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Melanoma: HELP
Articles by Walter J. Urba
Based on 19 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Walter Urba wrote the following 19 articles about Melanoma.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Guideline The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on tumour immunotherapy for the treatment of cutaneous melanoma. 2013

Kaufman, Howard L / Kirkwood, John M / Hodi, F Stephen / Agarwala, Sanjiv / Amatruda, Thomas / Bines, Steven D / Clark, Joseph I / Curti, Brendan / Ernstoff, Marc S / Gajewski, Thomas / Gonzalez, Rene / Hyde, Laura Jane / Lawson, David / Lotze, Michael / Lutzky, Jose / Margolin, Kim / McDermott, David F / Morton, Donald / Pavlick, Anna / Richards, Jon M / Sharfman, William / Sondak, Vernon K / Sosman, Jeffrey / Steel, Susan / Tarhini, Ahmad / Thompson, John A / Titze, Jill / Urba, Walter / White, Richard / Atkins, Michael B. ·Rush University Cancer Center, 1725 West Harrison Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA. ·Nat Rev Clin Oncol · Pubmed #23982524.

ABSTRACT: Immunotherapy is associated with durable clinical benefit in patients with melanoma. The goal of this article is to provide evidence-based consensus recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in the clinical management of patients with high-risk and advanced-stage melanoma in the USA. To achieve this goal, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer sponsored a panel of melanoma experts--including physicians, nurses, and patient advocates--to develop a consensus for the clinical application of tumour immunotherapy for patients with melanoma. The Institute of Medicine clinical practice guidelines were used as a basis for this consensus development. A systematic literature search was performed for high-impact studies in English between 1992 and 2012 and was supplemented as appropriate by the panel. This consensus report focuses on issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical end points and sequencing or combination of therapy. The literature review and consensus panel voting and discussion were used to generate recommendations for the use of immunotherapy in patients with melanoma, and to assess and rate the strength of the supporting evidence. From the peer-reviewed literature the consensus panel identified a role for interferon-α2b, pegylated-interferon-α2b, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and ipilimumab in the clinical management of melanoma. Expert recommendations for how to incorporate these agents into the therapeutic approach to melanoma are provided in this consensus statement. Tumour immunotherapy is a useful therapeutic strategy in the management of patients with melanoma and evidence-based consensus recommendations for clinical integration are provided and will be updated as warranted.

2 Review Clinical deployment of antibodies for treatment of melanoma. 2015

Curti, Brendan D / Urba, Walter J. ·Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, 4805 NE Glisan St. 2N35, Portland, OR 97213, United States. Electronic address: brendan.curti@providence.org. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, 4805 NE Glisan St. 2N35, Portland, OR 97213, United States. Electronic address: walter.urba@providence.org. ·Mol Immunol · Pubmed #25746916.

ABSTRACT: The concept of using immunotherapy to treat melanoma has existed for decades. The rationale comes from the knowledge that many patients with melanoma have endogenous immune responses against their tumor cells and clinically meaningful tumor regression can be achieved in a minority of patients using cytokines such as interleukin-2 and adoptive cellular therapy. In the last 5 years there has been a revolution in the clinical management of melanoma in large measure based on the development of antibodies that influence T cell regulatory pathways by overcoming checkpoint inhibition and providing co-stimulation, either of which results in significantly more effective immune-mediated tumor destruction. This review will describe the pre-clinical and clinical application of antagonistic antibodies targeting the T-cell checkpoints cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1), and agonistic antibodies targeting the costimulatory pathways OX40 and 4-1BB. Recent progress and opportunities for future investigation of combination antibody therapy will be described.

3 Review At the bench: adoptive cell therapy for melanoma. 2014

Urba, Walter J. ·Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon, USA walter.urba@providence.org. ·J Leukoc Biol · Pubmed #24659789.

ABSTRACT: The cellular and molecular principles that furnish the foundation for ACT of melanoma and their implications for further clinical research are reviewed. The parallel advances in basic immunology, preclinical animal studies, and clinical trials over the last two decades have been integrated successfully with improvements in technology to produce an effective ACT strategy for patients with melanoma. From the initial observation that tumors could be treated effectively by the transfer of immune cells to current strategies using preconditioning with myeloablative therapy before adoptive transfer of native or genetically altered T cells, the role of preclinical animal models is discussed. The importance of the pmel transgenic mouse model in the determination of the mechanisms of lymphodepletion, the ongoing work to identify the optimal T cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and the early impact of the emerging discipline of synthetic biology are highlighted. The clinical consequences of the research described herein are reviewed in the companion manuscript.

