Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Alessandro A. Testori
Based on 103 articles published since 2008

Between 2008 and 2019, A. Testori wrote the following 103 articles about Melanoma.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5
1 Guideline EANM-EORTC general recommendations for sentinel node diagnostics in melanoma. 2009

Chakera, Annette H / Hesse, Birger / Burak, Zeynep / Ballinger, James R / Britten, Allan / Caracò, Corrado / Cochran, Alistair J / Cook, Martin G / Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T / Essner, Richard / Even-Sapir, Einat / Eggermont, Alexander M M / Stopar, Tanja Gmeiner / Ingvar, Christian / Mihm, Martin C / McCarthy, Stanley W / Mozzillo, Nicola / Nieweg, Omgo E / Scolyer, Richard A / Starz, Hans / Thompson, John F / Trifirò, Giuseppe / Viale, Giuseppe / Vidal-Sicart, Sergi / Uren, Roger / Waddington, Wendy / Chiti, Arturo / Spatz, Alain / Testori, Alessandro / Anonymous1200637. ·Department of Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. annette.hougaard.chakera@live.dk ·Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging · Pubmed #19714329.

ABSTRACT: The accurate diagnosis of a sentinel node in melanoma includes a sequence of procedures from different medical specialities (nuclear medicine, surgery, oncology, and pathology). The items covered are presented in 11 sections and a reference list: (1) definition of a sentinel node, (2) clinical indications, (3) radiopharmaceuticals and activity injected, (4) dosimetry, (5) injection technique, (6) image acquisition and interpretation, (7) report and display, (8) use of dye, (9) gamma probe detection, (10) surgical techniques in sentinel node biopsy, and (11) pathological evaluation of melanoma-draining sentinel lymph nodes. If specific recommendations given cannot be based on evidence from original, scientific studies, referral is given to "general consensus" and similar expressions. The recommendations are designed to assist in the practice of referral to, performance, interpretation and reporting of all steps of the sentinel node procedure in the hope of setting state-of-the-art standards for good-quality evaluation of possible spread to the lymphatic system in intermediate-to-high risk melanoma without clinical signs of dissemination.

2 Editorial The role of BRAF V600 mutation in melanoma. 2012

Ascierto, Paolo A / Kirkwood, John M / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Simeone, Ester / Grimaldi, Antonio M / Maio, Michele / Palmieri, Giuseppe / Testori, Alessandro / Marincola, Francesco M / Mozzillo, Nicola. ·Department of Melanoma, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G, Pascale, Naples, Italy. paolo.ascierto@gmail.com ·J Transl Med · Pubmed #22554099.

ABSTRACT: BRAF is a serine/threonine protein kinase activating the MAP kinase/ERK-signaling pathway. About 50 % of melanomas harbors activating BRAF mutations (over 90 % V600E). BRAFV600E has been implicated in different mechanisms underlying melanomagenesis, most of which due to the deregulated activation of the downstream MEK/ERK effectors. The first selective inhibitor of mutant BRAF, vemurafenib, after highly encouraging results of the phase I and II trial, was compared to dacarbazine in a phase III trial in treatment-naïve patients (BRIM-3). The study results showed a relative reduction of 63 % in risk of death and 74 % in risk of tumor progression. Considering all trials so far completed, median overall survival reached approximately 16 months for vemurafenib compared to less than 10 months for dacarbazine treatment. Vemurafenib has been extensively tested on melanoma patients expressing the BRAFV600E mutated form; it has been demonstrated to be also effective in inhibiting melanomas carrying the V600K mutation. In 2011, both FDA and EMA therefore approved vemurafenib for metastatic melanoma carrying BRAFV600 mutations. Some findings suggest that continuation of vemurafenib treatment is potentially beneficial after local therapy in a subset of patients with disease progression (PD). Among who continued vemurafenib >30 days after local therapy of PD lesion(s), a median overall survival was not reached, with a median follow-up of 15.5 months from initiation of BRAF inhibitor therapy. For patients who did not continue treatment, median overall survival from the time of disease progression was 1.4 months. A clinical phase I/II trial is evaluating the safety, tolerability and efficacy of vemurafenib in combination with the CTLA-4 inhibitor mAb ipilimumab. In the BRIM-7 trial vemurafenib is tested in association with GDC-0973, a potent and highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2. Preliminary data seem to indicate that an additional inhibitor of mutated BRAF, GSK2118436, might be also active on a wider range of BRAF mutations (V600E-K-D-R); actually, treatment with such a compound is under evaluation in a phase III study among stage III-IV melanoma patients positive for BRAF mutations. Overall, BRAF inhibitors were well tolerated; common adverse events are arthralgia, rash, fatigue, alopecia, keratoacanthoma or cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma, photosensitivity, nausea, and diarrhea, with some variants between different inhibitors.

3 Review Diagnosis and treatment of in-transit melanoma metastases. 2017

Testori, A / Ribero, S / Bataille, V. ·Divisione di Chirurgia Dermatoncologica, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milano, Italy. Electronic address: alessandro.testori@ieo.it. · Dermatologia, Dipartimentto di Scienze mediche, Università di Torino, Italy. · West Herts NHS Trust, London, UK; Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Northwood, UK. ·Eur J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #27923593.

ABSTRACT: In transit metastases (ITM) from extremity or trunk melanomas are subcutaneous or cutaneous lymphatic deposits of melanoma cells, distant from the primary site but not reaching the draining nodal basin. Superficial ITM metastases develop in 5-10% of melanoma patients and are thought to be caused by cells spreading along lymphatics; ITM appear biologically different from distant cutaneous metastases, these probably due to a haematogenous dissemination. The diagnosis is usually clinical and by patients, but patients need to be adequately educated in the recognition of this clinical situation. Ultrasound or more sophisticated instrumental devices may be required if the disease develops more deeply in the soft tissues. According to AJCC 2009 staging classification, ITM are included in stages IIIb and IIIc, which are considered local advanced disease with quite poor 5-year survival rates and outcomes of 24-54% at 5 years.

