been reached; the 2-year and 4-year survival rates are 93 and 70%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy following the resection of melanoma metastases with autologous mRNA-electroporated DCs, combined with interferon alfa-2b, is tolerable and results in encouraging long-term overall survival rates justifying further evaluation in a randomized clinical trial.

12 Clinical Trial Survival follow-up and ipilimumab retreatment of patients with advanced melanoma who received ipilimumab in prior phase II studies. 2014

Lebbé, C / Weber, J S / Maio, M / Neyns, B / Harmankaya, K / Hamid, O / O'Day, S J / Konto, C / Cykowski, L / McHenry, M B / Wolchok, J D. ·Department of Dermatology, APHP, CIC, U976 Hôpital Saint-Louis University Paris Diderot, Paris, France celeste.lebbe@sls.aphp.fr. · Department of Cutaneous Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, USA. · Medical Oncology and Immunotherapy, Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy. · Department of Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Melanoma Therapeutics, Translational Research and Immunotherapy, The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles. · Los Angeles Skin Cancer Institute at Beverly Hills Cancer Center, Beverly Hills. · Global Clinical Research. · Global Biometric Sciences, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Wallingford. · Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #25210016.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This report provides a survival update at a follow-up of >5 years (5.5-6 years) for patients with advanced melanoma who previously received ipilimumab in phase II clinical trials. Safety and efficacy data following ipilimumab retreatment are also reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who previously received ipilimumab 0.3, 3, or 10 mg/kg in one of six phase II trials (CA184-004, CA184-007, CA184-008, CA184-022, MDX010-08, and MDX010-15) were eligible to enroll in the companion study, CA184-025. Upon enrollment, patients initially received ipilimumab retreatment, extended maintenance therapy, or were followed for survival only. Overall survival (OS) rates were evaluated in patients from studies CA184-004, CA184-007, CA184-008, and CA184-022. Safety and best overall response during ipilimumab retreatment at 10 mg/kg were assessed in study CA184-025. RESULTS: Five-year OS rates for previously treated patients who received ipilimumab induction at 0.3, 3, or 10 mg/kg were 12.3%, 12.3%-16.5%, and 15.5%-28.4%, respectively. Five-year OS rates for treatment-naive patients who received ipilimumab induction at 3 or 10 mg/kg were 26.8% and 21.4%-49.5%, respectively. Little to no change in OS was observed from year 5 up to year 6. The objective response rate among retreated patients was 23%. Grade 3/4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 25%, 5.9%, and 13.2% of retreated patients who initially received ipilimumab 0.3, 3, and 10 mg/kg, with the most common being observed in the skin (4.2%, 2.9%, 3.8%) and gastrointestinal tract (12.5%, 2.9%, 3.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: At a follow-up of 5-6 years, ipilimumab continues to demonstrate durable, long-term survival in a proportion of patients with advanced melanoma. In some patients, ipilimumab retreatment can re-establish disease control with a safety profile that is comparable with that observed during ipilimumab induction. Further studies are needed to determine the contribution of ipilimumab retreatment to OS. CLINICALTRIALSGOV: NCT00162123.

13 Clinical Trial Vemurafenib in patients with BRAF(V600) mutated metastatic melanoma: an open-label, multicentre, safety study. 2014