4 Review Development of ipilimumab: a novel immunotherapeutic approach for the treatment of advanced melanoma. 2013

Wolchok, Jedd D / Hodi, F Stephen / Weber, Jeffrey S / Allison, James P / Urba, Walter J / Robert, Caroline / O'Day, Steven J / Hoos, Axel / Humphrey, Rachel / Berman, David M / Lonberg, Nils / Korman, Alan J. ·Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10021, USA. wolchokj@mskcc.org ·Ann N Y Acad Sci · Pubmed #23772560.

ABSTRACT: The immunotherapeutic agent ipilimumab has helped address a significant unmet need in the treatment of advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), thereby augmenting antitumor immune responses. After decades in which a number of clinical trials were conducted, ipilimumab was the first therapy to improve overall survival in a randomized, controlled phase III trial of patients with advanced melanoma. These results led to the regulatory approval of ipilimumab at 3 mg/kg for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. More than 17,000 patients worldwide have received ipilimumab, either as a commercial drug at 3 mg/kg or in clinical trials and expanded access programs at different doses. Consistent with its proposed mechanism of action, the most common toxicities associated with ipilimumab therapy are inflammatory in nature. These immune-related adverse events were mostly reversible when effective treatment guidelines were followed. Importantly, long-term follow-up of patients who received ipilimumab in a phase III trial showed that 24% survived at least two years, and in phase II studies, a proportion of patients survived at least five years. Evaluation of ipilimumab is ongoing in the adjuvant setting for melanoma, and for advanced disease in nonsmall cell lung, small cell lung, prostate, ovarian, and gastric cancers.

5 Review Integrating new therapies in the treatment of advanced melanoma. 2012

Curti, Brendan D / Urba, Walter J. ·Providence Cancer Center, Portland, OR 97213, USA. brendan.curti@providence.org ·Curr Treat Options Oncol · Pubmed #22743761.

ABSTRACT: Treatments for advanced melanoma have evolved rapidly based on improved understanding of the pathways that determine T-cell responses and knowledge of growth-related mutations, which can be targeted with new classes of pharmacologic agents. The FDA approved ipilimumab and vemurafenib for advanced melanoma in 2011. Our practice is to evaluate all tumors from patients with metastatic disease for the presence of a BRAF mutation (Fig. 1). More than 20 years of follow-up show that responders to IL-2 can be cured of their melanoma. Therefore, we recommend high-dose IL-2 as first line therapy for patients with excellent functional status and normal cardiopulmonary reserve regardless of their BRAF mutation status. We use ipilimumab, which can induce durable tumor regressions and improved survival, as initial therapy for patients who refuse or are not candidates for IL-2, also regardless of their BRAF mutation status. Ipilimumab can be used as salvage therapy for patients with advanced disease after IL-2 or vemurafenib. Targeted therapies such as vemurafenib or imatinib can be offered to patients whose melanomas express the BRAF V600E or C-Kit mutations. Vemurafenib is particularly useful for patients whose disease is progressing rapidly, as clinical improvement can be obtained within days of starting therapy and response rates may be as high as 70 %. The major reason we do not recommend vemurafenib as first line treatment in all patients whose tumors have BRAF mutations is the short median duration of response of approximately 7 months. Enrollment in a clinical trial should always be considered for patients with metastatic melanoma. The clinical trial focus has changed from finding any agent with activity in melanoma, to overcoming mechanisms of resistance and enhancing the immunomodulatory activity of these new agents that confer therapeutic benefit. Selected patients can benefit from surgical resection or radiation to manage oligometastatic disease.

6 Review Multiple vaccinations: friend or foe. 2011

Church, Sarah E / Jensen, Shawn M / Twitty, Christopher G / Bahjat, Keith / Hu, Hong-Ming / Urba, Walter J / Fox, Bernard A. ·Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland Medical Center, USA. ·Cancer J · Pubmed #21952289.