4 Review The risk of developing a second primary cancer in melanoma patients: a comprehensive review of the literature and meta-analysis. 2014

Caini, Saverio / Boniol, Mathieu / Botteri, Edoardo / Tosti, Giulio / Bazolli, Barbara / Russell-Edu, William / Giusti, Francesco / Testori, Alessandro / Gandini, Sara. ·Unit of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Prevention, Via delle Oblate 2, 50139 Florence, Italy. Electronic address: s.caini@ispo.toscana.it. · International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon, France. · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Division of Melanoma and Muscolocutaneous sarcoma, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Library, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), Brussels, Belgium. ·J Dermatol Sci · Pubmed #24680127.

ABSTRACT: The number of cutaneous melanoma survivors has been increasing for years due to improvements in early diagnosis and subsequent prolonged survival. These patients are at increased risk of developing a second melanoma and a second primary malignancy (SPM) at other sites as well. We performed a review of scientific literature and meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of developing a SPM (other than melanoma) among melanoma patients. Twenty-three independent papers and over 350,000 melanoma patients were included. Risk of cancer among melanoma survivors was increased overall (1.57, 95% CI 1.29-1.90) and at several sites: bone (2.09, 95% CI 1.08-4.05), non-melanoma skin cancer (4.01, 95% CI 1.81-8.87), soft tissue (6.80, 95% CI 1.29-35.98), colon-rectum (1.12, 95% CI 1.00-1.25), female breast (1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22), kidney (1.34, 95% CI 1.23-1.45), prostate (1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.37) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (1.37, 95% CI 1.22-1.54). The overall risk of SPM showed a tendency to decrease as the time from melanoma diagnosis lengthened. Most of our findings may be explained by the tendency of some exposures, which are risk factors for different tumors, to occur simultaneously in the same individuals. These results suggest primary and secondary cancer prevention counselling for melanoma survivors.

5 Review Treatment of metastatic melanoma with electrochemotherapy. 2014

Campana, Luca G / Testori, Alessandro / Mozzillo, Nicola / Rossi, Carlo Riccardo. · ·J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #24678530.

ABSTRACT: Superficially metastatic melanoma still represents a challenging situation for oncologists and a distressing condition for patients. In this circumstance, local treatment by electrochemotherapy, that is, the combination of brief permeabilizing electric pulses with a low‐toxicity anticancer drug, can be a valuable treatment option in selected patients who are ineligible/refractory to systemic treatments or require rapid palliation of symptomatic cutaneous disease.

6 Review Heat-shock proteins-based immunotherapy for advanced melanoma in the era of target therapies and immunomodulating agents. 2014

Tosti, Giulio / Cocorocchio, Emilia / Pennacchioli, Elisabetta / Ferrucci, Pier Francesco / Testori, Alessandro / Martinoli, Chiara. ·Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Melanoma and Sarcoma Division , Via Ripamonti 435, 2014i Milano , Italy +39 02 57489459 ; +39 02 94379230 ; giulio.tosti@ieo.it. ·Expert Opin Biol Ther · Pubmed #24670226.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are highly conserved, stress-induced proteins that function as chaperones, stabilizing proteins and delivering peptides. Tumor-derived HSP peptide complexes (HSPPCs) induced immunity against several malignancies in preclinical models, exhibiting activity across tumor types. AREAS COVERED: HSPPC-based vaccination showed clinical activity in subsets of patients with different malignancies (e.g., gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian cancer, and glioblastoma). In Phase III clinical trials for advanced melanoma and renal cell carcinoma patients, HSPPC-based vaccine demonstrated an excellent safety profile, thus emerging as a flexible tumor- and patient-specific therapeutic approach. EXPERT OPINION: Melanoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and glioblastoma are among suitable targets for HSP-based treatment as demonstrated by immune responses and clinical activity observed in subsets of patients, mainly those with early stage of disease and limited tumor burden. In order to further improve clinical activity, combinations of HSPPC-based vaccines with mutation-driven therapies, antiangiogenic agents, or immunomodulating monoclonal antibodies should be tested in controlled clinical trials.

7 Review Utility of electrochemotherapy in melanoma treatment. 2012

Testori, Alessandro / Rossi, Carlo R / Tosti, Giulio. ·European Institute of Oncology (IEO-IRCCS), Milan, Lombardy, Italy. alessandro.testori@ieo.it ·Curr Opin Oncol · Pubmed #22249204.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the present study, the role of electrochemotherapy (ECT) in the advanced melanoma setting, either as alternative treatment modality to conventional therapies or as palliative care, is reviewed and the perspective to combine ECT with biological response modifiers and immunotherapeutic compounds is discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: ECT refers to the combination of electroporation and administration of anticancer drugs for local treatment of solid neoplasms. Electroporation uses short and intense electric pulses to induce a transient permeabilization of the cell membrane by creation of pores, thus allowing molecules, such as chemotherapeutic agents, to freely diffuse into the cytosol. ECT has shown to be effective and clinically well tolerated in the local control of primary and metastatic solid tumors of diverse histotypes in preclinical and clinical studies, thus, emerging as useful local treatment modality for disseminated superficial melanoma. So far, only a few data on the role of immunological response in ECT-treated patients have been reported. SUMMARY: Treatment regimens combining ECT to biological response modifiers (interleukin-2, interferon) and immunotherapeutic compounds should be further explored in animal and human cancer models; immunotherapy combined to ECT could broaden the therapeutic indications of ECT, by rendering it effective also on distant unreachable or untreated lesions.

8 Review Ipilimumab targeting CD28-CTLA-4 axis: new hope in the treatment of melanoma. 2012

Lens, Marko / Testori, Alessandro / Ferucci, Pier Francesco. ·King's College, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St.Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom. markolens@aol.com ·Curr Top Med Chem · Pubmed #22196270.

ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds to CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4), is the new hope in the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma. Anti-CTLA-4 antibodies enhance T cell responses in vitro and in vivo and activate proliferation of tumour-specific T cells. The blockade of CTLA-4 by ipilimumab leads to immune-mediated tumor regression. Ipilimumab has been studied in metastatic melanoma in a number of clinical trials. Recently, a phase III, multi-center, randomized, double-blind trial showed a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with advanced melanomas treated with ipilimumab. Thus, ipilimumab was the first drug to demonstrate effect on overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, patients treated with ipilimumab develop various immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which are associated with objective and durable clinical responses. Use of new immune-related response criteria is recommended in patients on ipilimumab therapy to avoid premature treatment discontinuation. Further research is necessary to elucidate role of ipilimumab in adjuvant setting as well as in synergy with other novel modalities for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

9 Review Newly identified tumor antigens as promising cancer vaccine targets for malignant melanoma treatment. 2012

Ferrucci, P F / Tosti, G / di Pietro, A / Passoni, C / Pari, C / Tedeschi, I / Cataldo, F / Martinoli, C / Testori, A. ·Melanoma and Muscle Cutaneous Sarcomas Division, IEO-European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. pier.ferrucci@ieo.it ·Curr Top Med Chem · Pubmed #22196269.