Larkin, James / Del Vecchio, Michele / Ascierto, Paolo A / Krajsova, Ivana / Schachter, Jacob / Neyns, Bart / Espinosa, Enrique / Garbe, Claus / Sileni, Vanna Chiarion / Gogas, Helen / Miller, Wilson H / Mandalà, Mario / Hospers, Geke A P / Arance, Ana / Queirolo, Paola / Hauschild, Axel / Brown, Michael P / Mitchell, Lada / Veronese, Luisa / Blank, Christian U. ·Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address: james.larkin@rmh.nhs.uk. · Department of Medical Oncology, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. · Melanoma, Cancer Immunotherapy and Innovative Therapy Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione Pascale, Naples, Italy. · Dermatooncology Department, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. · Ella Institute for Melanoma, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel. · Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. · Service of Oncology-Hospital La Paz, Madrid, Spain. · Universität Tübingen-Hautklinik, Tübingen, Germany. · Melanoma Oncology Unit, Veneto Oncology Institute, Gattamelata, Padova, Italy. · Medical Oncology, University of Athens, Greece. · Lady Davis Institute and Segal Cancer Centre, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. · Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy. · Department of Medical Oncology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. · Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain. · IRCCS San Martino Hospital-IST, Genoa, Italy. · University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Dermatology, Kiel, Germany. · Cancer Clinical Trials Unit, Royal Adelaide Hospital, and Centre for Cancer Biology, SA Pathology, Adelaide, SA, Australia. · F Hoffmann-La Roche, Basel, Switzerland. · Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Netherlands. Electronic address: c.blank@nki.nl. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #24582505.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The orally available BRAF kinase inhibitor vemurafenib, compared with dacarbazine, shows improved response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma that has a BRAF(V600) mutation. We assessed vemurafenib in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma with BRAF(V600) mutations who had few treatment options. METHODS: In an open-label, multicentre study, patients with untreated or previously treated melanoma and a BRAF(V600) mutation received oral vemurafenib 960 mg twice a day. The primary endpoint was safety. All analyses were done on the safety population, which included all patients who received at least one dose of vemurafenib. This report is the third interim analysis of this study. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01307397. FINDINGS: Between March 1, 2011, and Jan 31, 2013, 3226 patients were enrolled in 44 countries. 3222 patients received at least one dose of vemurafenib (safety population). At data cutoff, 868 (27%) patients were on study treatment and 2354 (73%) had withdrawn, mainly because of disease progression. Common adverse events of all grades included rash (1592 [49%]), arthralgia (1259 [39%]), fatigue (1093 [34%]), photosensitivity reaction (994 [31%]), alopecia (826 [26%]), and nausea (628 [19%]). 1480 (46%) patients reported grade 3 or 4 adverse events, including cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (389 [12%]), rash (155 [5%]), liver function abnormalities (165 [5%]), arthralgia (106 [3%]), and fatigue (93 [3%]). Grade 3 and 4 adverse events were reported more frequently in patients aged 75 years and older (n=257; 152 [59%, 95% CI 53-65] and ten [4%, 2-7], respectively) than in those younger than 75 years (n=2965; 1286 [43%, 42-45] and 82 [3%, 2-3], respectively). INTERPRETATION: Vemurafenib safety in this diverse population of patients with BRAF(V600) mutated metastatic melanoma, who are more representative of routine clinical practice, was consistent with the safety profile shown in the pivotal trials of this drug. FUNDING: F Hoffmann-La Roche.

14 Clinical Trial A phase IB study on intravenous synthetic mRNA electroporated dendritic cell immunotherapy in pretreated advanced melanoma patients. 2013

Wilgenhof, S / Van Nuffel, A M T / Benteyn, D / Corthals, J / Aerts, C / Heirman, C / Van Riet, I / Bonehill, A / Thielemans, K / Neyns, B. ·Departments of Medical Oncology. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #23904461.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding a CD40 ligand, a constitutively active Toll-like receptor 4 and CD70, together with mRNA encoding fusion proteins of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-class II targeting signal (DC-LAMP) and a melanoma-associated antigen (MAA); either MAGE-A3, MAGE-C2, tyrosinase or gp100) (TriMixDC-MEL) are superiorly immunogenic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this phase IB clinical trial, 24 million viable DCs were administered by four biweekly combined intradermal (id) and intravenous (iv) administrations, and a fifth administration on week 16. The number of iv-administered DCs was escalated in four sequentially treated cohorts. Immune responses were assessed by analysis of antigen specificity of blood-derived T-cells and skin infiltrating lymphocytes (SKILs). RESULTS: Fifteen patients with pretreated advanced melanoma tolerated administration of TriMixDC-MEL well. Two patients achieved a complete response and two patients a partial response. All objective responders are progression-free after a follow-up of, respectively, 24+, 28+, 33+, and 34+ months. Post-therapy antigen-specific SKILs were documented in 6 of 12 patients, and antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cells were detected in the blood of 4 of 5 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular immunotherapy with TriMixDC-MEL is safe and immunogenic. Antitumor activity with durable disease control is observed across the investigated iv-dose levels. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01066390.