ABSTRACT: Few immunotherapists would accept the concept of a single vaccination inducing a therapeutic anticancer immune response in a patient with advanced cancer. But what is the evidence to support the "more-is-better" approach of multiple vaccinations? Because we are unaware of trials comparing the effect of a single vaccine versus multiple vaccinations on patient outcome, we considered that an anticancer immune response might provide a surrogate measure of the effectiveness of vaccination strategies. Because few large trials include immunologic monitoring, the majority of information is gleaned from smaller trials in which an evaluation of immune responses to vaccine or tumor, before and at 1 or more times following the first vaccine, was performed. In some studies, there is convincing evidence that repeated administration of a specific vaccine can augment the immune response to antigens contained in the vaccine. In other settings, multiple vaccinations can significantly reduce the immune response to 1 or more targets. Results from 3 large adjuvant vaccine studies support the potential detrimental effect of multiple vaccinations as clinical outcomes in the control arms were significantly better than that for treatment groups. Recent research has provided insights into mechanisms that are likely responsible for the reduced responses in the studies noted above, but supporting evidence from clinical specimens is generally lacking. Interpretation of these results is further complicated by the possibility that the dominant immune response may evolve to recognize epitopes not present in the vaccine. Nonetheless, the Food and Drug Administration approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine and recent developments from preclinical models and clinical trials provide a substantial basis for optimism and a critical evaluation of cancer vaccine strategies.

7 Clinical Trial Results from an Integrated Safety Analysis of Urelumab, an Agonist Anti-CD137 Monoclonal Antibody. 2017

Segal, Neil H / Logan, Theodore F / Hodi, F Stephen / McDermott, David / Melero, Ignacio / Hamid, Omid / Schmidt, Henrik / Robert, Caroline / Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna / Ascierto, Paolo A / Maio, Michele / Urba, Walter J / Gangadhar, Tara C / Suryawanshi, Satyendra / Neely, Jaclyn / Jure-Kunkel, Maria / Krishnan, Suba / Kohrt, Holbrook / Sznol, Mario / Levy, Ronald. ·Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indianapolis, Indiana. · Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. · Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. · Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. · The Angeles Clinic and Research Institute, Los Angeles, California. · Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. · Gustave Roussy and Paris-Sud University Villejuif, Villejuif, France. · Istituto Oncologico Veneto, Padua, Italy. · Istituto Nazionale Tumori Fondazione "G. Pascale," Naples, Italy. · University Hospital of Siena, Siena, Italy. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon. · Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey. · Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. · Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut. · Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California. levy@stanford.edu. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #27756788.

ABSTRACT:

8 Clinical Trial Serum Immunoregulatory Proteins as Predictors of Overall Survival of Metastatic Melanoma Patients Treated with Ipilimumab. 2015

Koguchi, Yoshinobu / Hoen, Helena M / Bambina, Shelly A / Rynning, Michael D / Fuerstenberg, Richard K / Curti, Brendan D / Urba, Walter J / Milburn, Christina / Bahjat, Frances Rena / Korman, Alan J / Bahjat, Keith S. ·Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon. · R&D Systems, Minneapolis, Minnesota. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Redwood City, California. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon. keith.bahjat@providence.org. ·Cancer Res · Pubmed #26627641.

ABSTRACT: Treatment with ipilimumab improves overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic melanoma. Because ipilimumab targets T lymphocytes and not the tumor itself, efficacy may be uniquely sensitive to immunomodulatory factors present at the time of treatment. We analyzed serum from patients with metastatic melanoma (247 of 273, 90.4%) randomly assigned to receive ipilimumab or gp100 peptide vaccine. We quantified candidate biomarkers at baseline and assessed the association of each using multivariate analyses. Results were confirmed in an independent cohort of similar patients (48 of 52, 92.3%) treated with ipilimumab. After controlling for baseline covariates, elevated chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11 (CXCL11) and soluble MHC class I polypeptide-related chain A (sMICA) were associated with poor OS in ipilimumab-treated patients [log10 CXCL11: HR, 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-3.12; P = 0.014; and log10 sMICA quadratic effect P = 0.066; sMICA (≥ 247 vs. 247): HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.02-3.01]. Multivariate analysis of an independent ipilimumab-treated cohort confirmed the association between log10 CXCL11 and OS (HR, 3.18; 95% CI, 1.13-8.95; P = 0.029), whereas sMICA was less strongly associated with OS [log10 sMICA quadratic effect P = 0.16; sMICA (≥ 247 vs. 247): HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.67-3.27]. High baseline CXCL11 and sMICA were associated with poor OS in patients with metastatic melanoma after ipilimumab treatment but not vaccine treatment. Thus, pretreatment CXCL11 and sMICA may represent predictors of survival benefit after ipilimumab treatment as well as therapeutic targets.