ABSTRACT: Immunogenicity of tumour cells, immunomodulation and direct targeting of signalling pathways are promising avenues and matter of dated and innovative research in melanoma. Unfortunately, tumour cells are considered to be antigenic, but not immunogenic, either due to presentation of weakly recognized antigens or to the inability of the immune system to recognize them. However, spontaneous complete remission can be rarely observed in patients affected by melanoma, which are mainly attributed to the immune response against the tumour. Also, an elevated frequency of spontaneous humoral immune responses against tumour antigens was occasionally found in patients. These data confirm the existence of an interaction of the immune system with the tumour which can be used as a promising pathway for intervention and incorporates all portions of the immune system. The cancer immunotherapy approach is based on artificial activation of the immune system against the tumour and groups several types of treatments including immunization/vaccination but also modulation of immunity by cytokines or antibodies. Immunization approaches could either be based on undefined tumour antigens (e.g. whole tumour cells, tumour cell lysates, or tumour-antigen enriched fractions) or aimed at eliciting T-cell responses against specific tumour antigens. Novel and contemporary antigen-targeted therapy strategies, mainly directed to Cancer Testis and Heat Shock Proteins, leading to a possible active immunization against melanoma through T-cell specific activation, are discussed in this review.

10 Review Treatment of melanoma metastases in a limb by isolated limb perfusion and isolated limb infusion. 2011

Testori, Alessandro / Verhoef, Cornelis / Kroon, Hidde M / Pennacchioli, E / Faries, Mark B / Eggermont, Alexander M M / Thompson, John F. ·Melanoma and Sarcoma Division, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. alessandro.testori@ieo.it. ·J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #21858835.

ABSTRACT: In-transit melanoma metastases are often confined to a limb. In this circumstance, treatment by isolated limb perfusion or isolated limb infusion can be a remarkably effective regional treatment option.

11 Review Local and intralesional therapy of in-transit melanoma metastases. 2011

Testori, Alessandro / Faries, Mark B / Thompson, John F / Pennacchioli, E / Deroose, Jan P / van Geel, Albertus N / Verhoef, Cornelis / Verrecchia, Francesco / Soteldo, Javier. ·Melanoma and Sarcoma Division, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. alessandro.testori@ieo.it ·J Surg Oncol · Pubmed #21858834.

ABSTRACT: Regional relapse of melanoma may occur as satellite or in-transit metastases proximal to the primary tumor in the direction of the lymph flow. The management of in-transit metastases is challenging because the efficacy of treatment is largely dictated by the biological behavior of the patient's melanoma. This review examines local treatment modalities.

12 Review The immunological era in melanoma treatment: new challenges for heat shock protein-based vaccine in the advanced disease. 2011

di Pietro, Alessandra / Tosti, Giulio / Ferrucci, Pier Francesco / Testori, Alessandro. ·IEO, European Institute of Oncology, Melanoma Division, Via G. Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy. ·Expert Opin Biol Ther · Pubmed #21801084.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tumor-derived heat shock protein (HSP)-peptide complexes (HSPPCs) induced immunity against malignancies in preclinical trials, working across tumor types and bypassing the need to identify single immunogenic peptides. These results paved the way for the use of human gp96 obtained from autologous tumor samples as an anti-cancer vaccine. AREAS COVERED: Autologous tumor-derived HSP gp96 peptide complex (HSPPC-96) vaccine is emerging as a tumor- and patient-specific cancer vaccine, with confirmed activity in several malignancies. It has been tested in Phase III clinical trials in advanced melanoma and kidney cancer with evidence for efficacy in patients with earlier stage disease. HSPPC-96-based vaccine demonstrated an excellent safety profile, thus emerging as a novel therapeutic approach with a suggestive role in cancer therapy. This review summarizes work on the use of HSPPC-96 as an autologous anti-tumor vaccine in advanced melanoma. Data were retrieved by PubMed and Medline research and using the authors' personal experience. EXPERT OPINION: Further investigations are needed to understand the biological basis of immune functions in order to improve the clinical outcome of HSP-based cancer therapy. In the near future, the combination of HSP-based vaccines with other biological compounds might represent a successful strategy in the therapy of advanced melanoma.

13 Review Anti-CTLA-4 antibody adjuvant therapy in melanoma. 2010

Eggermont, Alexander M M / Testori, Alessandro / Maio, Michele / Robert, Caroline. ·Institut d'Oncologie Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France. alexander.eggermont@igr.fr ·Semin Oncol · Pubmed #21074060.

ABSTRACT: Thus far the development of adjuvant therapies in melanoma has suffered greatly from the lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma. Chemotherapy, cytokines, vaccines, and combinations of drugs have been used with minimal success. This has led to adjuvant therapies that are not used uniformly or widely because of the rather marginal benefits, as no consistent and clinically significant impact on survival has been demonstrated. A new development for interferon-based adjuvant therapy seems to be the observation that better effects are observed in patients with lower tumor load and in patients with an ulcerated primary melanoma. A benefit for patients with more advanced lymphnodal involvement is quite unsure, clearly requiring new drugs to be explored. A new era in the treatment of melanoma treatment has arrived with the anti-cytoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (anti-CTLA-4) monoclonal antibodies. The randomized trial in advanced metastatic melanoma demonstrated a clear benefit with prolongation of survival. The anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody ipilimumab has finally changed the landscape. It is therefore only logical that a worldwide adjuvant trial with ipilimumab versus placebo, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071, is ongoing in patients with lymph node metastases, and that another adjuvant trial with ipilimumab compared to high-dose interferon (HDI) is planned in the United States. The EORTC 18071 trial will reach full accrual in 2011 and thus results are expected in 2013 or 2014.