15 Clinical Trial Four-year survival rates for patients with metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab in phase II clinical trials. 2013

Wolchok, J D / Weber, J S / Maio, M / Neyns, B / Harmankaya, K / Chin, K / Cykowski, L / de Pril, V / Humphrey, R / Lebbé, C. ·Ludwig Institute of Cancer Research, Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. wolchokj@mskcc.org ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #23666915.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This analysis was carried out to evaluate the long-term survival of patients with metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, in clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received ipilimumab in one of three completed phase II clinical trials (CA184-008, CA184-022, and CA184-007). Previously treated patients were enrolled in all studies, and treatment-naïve patients were also included in study CA184-007. Patients received ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg in studies CA184-008 and CA184-007, and at doses of 0.3, 3, or 10 mg/kg in study CA184-022. Ipilimumab was given every 3 weeks for four doses, and eligible patients could receive ipilimumab maintenance therapy every 12 weeks. In study CA184-022, patients could cross over to be retreated with ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg upon disease progression. Ongoing survival follow-up is conducted in a companion study, CA184-025. RESULTS: Four-year survival rates [95% confidence interval (95% CI)] for previously treated patients who received ipilimumab at 0.3, 3, or 10 mg/kg were 13.8% [6.1-22.5], 18.2% [9.5-27.6], and 19.7% [13.4-26.5] to 28.4% [13.9-44.2], respectively. In treatment-naïve patients who received ipilimumab at 10 mg/kg, 4-year survival rates were 37.7% [18.6-57.4] to 49.5% [23.8-75.4]. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate durable survival in a significant proportion of patients with metastatic melanoma who received ipilimumab therapy.

16 Clinical Trial Characterization of CD8+ T-cell responses in the peripheral blood and skin injection sites of melanoma patients treated with mRNA electroporated autologous dendritic cells (TriMixDC-MEL). 2013

Benteyn, Daphné / Van Nuffel, An M T / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / Neyns, Bart / Thielemans, Kris / Bonehill, Aude. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Immunology-Physiology and Dendritic Cell Bank, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, 1090 Brussels, Belgium. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #23509826.

ABSTRACT: Treatment of melanoma patients with mRNA electroporated dendritic cells (TriMixDC-MEL) stimulates T-cell responses against the presented tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). In the current clinical trials, melanoma patients with systemic metastases are treated, requiring priming and/or expansion of preexisting TAA-specific T cells that are able to migrate to both the skin and internal organs. We monitored the presence of TAA-specific CD8(+) T cells infiltrating the skin at sites of intradermal TriMixDC-MEL injection (SKILs) and within the circulation of melanoma patients treated in two clinical trials. In 10 out of fourteen (71%) patients screened, CD8(+) T cells recognizing any of the four TAA presented by TriMixDC-MEL cellular vaccine were found in both compartments. In total, 30 TAA-specific T-cell responses were detected among the SKILs and 29 among peripheral blood T cells, of which 24 in common. A detailed characterization of the antigen specificity of CD8(+) T-cell populations in four patients indicates that the majority of the epitopes detected were only recognized by CD8(+) T cells derived from either skin biopsies or peripheral blood, indicating that some compartmentalization occurs after TriMix-DC therapy. To conclude, functional TAA-specific CD8(+) T cells distribute both to the skin and peripheral blood of patients after TriMixDC-MEL therapy.

17 Clinical Trial Dendritic cells loaded with mRNA encoding full-length tumor antigens prime CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients. 2012

Van Nuffel, An M T / Benteyn, Daphné / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Pierret, Lauranne / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / van der Bruggen, Pierre / Coulie, Pierre G / Neyns, Bart / Thielemans, Kris / Bonehill, Aude. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Immunology-Physiology, Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium. ·Mol Ther · Pubmed #22371843.