9 Clinical Trial Phase 1 study of stereotactic body radiotherapy and interleukin-2--tumor and immunological responses. 2012

Seung, Steven K / Curti, Brendan D / Crittenden, Marka / Walker, Edwin / Coffey, Todd / Siebert, Janet C / Miller, William / Payne, Roxanne / Glenn, Lyn / Bageac, Alexandru / Urba, Walter J. ·Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Portland, OR 97213, USA. ·Sci Transl Med · Pubmed #22674552.

ABSTRACT: Preclinical models suggest that focal high-dose radiation can make tumors more immunogenic. We performed a pilot study of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) followed by high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to assess safety and tumor response rate and perform exploratory immune monitoring studies. Patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who had received no previous medical therapy for metastatic disease were eligible. Patients received one, two, or three doses of SBRT (20 Gy per fraction) with the last dose administered 3 days before starting IL-2. IL-2 (600,000 IU per kilogram by means of intravenous bolus infusion) was given every 8 hours for a maximum of 14 doses with a second cycle after a 2-week rest. Patients with regressing disease received up to six IL-2 cycles. Twelve patients were included in the intent-to-treat analysis, and 11 completed treatment per the study design. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria were used to assess overall response in nonirradiated target lesions. Eight of 12 patients (66.6%) achieved a complete (CR) or partial response (PR) (1 CR and 7 PR). Six of the patients with PR on computed tomography had a CR by positron emission tomography imaging. Five of seven (71.4%) patients with melanoma had a PR or CR, and three of five (60%) with RCC had a PR. Immune monitoring showed a statistically significantly greater frequency of proliferating CD4(+) T cells with an early activated effector memory phenotype (CD3(+)CD4(+)Ki67(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(-)CCR7(-)CD45RA(-)CD27(+)CD28(+/-)) in the peripheral blood of responding patients. SBRT and IL-2 can be administered safely. Because the response rate in patients with melanoma was significantly higher than expected on the basis of historical data, we believe that the combination and investigation of CD4(+) effector memory T cells as a predictor of response warrant further study.

10 Clinical Trial Improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma. 2010

Hodi, F Stephen / O'Day, Steven J / McDermott, David F / Weber, Robert W / Sosman, Jeffrey A / Haanen, John B / Gonzalez, Rene / Robert, Caroline / Schadendorf, Dirk / Hassel, Jessica C / Akerley, Wallace / van den Eertwegh, Alfons J M / Lutzky, Jose / Lorigan, Paul / Vaubel, Julia M / Linette, Gerald P / Hogg, David / Ottensmeier, Christian H / Lebbé, Celeste / Peschel, Christian / Quirt, Ian / Clark, Joseph I / Wolchok, Jedd D / Weber, Jeffrey S / Tian, Jason / Yellin, Michael J / Nichol, Geoffrey M / Hoos, Axel / Urba, Walter J. ·Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. stephen_hodi@dfci.harvard.edu ·N Engl J Med · Pubmed #20525992.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. METHODS: A total of 676 HLA-A*0201-positive patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, whose disease had progressed while they were receiving therapy for metastatic disease, were randomly assigned, in a 3:1:1 ratio, to receive ipilimumab plus gp100 (403 patients), ipilimumab alone (137), or gp100 alone (136). Ipilimumab, at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight, was administered with or without gp100 every 3 weeks for up to four treatments (induction). Eligible patients could receive reinduction therapy. The primary end point was overall survival. RESULTS: The median overall survival was 10.0 months among patients receiving ipilimumab plus gp100, as compared with 6.4 months among patients receiving gp100 alone (hazard ratio for death, 0.68; P<0.001). The median overall survival with ipilimumab alone was 10.1 months (hazard ratio for death in the comparison with gp100 alone, 0.66; P=0.003). No difference in overall survival was detected between the ipilimumab groups (hazard ratio with ipilimumab plus gp100, 1.04; P=0.76). Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events occurred in 10 to 15% of patients treated with ipilimumab and in 3% treated with gp100 alone. There were 14 deaths related to the study drugs (2.1%), and 7 were associated with immune-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Ipilimumab, with or without a gp100 peptide vaccine, as compared with gp100 alone, improved overall survival in patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma. Adverse events can be severe, long-lasting, or both, but most are reversible with appropriate treatment. (Funded by Medarex and Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00094653.)