14 Review HSPPC-96 vaccine in metastatic melanoma patients: from the state of the art to a possible future. 2009

Tosti, Giulio / di Pietro, Alessandra / Ferrucci, Pier Francesco / Testori, Alessandro. ·Division of Melanoma and Muscle-Cutaneous Sarcomas, IEO, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. giulio.tosti@ieo.it ·Expert Rev Vaccines · Pubmed #19863242.

ABSTRACT: Heat-shock proteins are highly conserved, stress-induced proteins with chaperone function for trafficking and delivering peptides within the different compartments of the cell. Tumor-derived heat-shock protein-peptide complexes (HSPPCs) can be used for vaccination against malignancies. In particular, the HSPPC-96-based vaccine vitespen (formerly Oncophage) is the first autologous cancer vaccine made from individual patients' tumors that has shown encouraging results in clinical trials. In Phase I and II clinical trials, this vaccine has shown activity on different malignancies, such as gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic myelogenous leukemia. In Phase III clinical trials in melanoma and kidney cancer, it demonstrated an excellent safety profile with almost no toxicity. Heat-shock protein-based vaccines can be considered as a novel therapeutic approach with a promising role in cancer management.

15 Review Utility of adjuvant systemic therapy in melanoma. 2009

Eggermont, A M M / Testori, A / Marsden, J / Hersey, P / Quirt, I / Petrella, T / Gogas, H / MacKie, R M / Hauschild, A. ·Department of Surgical Oncology, Erasmus University Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #19617295.

ABSTRACT: The lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma has impacted the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies in stage II/III disease. To date, chemotherapy, immunostimulants and vaccines have been used with minimal success. Interferon (IFN) has shown an effect on relapse-free survival (RFS) in several clinical trials; however, without a clinically significant effect on overall survival (OS). A recently conducted meta-analysis demonstrated prolongation of disease-free survival (DFS) in 7% and OS benefit in 3% of IFN-treated patients when compared with observation-only patients. There were no clear differences for the dose and duration of treatment observed. Observation is still an appropriate control arm in adjuvant clinical trials. Regional differences exist in Europe in the adjuvant use of IFN. In Northwest Europe, IFN is infrequently prescribed. In Central and Mediterranean Europe, dermatologists commonly prescribe low-dose IFN therapy for AJCC stage II and III disease. High-dose IFN regimens are not commonly used. The population of patients that may benefit from IFN needs to be further characterised, potentially by finding biomarkers that can predict response. Such studies are ongoing.

16 Review Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. 2009

Testori, A / Rutkowski, P / Marsden, J / Bastholt, L / Chiarion-Sileni, V / Hauschild, A / Eggermont, A M M. ·European Institute of Oncology, Division of Melanoma, Milan, Italy. alessandro.testori@ieo.it ·Ann Oncol · Pubmed #19617294.

ABSTRACT: Adequate surgical management of primary melanoma and regional lymph node metastasis, and rarely distant metastasis, is the only established curative treatment. Surgical management of primary melanomas consists of excisions with 1-2 cm margins and primary closure. The recommended method of biopsy is excisional biopsy with a 2 mm margin and a small amount of subcutaneous fat. In specific situations (very large lesions or certain anatomical areas), full-thickness incisional or punch biopsy may be acceptable. Sentinel lymph node biopsy provides accurate staging information for patients with clinically unaffected regional nodes and without distant metastases, although survival benefit has not been proved. In cases of positive sentinel node biopsy or clinically detected regional nodal metastases (palpable, positive cytology or histopathology), radical removal of lymph nodes of the involved basin is indicated. For resectable local/in-transit recurrences, excision with a clear margin is recommended. For numerous or unresectable in-transit metastases of the extremities, isolated limb perfusion or infusion with melphalan should be considered. Decisions about surgery of distant metastases should be based on individual circumstances. Radiotherapy is indicated as a treatment option in select patients with lentigo maligna melanoma and as an adjuvant in select patients with regional metastatic disease. Radiotherapy is also indicated for palliation, especially in bone and brain metastases.

17 Review Cutaneous melanoma in the elderly. 2009

Testori, Alessandro / Soteldo, Javier / Sances, Daniele / Mazzarol, Giovanni / Trifirò, Giuseppe / Zonta, Mark / Rastrelli, Marco / Schenone, Francesco / Verrecchia, Francesco. ·Division of Melanoma and Soft Tissue Sarcoma, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. alessandro.testori@ieo.it ·Melanoma Res · Pubmed #19381113.

ABSTRACT: The aim of this review was to analyze the difficulties in diagnosing and treating elderly patients with cutaneous melanoma. It focused on the main causes for late diagnosis and relatively poor prognosis in these patients. Early detection of melanoma is vital to reduce mortality in these patients and surgery is often curative. Adequate treatment of elderly patients with melanoma requires knowledge of the clinical features and histopathology of the disease, and the therapeutic options. This review also examined the main surgical procedures for primary melanoma and regional lymph node staging, and the curative and palliative procedures indicated for those elderly patients with advanced disease. It is expected that several molecular genetic factors will soon provide further prognostic information of possible benefit for elderly patients with melanoma.

18 Review Vitamin D and skin cancer: a meta-analysis. 2009

Gandini, Sara / Raimondi, Sara / Gnagnarella, Patrizia / Doré, Jean-Francois / Maisonneuve, Patrick / Testori, Alessandro. ·Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan, Italy. sara.gandini@ieo.it ·Eur J Cancer · Pubmed #19008093.

ABSTRACT: A comprehensive bibliographic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies on Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (CMM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms, Vitamin D intake and 25(OH)D serum levels. Fully adjusted risk estimates were found and extracted for the two polymorphisms FokI and BsmI and Vitamin D intake. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 6805 skin cancer cases. We found an association with CMM for both polymorphisms. The summary relative risks (SRR) for the studies on CMM were: 1.21 (1.03-1.42) and 1.21 (0.95-1.54) for the Ff and ff versus wild-type of FokI, respectively. The SRR for ff versus wild-type became significant with the inclusion of NMSC. The SRR for the studies on CMM were: 0.78 (0.65-0.92) and 0.75 (0.59-0.95) for the Bb and BB versus wild-type of BsmI, respectively. There is also a slight indication of a role of dietary Vitamin D in CMM development. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests a possible significant role of VDR FokI and BsmI polymorphism in CMM and NMSC risk. The association with Vitamin D intake is less clear and further studies could be useful to clarify the role of diet.