ABSTRACT: It is generally thought that dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with full-length tumor antigen could improve immunotherapy by stimulating broad T-cell responses and by allowing treatment irrespective of the patient's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. To investigate this, we determined the specificity of T cells from melanoma patients treated with DCs loaded with mRNA encoding a full-length tumor antigen fused to a signal peptide and an HLA class II sorting signal, allowing presentation in HLA class I and II. In delayed-type hypersensitive (DTH)-biopsies and blood, we found functional CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells recognizing novel treatment-antigen-derived epitopes, presented by several HLA types. Additionally, we identified a CD8(+) response specific for the signal peptide incorporated to elicit presentation by HLA class II and a CD4(+) response specific for the fusion region of the signal peptide and one of the antigens. This demonstrates that the fusion proteins contain newly created immunogenic sequences and provides evidence that ex vivo-generated mRNA-modified DCs can induce effector CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from the naive T-cell repertoire of melanoma patients. Thus, this work provides definitive proof that DCs presenting the full antigenic spectrum of tumor antigens can induce T cells specific for novel epitopes and can be administered to patients irrespective of their HLA type.

18 Clinical Trial Epitope and HLA-type independent monitoring of antigen-specific T-cells after treatment with dendritic cells presenting full-length tumor antigens. 2012

Van Nuffel, An M T / Tuyaerts, Sandra / Benteyn, Daphné / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / Neyns, Bart / Thielemans, Kris / Bonehill, Aude. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Physiology-Immunology, Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. ·J Immunol Methods · Pubmed #22269772.

ABSTRACT: The efficacy of cancer immunotherapy can be improved by treatment with full-length tumor antigen and by combining several antigens. This approach allows the induction of a broad immune response irrespective of the patient's HLA type which at the same time challenges immune monitoring. Also, the number of available lymphocytes is most often limited and minimal in vitro restimulations of the lymphocytes should maintain information about the actual in vivo situation. To overcome these hurdles, we developed a method to measure the CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-cell responses directly ex vivo. Skin biopsies taken from dendritic cell (DC)-induced DTH reactions from melanoma patients participating in a DC-clinical trial served as lymphocyte source. Antigen-specificity of skin infiltrating lymphocytes was investigated by coculture with antigen-presenting autologous B cells and assessed for CD137 upregulation and enhanced cytokine secretion. Using this approach we could detect treatment-specific CD8(+) T-cells without restimulation in vitro. Upregulation of the activation marker CD137 correlated with the upregulation of the lytic marker CD107a. CD137 upregulation by treatment-specific CD4(+) lymphocytes however was more pronounced after antigen-specific in vitro restimulation. Both CD8(+) and CD4(+) lymphocytes could be further expanded using the same B cells as for screening allowing characterization of the recognized antigenic region. In addition, this technique can be extended to detect a broader array of T-cell functions and to monitor a large cohort of patients. We believe that this approach of direct ex vivo monitoring, irrespective of the patient's HLA-type or the recognized peptide, and using a limited number of lymphocytes is a valuable tool in the immune monitoring of current cellular immunotherapies.

19 Clinical Trial Intravenous and intradermal TriMix-dendritic cell therapy results in a broad T-cell response and durable tumor response in a chemorefractory stage IV-M1c melanoma patient. 2012

Van Nuffel, An M T / Benteyn, Daphné / Wilgenhof, Sofie / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / Neyns, Bart / Thielemans, Kris / Bonehill, Aude. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Immunology-Physiology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium. ·Cancer Immunol Immunother · Pubmed #22159452.

ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs) electroporated with mRNA encoding CD70, CD40L and a constitutively active toll-like receptor 4 (TriMix-DC) have an increased T-cell stimulatory capacity. In a prospective phase IB clinical trial, we treated melanoma patients with intradermal and intravenous injections of autologous TriMix-DC co-electroporated with mRNA encoding full-length MAGE-A3, MAGE-C2, tyrosinase and gp100. We report here the immunological and clinical results obtained in one patient with a particularly favorable outcome. This patient had stage IV-M1c melanoma with documented progression during dacarbazine chemotherapy and received 5 TriMix-DC injections. Following DC therapy, a broad CD8(+) T-cell response against multiple epitopes derived from all four treatment antigens was found in the blood and among T cells derived from DTH biopsy. In addition, CD4(+) T cells recognizing different MAGE-A3-derived epitopes were detected in DTH-derived cells. A spontaneous anti-MAGE-C2 CD8(+) T-cell response was present prior to TriMix-DC therapy and increased during treatment. The tumor response was assessed with 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission/computed tomography. We documented a partial tumor response according to RECIST criteria with a marked reduction in (18)F-FDG-uptake by lung, lymph node and bone metastases. The patient remains free from progression after 12 months of follow-up. This case report indicates that administration of autologous TriMix-DC by the combined intradermal and intravenous route can mediate a durable objective tumor response accompanied by a broad T-cell response in a chemorefractory stage IV-M1c melanoma patient.