11 Clinical Trial Phase I/II study of ipilimumab for patients with metastatic melanoma. 2008

Weber, Jeffrey S / O'Day, Steven / Urba, Walter / Powderly, John / Nichol, Geoff / Yellin, Michael / Snively, Jolie / Hersh, Evan. ·University of Southern California/Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. jeffrey.weber@moffitt.org ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #19018089.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The primary objective of this phase I/II study was to determine the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of either transfectoma- or a hybridoma-derived ipilimumab. Secondary objectives included determination of a maximum-tolerated dose and assessment of clinical activity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-eight patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma with at least one measurable lesion were treated. Mean age was 59 years, with 65% male and 35% female patients, and 79% of patients had received prior systemic therapy. Single doses of ipilimumab up to 20 mg/kg (group A, single dose), multiple doses up to 5 mg/kg (group A, multiple dose), and multiple doses up to 10 mg/kg (group B) were administered. RESULTS: Single dosing up to 20 mg/kg of transfectoma antibody was well tolerated, as were multiple doses up to 10 mg/kg without a maximum-tolerated dose. In group B, dose-limiting toxicity was seen in six of 23 melanoma patients. Grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events (irAEs) were observed in 14% of patients (12 of 88 patients), and grade 1 or 2 irAEs were seen in an additional 58%. The half-life of ipilimumab was 359 hours. In group B, there was one partial response (23+ months), one complete response (21+ months), and seven patients with stable disease (SD), for a disease control rate of 39%. Two patients in group B with SD had slow, steady decline in tumor burden that was ongoing at 1 year of observation. CONCLUSION: Ipilimumab has activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. Late responses were observed in patients with prolonged SD.

12 Clinical Trial Three phase II cytokine working group trials of gp100 (210M) peptide plus high-dose interleukin-2 in patients with HLA-A2-positive advanced melanoma. 2008

Sosman, Jeffrey A / Carrillo, Carole / Urba, Walter J / Flaherty, Lawrence / Atkins, Michael B / Clark, Joseph I / Dutcher, Janet / Margolin, Kim A / Mier, James / Gollob, Jarod / Kirkwood, John M / Panka, David J / Crosby, Nancy A / O'Boyle, Kevin / LaFleur, Bonnie / Ernstoff, Marc S. ·Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center Vanderbilt, University Medical Center, Section of Hematology/Oncology, 777 Preston Research Bldg, Nashville, TN 37232-6307, USA. jeff.sosman@vanderbilt.edu ·J Clin Oncol · Pubmed #18467720.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) induces responses in 15% to 20% of patients with advanced melanoma; 5% to 8% are durable complete responses (CRs). The HLA-A2-restricted, modified gp100 peptide (210M) induces T-cell immunity in vivo and has little antitumor activity but, combined with high-dose IL-2, reportedly has a 42% (13 of 31 patients) response rate (RR). We evaluated 210M with one of three different IL-2 schedules to determine whether a basis exists for a phase III trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In three separate phase II trials, patients with melanoma received 210M subcutaneously during weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10 and standard high-dose IL-2 during weeks 1 and 3 (trial 1), weeks 7 and 9 (trial 2), or weeks 1, 4, 7, and 10 (trial 3). Immune assays were performed on peripheral-blood mononuclear cells collected before and after treatment. RESULTS: From 1998 to 2003, 131 patients with HLA-A2-positive were enrolled. With 60-month median follow-up time, the overall RR for 121 assessable patients was 16.5% (95% CI, 10% to 26%); the RRs were 23.8% in trial 1 (42 patients), 12.5% in trial 2 (40 patients), and 12.8% in trial 3 (39 patients). There were 11 CRs (9%) and nine partial responses (7%), with 11 patients (9%) progression free at >or= 30 months. Immune studies including assays of CD3-zeta expression and numbers of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD15(+)/CD11b(+)/CD14(-) immature myeloid-derived cells, and CD8(+)gp100 tetramer-positive cells in the blood did not correlate with clinical benefit. CONCLUSION: The results again demonstrate efficacy of high-dose IL-2 in advanced melanoma but did not demonstrate the promising clinical activity reported with vaccine and high-dose IL-2 in any of three phase II trials.