19 Review Oncophage: step to the future for vaccine therapy in melanoma. 2008

di Pietro, Alessandra / Tosti, Giulio / Ferrucci, Pier F / Testori, Alessandro. ·Division of Melanoma and Musculo-Cutaneous Sarcomas, IEO-European Institute of Oncology, 435, Via Giuseppe Ripamonti, 20141 Milan, Italy. ·Expert Opin Biol Ther · Pubmed #18990084.

ABSTRACT: Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of proteins whose expression is increased when the cells are exposed to elevated temperatures or other stressful conditions. This increase in expression is transcriptionally regulated. The function of HSPs is similar in virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Their expression also occur under non-stressful conditions, simply 'monitoring' the cell's proteins, i.e., they carry old proteins to the cell's 'recycling bin' and they help newly synthesized proteins fold properly. These activities are part of a cell's own repair system. HSPs are molecular chaperones for protein molecules. They are usually cytoplasmic proteins and they perform functions in various intracellular processes. Tumour-derived HSP-peptide complexes (HSPPCs) can be used for vaccination against malignancies. In particular, HSPPC-96 complex, called Vitespen (formerly Oncophage) is a HSPs-based vaccine made from individual patients' tumours with a promising role in cancer management. This vaccine has been extensively studied in Phase I and II clinical trials, showing activity on different malignancies, including gastric cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic myelogenous leukaemia. The vaccine has also been studied in Phase III clinical trials in melanoma and kidney cancer, showing an excellent safety profile with essentially no toxicity. Thus, HSP-based vaccines are a novel therapeutic approach with a promising role in cancer management.

20 Review Anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody Ipilimumab in the treatment of metastatic melanoma: recent findings. 2008

Lens, Marko / Ferrucci, Pier F / Testori, Alessandro. ·King's College, Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St. Thomas' Hospital, Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH, UK. markolens@aol.com ·Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov · Pubmed #18537753.

ABSTRACT: Use of monoclonal anti-CTLA4 antibodies represents a new promising strategy to block the activation of immunosuppressive CTLA-4 and thus induce tumour regression. This review is mainly focused on the report of existing data on the clinical use of Ipilimumab (formerly MDX-010) in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Several phase I and II trials have been conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of this form of immunotherapy either alone or in combination with vaccines or chemotherapy in patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma. Results from these studies are presented, patented and discussed. The mechanism of ipilimumab action may take time to induce an anti-tumour immune response and thus it is recommended that ipilimumab therapy should be carried out for at least 12 weeks, even in the presence of early progressive disease. Objective response of around 15% has been reported in patients treated with ipilimumab. However, ipilimumab-mediated objective response and stable disease tend to be durable. The therapy with ipilimumab is associated with different side effects classified as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). The most common IRAEs are enterocolitis and dermatitis. Majority of IRAEs disappear with the discontinuation of ipilimumab anti-CTLA-4 therapy. Several phase II/III trials are ongoing to evaluate ipilimumab alone or in combination with other therapeutic modalities. Results from these trials are awaited.

21 Review Practical guidelines for the management of interferon-alpha-2b side effects in patients receiving adjuvant treatment for melanoma: expert opinion. 2008

Hauschild, Axel / Gogas, Helen / Tarhini, Ahmad / Middleton, Mark R / Testori, Alessandro / Dréno, Brigitte / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Dermatology, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany. ·Cancer · Pubmed #18236459.

ABSTRACT: Interferon-alpha-2b (IFNalpha2b) is the only effective adjuvant therapy for melanoma patients at high risk of recurrence that has been approved by regulatory authorities worldwide. However, IFN toxicities increase the risk of poor treatment compliance and impair the potential for benefit from this agent. A review of the literature demonstrated little recent attention to supportive care in the management of IFN toxicities. An international group of experts with extensive personal experience in the use of IFNs worked together to develop practical guidelines for the use of IFNs. Practical recommendations were developed for patient education on the use of IFN; initial patient assessment and monitoring, including contraindications to the use of IFN, monitoring and managing adverse events, and IFN dose modification and discontinuation; IFN injection procedures; treatment of elderly patients; and use during pregnancy and nursing. Successful adjuvant therapy of melanoma with high-dose IFN requires close compliance with the treatment regimen. Recommendations for the recognition and management of adverse events are designed to enable more patients to complete the full planned course of treatment.

22 Clinical Trial MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic as adjuvant therapy for patients with resected, MAGE-A3-positive, stage III melanoma (DERMA): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. 2018