20 Clinical Trial Therapeutic vaccination with an autologous mRNA electroporated dendritic cell vaccine in patients with advanced melanoma. 2011

Wilgenhof, Sofie / Van Nuffel, An M T / Corthals, Jurgen / Heirman, Carlo / Tuyaerts, Sandra / Benteyn, Daphné / De Coninck, Arlette / Van Riet, Ivan / Verfaillie, Guy / Vandeloo, Judith / Bonehill, Aude / Thielemans, Kris / Neyns, Bart. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Brussels, Belgium. ·J Immunother · Pubmed #21577140.

ABSTRACT: The immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells is improved by co-electroporation with mRNA encoding CD40 ligand, constitutively active toll-like receptor 4, and CD70 (TriMix-DC). This pilot clinical trial evaluated the feasibility, safety, and immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccination containing autologous TriMix-DC co-electroporated with mRNA encoding a human leukocyte antigen class II-targeting signal linked to 1 of 4 melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE-A3, MAGE-C2, tyrosinase, and gp100) in patients with advanced melanoma. Thirty-five American Joint Committee on Cancer stage III/IV melanoma patients received autologous TriMix-DC (4 administrations 2 weeks apart). Immune monitoring was performed by evaluating skin biopsies of delayed type IV hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions for presence of vaccinal antigen-specific DTH-infiltrating lymphocytes (DIL). Thereafter, patients could receive interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-α-2b) 5 MU subcutaneously 3 times weekly and additional TriMix-DC every 8 weeks. TriMix-DC-related adverse events comprised grade 2 local injection site reactions (all patients), and grade 2 fever and lethargy (2 patients). Vaccinal antigen-specific DIL were found in 0/6 patients tested at vaccine initiation and in 12/21 (57.1%) assessed after the fourth vaccine. A positive postvaccination DTH test correlated with IL-12p70 secretion capacity of TriMix-DC. No objective responses to TriMix-DC alone were seen according to RECIST. Twenty-nine patients received IFN-α-2b after the fourth vaccine without unexpected adverse events. During TriMix-DC/IFN-α-2b combination therapy, 1 partial response and 5 stable disease (disease control of >6 months with regression of metastases) were observed in 17 patients with evaluable disease at baseline. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that therapeutic vaccination with autologous TriMix-DC is feasible, safe, and immunogenic and can be combined with sequential IFN-α-2b.

21 Clinical Trial Immunotherapy of cancer with dendritic cells loaded with tumor antigens and activated through mRNA electroporation. 2010

Van Nuffel, An M T / Corthals, Jurgen / Neyns, Bart / Heirman, Carlo / Thielemans, Kris / Bonehill, Aude. ·Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Therapy, Department of Physiology - Immunology, Medical School of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels, Belgium. ·Methods Mol Biol · Pubmed #20387165.

ABSTRACT: Since decades, the main goal of tumor immunologists has been to increase the capacity of the immune system to mediate tumor regression. Considerable progress has been made in enhancing the efficacy of therapeutic anticancer vaccines. First, dendritic cells (DCs) have been identified as the key players in orchestrating primary immune responses. A better understanding of their biology and the development of procedures to generate vast amounts of DCs in vitro have accelerated the development of potent immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer. Second, tumor-associated antigens have been identified which are either selectively or preferentially expressed by tumor cells and can be recognized by the immune system. Finally, several studies have been performed on the genetic modification of DCs with tumor antigens. In this regard, loading the DCs with mRNA, which enables them to produce/process and present the tumor antigens themselves, has emerged as a promising strategy. Here, we will first overview the different aspects that must be taken into account when generating an mRNA-based DC vaccine and the published clinical studies exploiting mRNA-loaded DCs. Second, we will give a detailed description of a novel procedure to generate a vaccine consisting of tumor antigen-expressing dendritic cells with an in vitro superior capacity to induce anti-tumor immune responses. Here, immature DCs are electroporated with mRNAs encoding a tumor antigen, CD40 ligand (CD40L), CD70, and constitutively active (caTLR4) to generate mature antigen-presenting DCs.