13 Article Tumor and Microenvironment Evolution during Immunotherapy with Nivolumab. 2017

Riaz, Nadeem / Havel, Jonathan J / Makarov, Vladimir / Desrichard, Alexis / Urba, Walter J / Sims, Jennifer S / Hodi, F Stephen / Martín-Algarra, Salvador / Mandal, Rajarsi / Sharfman, William H / Bhatia, Shailender / Hwu, Wen-Jen / Gajewski, Thomas F / Slingluff, Craig L / Chowell, Diego / Kendall, Sviatoslav M / Chang, Han / Shah, Rachna / Kuo, Fengshen / Morris, Luc G T / Sidhom, John-William / Schneck, Jonathan P / Horak, Christine E / Weinhold, Nils / Chan, Timothy A. ·Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, OR 97213, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. · Medical Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain. · Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. · Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. · Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA. · Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. · Department of Surgery and University of Virginia Cancer Center, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. · Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ 08648, USA. · Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: weinholn@mskcc.org. · Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA; Immunogenomics and Precision Oncology Platform, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address: chant@mskcc.org. ·Cell · Pubmed #29033130.

ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which immune checkpoint blockade modulates tumor evolution during therapy are unclear. We assessed genomic changes in tumors from 68 patients with advanced melanoma, who progressed on ipilimumab or were ipilimumab-naive, before and after nivolumab initiation (CA209-038 study). Tumors were analyzed by whole-exome, transcriptome, and/or T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing. In responding patients, mutation and neoantigen load were reduced from baseline, and analysis of intratumoral heterogeneity during therapy demonstrated differential clonal evolution within tumors and putative selection against neoantigenic mutations on-therapy. Transcriptome analyses before and during nivolumab therapy revealed increases in distinct immune cell subsets, activation of specific transcriptional networks, and upregulation of immune checkpoint genes that were more pronounced in patients with response. Temporal changes in intratumoral TCR repertoire revealed expansion of T cell clones in the setting of neoantigen loss. Comprehensive genomic profiling data in this study provide insight into nivolumab's mechanism of action.

14 Article Efficacy and Safety of Nivolumab in Patients With BRAF V600 Mutant and BRAF Wild-Type Advanced Melanoma: A Pooled Analysis of 4 Clinical Trials. 2015

Larkin, James / Lao, Christopher D / Urba, Walter J / McDermott, David F / Horak, Christine / Jiang, Joel / Wolchok, Jedd D. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London, England. · Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor3Department of Dermatology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. · Earle A. Chiles Research Institute at Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon. · Department of Hematology/Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts. · Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Princeton, New Jersey. · Bristol-Myers Squibb Co, Hopewell, New Jersey. · Ludwig Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York9Weill-Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. ·JAMA Oncol · Pubmed #26181250.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: The anti-PD-1 therapeutic antibody, nivolumab, has demonstrated clinical activity in patients with advanced melanoma. The activity of nivolumab in subgroups of patients with tumors which have wild-type BRAF kinase vs patients with tumors having mutant BRAF has not systematically been explored in a large dataset. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in patients with wild-type BRAF and mutant BRAF metastatic melanoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective analysis of data pooled from 4 clinical trials of nivolumab in 440 adult patients with unresectable stage III or stage IV melanoma, who had been tested for BRAF mutational status while participating in one of the studies. INTERVENTION: The investigational drug, nivolumab, was administered intravenously to study participants over a 60-minute period, at doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression, discontinuation owing to adverse events, withdrawal, or end of study. Most patients (83%) received nivolumab at a dosage of 3 mg/kg. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Best overall response by modified World Health Organization or Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria and safety profile. RESULTS: Of a total of 440 patients from 4 nivolumab clinical trials included in the analysis, 334 were BRAF wild-type and 106 were positive for BRAF V600 mutation. With the exception of prior BRAF inhibitor therapy, the demographics were well balanced between the 2 cohorts. In patients evaluable for response, the objective response rates were 34.6% (95% CI, 28.3-41.3) for the 217 patients with wild-type BRAF status and 29.7% (95% CI, 19.7-41.5) for the 74 with mutant BRAF status. The objective response rates did not seem to be affected by prior BRAF inhibitor therapy, prior ipilimumab therapy, or PD-L1 status of the tumor. The median duration of objective response was 14.8 months (95% CI, 11.1-24.0 months) for wild-type BRAF and 11.2 months (95% CI, 7.3-22.9 months) for mutant BRAF. Median time to objective response was 2.2 months in both patient groups. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events of any grade was 68.3% in the wild-type BRAF group and 58.5% in the mutant BRAF group, with grade 3 or 4 adverse events in 11.7% and 2.8% of patients, respectively. Treatment-related AEs of any grade that occurred in at least 5% of patients in either group were fatigue, pruritus, rash, and diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The results of this retrospective analysis suggest that nivolumab has similar efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with wild-type or mutant BRAF, regardless of prior BRAF inhibitor or ipilimumab treatment.