Dreno, Brigitte / Thompson, John F / Smithers, Bernard Mark / Santinami, Mario / Jouary, Thomas / Gutzmer, Ralf / Levchenko, Evgeny / Rutkowski, Piotr / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Korovin, Sergii / Drucis, Kamil / Grange, Florent / Machet, Laurent / Hersey, Peter / Krajsova, Ivana / Testori, Alessandro / Conry, Robert / Guillot, Bernard / Kruit, Wim H J / Demidov, Lev / Thompson, John A / Bondarenko, Igor / Jaroszek, Jaroslaw / Puig, Susana / Cinat, Gabriela / Hauschild, Axel / Goeman, Jelle J / van Houwelingen, Hans C / Ulloa-Montoya, Fernando / Callegaro, Andrea / Dizier, Benjamin / Spiessens, Bart / Debois, Muriel / Brichard, Vincent G / Louahed, Jamila / Therasse, Patrick / Debruyne, Channa / Kirkwood, John M. ·Department of Dermatooncology, Hotel Dieu Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France. · Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Queensland Melanoma Project, Discipline of Surgery, The University of Queensland, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia. · Melanoma Sarcoma Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy. · Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Hôpital François Mitterrand, Pau, France. · Skin Cancer Center Hannover, Department of Dermatology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. · Petrov Research Institute of Oncology, St Petersburg, Russia. · Department of Soft Tissue, Bone Sarcoma, and Melanoma, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Institute, Oncology Center, Warsaw, Poland. · Department of Dermatology and Skin Cancers, La Timone APHM Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France. · Department of Skin and Soft Tissue Tumours, National Cancer Institute, Kiev, Ukraine. · Swissmed Centrum Zdrowia, Gdansk, Poland; Department of Surgical Oncology, Gdansk Medical University, Gdansk, Poland. · Dermatology Department, Hôpital Robert Debré, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Reims, France. · Department of Dermatology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Tours, France; UFR de Médecine, Université François-Rabelais, Tours, France. · Melanoma Immunology and Oncology Group, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Melanoma Institute Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Dermato-oncology Department, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic. · Columbus Clinic Center, Milan, Italy. · Division of Hematology & Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. · Département de Dermatologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hôpital Saint-Éloi, Montpellier, France. · Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer institute, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia. · Melanoma Institute Australia, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. · Department of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Dnipropetrovsk State Medical Academy, Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. · Centrum Medyczne Bieńkowski, Klinika Chirurgii Plastycznej, Bydgoszcz, Poland; Department of Oncological Surgery, Oncology Center, Bydgoszcz, Poland. · Melanoma Unit, Dermatology Department, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Barcelona, Spain. · Instituto de Oncología Ángel H Roffo, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. · Department of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allergology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany. · Medical Statistics, Department of Biomedical Data Sciences, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium. Electronic address: fernando.x.ulloa-montoya@GSK.com. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium; Immunology Translational Medicine, UCB, Brussels, Belgium. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium; Biostatistics Department, Janssen Research & Development, Beerse, Belgium. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium; ViaNova Biosciences, Brussels, Belgium. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium; Laboratoires Servier, Paris, France. · GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium; University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. · UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #29908991.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Despite newly approved treatments, metastatic melanoma remains a life-threatening condition. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic in patients with stage IIIB or IIIC melanoma in the adjuvant setting. METHODS: DERMA was a phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial done in 31 countries and 263 centres. Eligible patients were 18 years or older and had histologically proven, completely resected, stage IIIB or IIIC, MAGE-A3-positive cutaneous melanoma with macroscopic lymph node involvement and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0 or 1. Randomisation and treatment allocation at the investigator sites were done centrally via the internet. We randomly assigned patients (2:1) to receive up to 13 intramuscular injections of recombinant MAGE-A3 with AS15 immunostimulant (MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic; 300 μg MAGE-A3 antigen plus 420 μg CpG 7909 reconstituted in AS01B to a total volume of 0·5 mL), or placebo, over a 27-month period: five doses at 3-weekly intervals, followed by eight doses at 12-weekly intervals. The co-primary outcomes were disease-free survival in the overall population and in patients with a potentially predictive gene signature (GS-positive) identified previously and validated here via an adaptive signature design. The final analyses included all patients who had received at least one dose of study treatment; analyses for efficacy were in the as-randomised population and for safety were in the as-treated population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00796445. FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2008, and Sept 19, 2011, 3914 patients were screened, 1391 randomly assigned, and 1345 started treatment (n=895 for MAGE-A3 and n=450 for placebo). At final analysis (data cutoff May 23, 2013), median follow-up was 28·0 months [IQR 23·3-35·5] in the MAGE-A3 group and 28·1 months [23·7-36·9] in the placebo group. Median disease-free survival was 11·0 months (95% CI 10·0-11·9) in the MAGE-A3 group and 11·2 months (8·6-14·1) in the placebo group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·01, 0·88-1·17, p=0·86). In the GS-positive population, median disease-free survival was 9·9 months (95% CI 5·7-17·6) in the MAGE-A3 group and 11·6 months (5·6-22·3) in the placebo group (HR 1·11, 0·83-1·49, p=0·48). Within the first 31 days of treatment, adverse events of grade 3 or worse were reported by 126 (14%) of 894 patients in the MAGE-A3 group and 56 (12%) of 450 patients in the placebo group, treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse by 36 (4%) patients given MAGE-A3 vs six (1%) patients given placebo, and at least one serious adverse event by 14% of patients in both groups (129 patients given MAGE-A3 and 64 patients given placebo). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or worse were neoplasms (33 [4%] patients in the MAGE-A3 group vs 17 [4%] patients in the placebo group), general disorders and administration site conditions (25 [3%] for MAGE-A3 vs four [<1%] for placebo) and infections and infestations (17 [2%] for MAGE-A3 vs seven [2%] for placebo). No deaths were related to treatment. INTERPRETATION: An antigen-specific immunotherapeutic alone was not efficacious in this clinical setting. Based on these findings, development of the MAGE-A3 immunotherapeutic for use in melanoma has been stopped. FUNDING: GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals SA.