22 Clinical Trial Ipilimumab monotherapy in patients with pretreated advanced melanoma: a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 2, dose-ranging study. 2010

Wolchok, Jedd D / Neyns, Bart / Linette, Gerald / Negrier, Sylvie / Lutzky, Jose / Thomas, Luc / Waterfield, William / Schadendorf, Dirk / Smylie, Michael / Guthrie, Troy / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Chesney, Jason / Chin, Kevin / Chen, Kun / Hoos, Axel / O'Day, Steven J / Lebbé, Celeste. ·Ludwig Center for Cancer Immunotherapy, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA. wolchokj@mskcc.org ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #20004617.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and has shown promising activity in advanced melanoma. We aimed to ascertain the antitumour efficacy of ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. METHODS: We undertook a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial in 66 centres from 12 countries. 217 patients with previously treated stage III (unresectable) or stage IV melanoma were randomly assigned a fixed dose of ipilimumab of either 10 mg/kg (n=73), 3 mg/kg (n=72), or 0.3 mg/kg (n=72) every 3 weeks for four cycles (induction) followed by maintenance therapy every 3 months. Randomisation was done with a permuted block procedure, stratified on the basis of type of previous treatment. The primary endpoint was best overall response rate (the proportion of patients with a complete or partial response, according to modified WHO criteria). Efficacy analyses were done by intention to treat, whereas safety analyses included patients who received at least one dose of ipilimumab. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00289640. FINDINGS: The best overall response rate was 11.1% (95% CI 4.9-20.7) for 10 mg/kg, 4.2% (0.9-11.7) for 3 mg/kg, and 0% (0.0-4.9) for 0.3 mg/kg (p=0.0015; trend test). Immune-related adverse events of any grade arose in 50 of 71, 46 of 71, and 19 of 72 patients at doses of 10 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, and 0.3 mg/kg, respectively; the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were gastrointestinal immune-related events (11 in the 10 mg/kg group, two in the 3 mg/kg group, none in the 0.3 mg/kg group) and diarrhoea (ten in the 10 mg/kg group, one in the 3 mg/kg group, none in the 0.3 mg/kg group). INTERPRETATION: Ipilimumab elicited a dose-dependent effect on efficacy and safety measures in pretreated patients with advanced melanoma, lending support to further studies at a dose of 10 mg/kg. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

23 Clinical Trial Vaccination of a melanoma patient with mature dendritic cells pulsed with MAGE-3 peptides triggers the activity of nonvaccine anti-tumor cells. 2008

Carrasco, Javier / Van Pel, Aline / Neyns, Bart / Lethé, Bernard / Brasseur, Francis / Renkvist, Nicolina / van der Bruggen, Pierre / van Baren, Nicolas / Paulus, Robert / Thielemans, Kris / Boon, Thierry / Godelaine, Danièle. ·Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Cellular Genetics Unit, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium. ·J Immunol · Pubmed #18292586.

ABSTRACT: We previously characterized the CTL response of a melanoma patient who experienced tumor regression following vaccination with an ALVAC virus coding for a MAGE-A3 Ag. Whereas anti-vaccine CTL were rare in the blood and inside metastases of this patient, anti-tumor CTL recognizing other tumor Ags, mainly MAGE-C2, were 100 times more frequent in the blood and considerably enriched in metastases following vaccination. In this study we report the analysis of the CTL response of a second melanoma patient who showed a mixed tumor response after vaccination with dendritic cells pulsed with two MAGE-A3 antigenic peptides presented, respectively, by HLA-A1 and HLA-DP4. Anti-MAGE-3.A1 CD8 and anti-MAGE-3.DP4 CD4 T cells became detectable in the blood after vaccination at a frequency of approximately 10(-5) among the CD8 or CD4 T cells, respectively, and they were slightly enriched in slowly progressing metastases. Additional anti-tumor CTL were present in the blood at a frequency of 2x10(-4) among the CD8 T cells and, among these, an anti-MAGE-C2 CTL clone was detected only following vaccination and was enriched by >1,000-fold in metastases relative to the blood. The striking similarity of these results with our previous observations further supports the hypothesis that the induction of a few anti-vaccine T cells may prime or restimulate additional anti-tumor T cell clones that are mainly responsible for the tumor regression.