15 Article Melanoma: more answers, more questions. 2013

Urba, Walter J. ·Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Cancer Center, Portland, Oregon 97213, USA. walter.urba@providence.org ·Oncologist · Pubmed #23814163.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Article Tumor-derived autophagosome vaccine: mechanism of cross-presentation and therapeutic efficacy. 2011

Li, Yuhuan / Wang, Li-Xin / Pang, Puiyi / Cui, Zhihua / Aung, Sandra / Haley, Daniel / Fox, Bernard A / Urba, Walter J / Hu, Hong-Ming. ·Laboratory of Cancer Immunobiology, Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 97213, USA. ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #22068657.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We previously reported that autophagy in tumor cells plays a critical role in cross-presentation of tumor antigens and that autophagosomes are efficient antigen carriers for cross-priming of tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Here, we sought to characterize further the autophagosome-enriched vaccine named DRibble (DRiPs-containing blebs), which is derived from tumor cells after inhibition of protein degradation, and to provide insights into the mechanisms responsible for their efficacy as a novel cancer immunotherapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: DRibbles were characterized by Western blot and light or transmission electron microscopy. The efficiency of cross-presentation mediated by DRibbles was first compared with that of whole-tumor cells and pure proteins. The mechanisms of antigen cross-presentation by DRibbles were analyzed, and the antitumor efficacy of the DRibble vaccine was tested in 3LL Lewis lung tumors and B16F10 melanoma. RESULTS: The DRibbles sequester both long-lived and short-lived proteins, including defective ribosomal products (DRiP), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules exemplified by HSP90, HSP94, calreticulin, and HMGB1. DRibbles express ligands for CLEC9A, a newly described C-type lectin receptor expressed by a subset of conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC), and cross-presentation was partially CLEC9A dependent. Furthermore, this autophagy-assisted antigen cross-presentation pathway involved both caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation machinery. It depends on proteasome and TAP1, but not lysosome functions of antigen-presenting cells. Importantly, DCs loaded with autophagosome-enriched DRibbles can eradicate 3LL Lewis lung tumors and significantly delay the growth of B16F10 melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: These data documented the unique characteristics and potent antitumor efficacy of the autophagosome-based DRibble vaccine. The efficacy of DRibble cancer vaccine will be further tested in clinical trials.

17 Article CD122+CD8+ Treg suppress vaccine-induced antitumor immune responses in lymphodepleted mice. 2010

Wang, Li-Xin / Li, Yuhuan / Yang, Guojun / Pang, Pui-yi / Haley, Dan / Walker, Edwin B / Urba, Walter J / Hu, Hong-Ming. ·Laboratory of Cancer Immunobiology, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, OR 97213, USA. ·Eur J Immunol · Pubmed #20186876.

ABSTRACT: Lymphodeleption prior to adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells greatly improves the clinical efficacy of adoptive T-cell therapy for patients with advanced melanoma, and increases the therapeutic efficacy of cancer vaccines in animal models. Lymphodepletion reduces competition between lymphocytes, and thus creates "space" for enhanced expansion and survival of tumor-specific T cells. Within the lymphodepleted host, Ag-specific T cells still need to compete with other lymphocytes that undergo lymphopenia-driven proliferation. Herein, we describe the relative capacity of naïve T cells, Treg, and NK cells to undergo lymphopenia-driven proliferation. We found that the major population that underwent lymphopenia-driven proliferation was the CD122+ memory-like T-cell population (CD122+CD8+ Treg), and these cells competed with Ag-driven proliferation of melanoma-specific T cells. Removal of CD122+CD8+ Treg resulted in a greater expansion of tumor-specific T cells and tumor infiltration of functional effector/memory T cells. Our results demonstrate the lymphopenia-driven proliferation of CD122+CD8+ Treg in reconstituted lymphodepleted mice limited the antitumor efficacy of DC vaccination in conjunction with adoptive transfer of tumor-specific T cells.