23 Clinical Trial Completion Dissection or Observation for Sentinel-Node Metastasis in Melanoma. 2017

Faries, Mark B / Thompson, John F / Cochran, Alistair J / Andtbacka, Robert H / Mozzillo, Nicola / Zager, Jonathan S / Jahkola, Tiina / Bowles, Tawnya L / Testori, Alessandro / Beitsch, Peter D / Hoekstra, Harald J / Moncrieff, Marc / Ingvar, Christian / Wouters, Michel W J M / Sabel, Michael S / Levine, Edward A / Agnese, Doreen / Henderson, Michael / Dummer, Reinhard / Rossi, Carlo R / Neves, Rogerio I / Trocha, Steven D / Wright, Frances / Byrd, David R / Matter, Maurice / Hsueh, Eddy / MacKenzie-Ross, Alastair / Johnson, Douglas B / Terheyden, Patrick / Berger, Adam C / Huston, Tara L / Wayne, Jeffrey D / Smithers, B Mark / Neuman, Heather B / Schneebaum, Schlomo / Gershenwald, Jeffrey E / Ariyan, Charlotte E / Desai, Darius C / Jacobs, Lisa / McMasters, Kelly M / Gesierich, Anja / Hersey, Peter / Bines, Steven D / Kane, John M / Barth, Richard J / McKinnon, Gregory / Farma, Jeffrey M / Schultz, Erwin / Vidal-Sicart, Sergi / Hoefer, Richard A / Lewis, James M / Scheri, Randall / Kelley, Mark C / Nieweg, Omgo E / Noyes, R Dirk / Hoon, Dave S B / Wang, He-Jing / Elashoff, David A / Elashoff, Robert M. ·From the John Wayne Cancer Institute at Saint John's Health Center, Santa Monica (M.B.F., D.S.B.H.), and the Departments of Pathology (A.J.C.), Biomathematics (H.-J.W., D.A.E., R.M.E.), and Medicine (D.A.E.), University of California, Los Angeles - both in California · Melanoma Institute Australia and the University of Sydney, Sydney (J.F.T., O.E.N.), Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, VIC (M.H.), Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (B.M.S.), and Newcastle Melanoma Unit, Waratah, NSW (P.H.) - all in Australia · Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City (R.H.A., R.D.N.), and Intermountain Healthcare Cancer Services-Intermountain Medical Center, Murray (T.L.B.) - both in Utah · Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Napoli, Naples (N.M.), Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan (A.T.), and Istituto Oncologico Veneto-University of Padua, Padua (C.R.R.) - all in Italy · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (J.S.Z.) · Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki (T.J.) · Dallas Surgical Group, Dallas (P.D.B.) · Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen, Groningen (H.J.H.), and Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (M.W.J.M.W.) - both in the Netherlands · Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (M. Moncrieff), and Guy's and St. Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London (A.M.-R.) - both in the United Kingdom · Swedish Melanoma Study Group-University Hospital Lund, Lund, Sweden (C.I.) · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (M.S.S.) · Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem (E.A.L.), and Duke University, Durham (R.S.) - both in North Carolina · Ohio State University, Columbus (D.A.) · University of Zurich, Zurich (R.D.), and Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne (M. Matter) - both in Switzerland · Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute, Hershey (R.I.N.), Thomas Jefferson University (A.C.B.) and Fox Chase Cancer Center (J.M.F.), Philadelphia, and St. Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem (D.C.D.) - all in Pennsylvania · Greenville Health System Cancer Center, Greenville, SC (S.D.T.) · Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto (F.W.), and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (G.M.) - both in Canada · University of Washington, Seattle (D.R.B.) · Saint Louis University, St. Louis (E.H.) · Vanderbilt University (D.B.J., M.C.K.), Nashville, and University of Tennessee, Knoxville (J.M.L.) - both in Tennessee · University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein-Campus Lübeck, Lübeck (P.T.), University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg (A.G.), and City Hospital of Nürnberg, Nuremberg (E.S.) - all in Germany · SUNY at Stony Brook Hospital Medical Center, Stony Brook (T.L.H.), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (C.E.A.), and Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo (J.M.K.) - all in New York · Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine (J.D.W.) and Rush University Medical Center (S.D.B.), Chicago · University of Wisconsin, Madison (H.B.N.) · Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel (S.S.) · M.D. Anderson Medical Center, Houston (J.E.G.) · Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore (L.J.) · University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (K.M.M.) · Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH (R.J.B.) · Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Barcelona (S.V.-S.) · and Sentara CarePlex Hospital, Hampton, VA (R.A.H.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #28591523.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy is associated with increased melanoma-specific survival (i.e., survival until death from melanoma) among patients with node-positive intermediate-thickness melanomas (1.2 to 3.5 mm). The value of completion lymph-node dissection for patients with sentinel-node metastases is not clear. METHODS: In an international trial, we randomly assigned patients with sentinel-node metastases detected by means of standard pathological assessment or a multimarker molecular assay to immediate completion lymph-node dissection (dissection group) or nodal observation with ultrasonography (observation group). The primary end point was melanoma-specific survival. Secondary end points included disease-free survival and the cumulative rate of nonsentinel-node metastasis. RESULTS: Immediate completion lymph-node dissection was not associated with increased melanoma-specific survival among 1934 patients with data that could be evaluated in an intention-to-treat analysis or among 1755 patients in the per-protocol analysis. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean (±SE) 3-year rate of melanoma-specific survival was similar in the dissection group and the observation group (86±1.3% and 86±1.2%, respectively; P=0.42 by the log-rank test) at a median follow-up of 43 months. The rate of disease-free survival was slightly higher in the dissection group than in the observation group (68±1.7% and 63±1.7%, respectively; P=0.05 by the log-rank test) at 3 years, based on an increased rate of disease control in the regional nodes at 3 years (92±1.0% vs. 77±1.5%; P<0.001 by the log-rank test); these results must be interpreted with caution. Nonsentinel-node metastases, identified in 11.5% of the patients in the dissection group, were a strong, independent prognostic factor for recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.78; P=0.005). Lymphedema was observed in 24.1% of the patients in the dissection group and in 6.3% of those in the observation group. CONCLUSIONS: Immediate completion lymph-node dissection increased the rate of regional disease control and provided prognostic information but did not increase melanoma-specific survival among patients with melanoma and sentinel-node metastases. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; MSLT-II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00297895 .).

24 Clinical Trial Health-related quality of life with adjuvant ipilimumab versus placebo after complete resection of high-risk stage III melanoma (EORTC 18071): secondary outcomes of a multinational, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. 2017