24 Article Optimal Evaluation of Programmed Death Ligand-1 on Tumor Cells Versus Immune Cells Requires Different Detection Methods. 2018

Schats, Kelly A / Van Vré, Emily A / Boeckx, Carolien / De Bie, Martine / Schrijvers, Dorien M / Neyns, Bart / De Meester, Ingrid / Kockx, Mark M. ·From the Departments of Immunohistochemistry (Drs Schats, Van Vré, Boeckx, and Schrijvers and Ms De Bie) and Molecular Pathology (Dr Kockx), HistoGeneX, Antwerp, Belgium · the Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium (Drs Schats and De Meester) · and the Department of Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Belgium (Dr Neyns). ·Arch Pathol Lab Med · Pubmed #29607663.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: - The benefit of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a method to select patients who may benefit from programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/PD-L1 immunotherapies remains uncertain in many tumor indications. OBJECTIVES: - To compare the commercially available, approved PD-L1 IHC assays (22C3, 28-8, SP142, SP263), specifically identifying the changes in staining output created by altering the detection method. DESIGN: - This pilot study investigates the respective PD-L1 kit assay staining patterns and related scoring of tumor cells and immune cells on lung carcinoma and melanoma. Furthermore, the influence of the detection method (platform and related reagents) on PD-L1 antibody performance is studied. RESULTS: - The SP142 kit reveals more immune cell staining but less tumor cell staining than the other PD-L1 kits. Alternatively, the 22C3 and 28-8 kits show good tumor cell sensitivity, but less pronounced immune cell staining, even in tonsil. Tumor cell staining by the SP263 kit is comparable to that of 22C3 and 28-8 kits, while immune cell staining is better. Strikingly, the selection of the detection method has a major impact on the sensitivity of the assay for PD-L1 detection per cell type. Switching the detection method of the kits could largely circumvent the observed staining differences. CONCLUSIONS: - The diverse sensitivities caused by the choice of the detection method should be taken into consideration when selecting PD-L1 kits or developing PD-L1 IHC laboratory-developed tests. When using alternative kits or laboratory-developed tests, it is strongly recommended to reestablish their clinical utility per therapeutic agent or compare them with the original kit.

25 Article Illustrative cases for monitoring by quantitative analysis of BRAF/NRAS ctDNA mutations in liquid biopsies of metastatic melanoma patients who gained clinical benefits from anti-PD1 antibody therapy. 2018

Seremet, Teofila / Planken, Simon / Schreuer, Max / Jansen, Yanina / Delaunoy, Mélanie / El Housni, Hakim / Lienard, Danielle / Del Marmol, Véronique / Heimann, Pierre / Neyns, Bart. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel. · Department of Dermatology. · Department of Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Hôpital Erasme, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #29227333.

ABSTRACT: Anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibodies improve the survival of metastatic melanoma patients. Predictive or monitoring biomarkers for response to this therapy could improve the clinical management of these patients. To date, no established biomarkers are available for monitoring the response to immunotherapy. Tumor- specific mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) such as BRAF and NRAS mutations for melanoma patients have been proposed for monitoring of immunotherapy response. We present seven illustrative cases for the use of ctDNA BRAF and NRAS mutations' monitoring in plasma. The cases described exemplify four distinct clinical benefit patterns: rapid and durable complete response (CR), early progression, followed by CR, CR followed by early progression after interrupting treatment and long-term disease stabilization. These representative cases suggest that comprehensive BRAF/NRAS ctDNA monitoring during anti-PD1 therapy is informative and can be of added value for the monitoring of melanoma patients gaining clinical benefit on anti-PD1 treatment. An important advantage of our approach is that using the cartridge system on the Idylla platform for mutation analysis, the results become available the same day 2 h after plasma collection. Therefore, in the future, the ctDNA level can be an element in the clinical management of the patients.

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