18 Article Characterization of the class I-restricted gp100 melanoma peptide-stimulated primary immune response in tumor-free vaccine-draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood. 2009

Walker, Edwin B / Miller, William / Haley, Daniel / Floyd, Kevin / Curti, Brendan / Urba, Walter J. ·Robert W Franz Cancer Research Center, Earle A Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 97213, USA. Edwin.Walker@providence.org ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #19318471.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterize the primary gp100(209-2M)-specific T-cell response in vaccine-draining, metastases-free lymph nodes and peripheral blood of peptide-vaccinated stage I to III melanoma patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: After two or three gp100(209-2M) vaccinations, sentinel lymph nodes that drained both the primary tumor and adjacent vaccine sites were excised concomitant with wide excision of the tumor. Comparative 7-color flow cytometry phenotype analysis was done on gp100 tetramer-positive CD8(+) T cells from sentinel lymph nodes, closely proximate time-related peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) collected 2 to 4 weeks after sentinel lymph node excision, and on PBMC collected 6 months later after 7 or 11 more immunizations. Lymph node and peripheral blood T cells were tested for proliferative response, functional avidity, and tumor cell-induced CD107 mobilization. RESULTS: The frequencies of gp100-specific CD8(+) T cells from time-related PBMC and sentinel lymph nodes were comparable and were similar to those reported for virus-specific memory T cells. Their respective in vitro proliferation responses were also equivalent but statistically higher than proliferation responses of peripheral blood T cells collected after completion of the entire vaccine regimen. By contrast, functional avidity and CD107 responses were significantly higher in circulating T cells. Sentinel lymph node-derived, gp100-specific CD8(+) T cells predominantly expressed central and effector memory phenotype signatures, whereas there were higher frequencies of effector T cells in the peripheral blood. CONCLUSION: Priming immunization with gp100(209-2M) without coadministration of CD4(+) helper T cell-restricted antigens induced the effective expansion of peptide-specific central and effector memory CD8(+) T cells with high proliferation potential in vaccine-draining lymph nodes of stage I to III melanoma patients. Lymph node memory T cells gave rise to circulating gp100-specific effector T cells exhibiting increased functional maturation.

19 Article Phenotype and functional characterization of long-term gp100-specific memory CD8+ T cells in disease-free melanoma patients before and after boosting immunization. 2008

Walker, Edwin B / Haley, Daniel / Petrausch, Ulf / Floyd, Kevin / Miller, William / Sanjuan, Nelson / Alvord, Greg / Fox, Bernard A / Urba, Walter J. ·Robert W. Franz Cancer Research Center, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute, Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon 97213, USA. Edwin.walker@providence.org ·Clin Cancer Res · Pubmed #18698047.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Effective cancer vaccines must both drive a strong CTL response and sustain long-term memory T cells capable of rapid recall responses to tumor antigens. We sought to characterize the phenotype and function of gp100 peptide-specific memory CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients after primary gp100(209-2M) immunization and assess the anamnestic response to boosting immunization. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eight-color flow cytometry analysis of gp100-specific CD8+ T cells was done on peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected shortly after the primary vaccine regimen, 12 to 24 months after primary vaccination, and after boosting immunization. The anamnestic response was assessed by comparing the frequency of circulating gp100-specific T cells before and after boosting. Gp100 peptide-induced in vitro functional avidity and proliferation responses and melanoma-stimulated T-cell CD107 mobilization were compared for cells from all three time points for multiple patients. RESULTS: The frequency of circulating gp100-specific memory CD8+ T cells was comparable with cytomegalovirus-specific and FLU-specific T cells in the same patients, and the cells exhibited anamnestic proliferation after boosting. Their phenotypes were not unique, and individual patients exhibited one of two distinct phenotype signatures that were homologous to either cytomegalovirus-specific or FLU-specific memory T cells. Gp100-specific memory T cells showed some properties of competent memory T cells, such as heightened in vitro peptide-stimulated proliferation and increase in central memory (TCM) differentiation when compared with T-cell responses measured after the primary vaccine regimen. However, they did not acquire enhanced functional avidity usually associated with competent memory T-cell maturation. CONCLUSIONS: Although vaccination with class I-restricted melanoma peptides alone can break tolerance to self-tumor antigens, it did not induce fully competent memory CD8+ T cells--even in disease-free patients. Data presented suggest other vaccine strategies will be required to induce functionally robust long-term memory T cells.