Coens, Corneel / Suciu, Stefan / Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Dummer, Reinhard / Wolchok, Jedd D / Schmidt, Henrik / Hamid, Omid / Robert, Caroline / Ascierto, Paolo A / Richards, Jon M / Lebbé, Celeste / Ferraresi, Virginia / Smylie, Michael / Weber, Jeffrey S / Maio, Michele / Bottomley, Andrew / Kotapati, Srividya / de Pril, Veerle / Testori, Alessandro / Eggermont, Alexander M M. ·EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address: corneel.coens@eortc.be. · EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium. · IOV-IRCCS, Melanoma Oncology Unit, Padova, Italy. · Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France. · University of Zürich Hospital, Zürich, Switzerland. · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. · Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA. · Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grand Paris, Villejuif, France. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione "G. Pascale", Naples, Italy. · Oncology Specialists S C, Park Ridge, IL, USA. · Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris. · Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri, Rome, Italy. · Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada. · H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. · University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Wallingford, CT, USA. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Braine-l'Alleud, Belgium. · European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. ·Lancet Oncol · Pubmed #28162999.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The EORTC 18071 phase 3 trial compared adjuvant ipilimumab with placebo in patients with stage III melanoma. The primary endpoint, recurrence-free survival, was significantly longer in the ipilimumab group than in the placebo group. Investigator-reported toxic effects of ipilimumab consisted mainly of skin, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and hepatic immune-related adverse events. Adjuvant treatment with ipilimumab in this setting was approved in October, 2014, by the US Food and Drug Administration based on the results of the primary outcome of this trial. Here, we report the results of the secondary endpoint, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), of this trial. METHODS: EORTC 18071 was a multinational, double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial in patients with stage III cutaneous melanoma (excluding lymph node metastasis ≤1 mm or in-transit metastasis) in 19 countries worldwide. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by an interactive voice response system, to receive either ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for four doses, then every 3 months for up to 3 years. Using a minimisation technique, randomisation was stratified by disease stage and geographical region. HRQoL was assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 quality-of-life instrument at baseline, weeks 4, 7, 10, and 24, and every 12 weeks thereafter up to 2 years, irrespective of disease progression. Results were summarised by timepoint and in a longitudinal manner in the intention-to-treat population. Two summary scores were calculated for each HRQoL scale: the average score reported during induction (ipilimumab or placebo at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered as one single dose at the start of days 1, 22, 43, and 64-ie, four doses in 3 weeks), and the average score reported after induction. A predefined threshold of a 10 point difference between arms was considered clinically relevant. The primary HRQoL endpoint was the global health scale, with the predefined hypothesis of no clinically relevant differences after induction between groups. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2007-001974-10, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00636168. FINDINGS: Between July 10, 2008, and Aug 1, 2011, 951 patients were randomly assigned to treatment: 475 in the ipilimumab group and 476 in the placebo group. Compliance with completing the HRQoL questionnaire was 893 (94%) of 951 patients at baseline, 693 (75%) of 924 at week 24, and 354 (51%) of 697 at week 108. Patient mean global health scores during (77·32 [SD 17·36] vs 72·96 [17·82]; p=0·00011) and after induction (76·48 [17·52] vs 72·32 [18·60]; p=0·00067) were statistically significantly different between groups but were not clinically relevant. Mean global health scores differed most between the groups at week 7 (77 [SD 19] in the placebo group vs 72 [22] in the ipilimumab group) and week 10 (77 [20] vs 70 [23]). Mean HRQoL scores differed by more than 10 points at week 10 between treatment groups for diarrhoea (7·67 [SD 17·05] for placebo vs 18·17 [28·35] for ipilimumab) and insomnia (15·17 [22·53] vs 25·60 [29·19]). INTERPRETATION: Despite increased toxicity, which led to treatment discontinuation for most patients during the induction phase of ipilimumab administration, overall HRQoL, as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30, was similar between groups, as no clinically relevant differences (10 points or more) in global health status scores were observed during or after induction. Clinically relevant deterioration for some symptoms was observed at week 10, but after induction, no clinically relevant differences remained. Together with the primary analysis, results from this trial show that treatment with ipilimumab results in longer recurrence-free survival compared with that for treatment with placebo, with little impairment in HRQoL despite grade 3-4 investigator-reported adverse events. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.

25 Clinical Trial Prolonged Survival in Stage III Melanoma with Ipilimumab Adjuvant Therapy. 2016

Eggermont, Alexander M M / Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna / Grob, Jean-Jacques / Dummer, Reinhard / Wolchok, Jedd D / Schmidt, Henrik / Hamid, Omid / Robert, Caroline / Ascierto, Paolo A / Richards, Jon M / Lebbé, Céleste / Ferraresi, Virginia / Smylie, Michael / Weber, Jeffrey S / Maio, Michele / Bastholt, Lars / Mortier, Laurent / Thomas, Luc / Tahir, Saad / Hauschild, Axel / Hassel, Jessica C / Hodi, F Stephen / Taitt, Corina / de Pril, Veerle / de Schaetzen, Gaetan / Suciu, Stefan / Testori, Alessandro. ·From Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus Grand Paris, Villejuif (A.M.M.E., C.R.), Aix-Marseille University, Hôpital de La Timone, Marseille (J.-J.G.), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris (C.L.), University Lille, INSERM Unité-1189, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Lille, Service de Dermatologie, Lille (L.M.), and CHU Lyon, Lyon (L.T.) - all in France · the Oncology Institute of Veneto-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Padua (V.C.-S.), Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples (P.A.A.), Istituti Fisioterapici Ospitalieri, Rome (V.F.), University Hospital of Siena, Istituto Toscano Tumori, Siena (M.M.), and the European Institute of Oncology, Milan (A.T.) - all in Italy · University of Zurich Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland (R.D.) · Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (J.D.W.) · Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (H.S.), and Odense University Hospital, Odense (L.B.) - both in Denmark · the Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles (O.H.) · Oncology Specialists, Park Ridge, IL (J.M.R.) · Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada (M.S.) · H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (J.S.W.) · Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, United Kingdom (S.T.) · Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (A.H.), and University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (J.C.H.) - both in Germany · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston (F.S.H.) · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ (C.T., V.P.) · and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Brussels (G.S., S.S.). ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #27717298.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: On the basis of data from a phase 2 trial that compared the checkpoint inhibitor ipilimumab at doses of 0.3 mg, 3 mg, and 10 mg per kilogram of body weight in patients with advanced melanoma, this phase 3 trial evaluated ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram in patients who had undergone complete resection of stage III melanoma. METHODS: After patients had undergone complete resection of stage III cutaneous melanoma, we randomly assigned them to receive ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram (475 patients) or placebo (476) every 3 weeks for four doses, then every 3 months for up to 3 years or until disease recurrence or an unacceptable level of toxic effects occurred. Recurrence-free survival was the primary end point. Secondary end points included overall survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and safety. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5.3 years, the 5-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 40.8% in the ipilimumab group, as compared with 30.3% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P<0.001). The rate of overall survival at 5 years was 65.4% in the ipilimumab group, as compared with 54.4% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.72; 95.1% CI, 0.58 to 0.88; P=0.001). The rate of distant metastasis-free survival at 5 years was 48.3% in the ipilimumab group, as compared with 38.9% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death or distant metastasis, 0.76; 95.8% CI, 0.64 to 0.92; P=0.002). Adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 54.1% of the patients in the ipilimumab group and in 26.2% of those in the placebo group. Immune-related adverse events of grade 3 or 4 occurred in 41.6% of the patients in the ipilimumab group and in 2.7% of those in the placebo group. In the ipilimumab group, 5 patients (1.1%) died owing to immune-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: As adjuvant therapy for high-risk stage III melanoma, ipilimumab at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram resulted in significantly higher rates of recurrence-free survival, overall survival, and distant metastasis-free survival than placebo. There were more immune-related adverse events with ipilimumab than with placebo. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00636168 , and EudraCT number, 2007-001974-10 .).