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Melanoma: HELP
Articles from Rhode Island
Based on 116 articles published since 2008
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These are the 116 published articles about Melanoma that originated from Rhode Island during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5
1 Guideline Screening for Skin Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. 2016

Anonymous2770876 / Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten / Grossman, David C / Curry, Susan J / Davidson, Karina W / Ebell, Mark / Epling, John W / García, Francisco A R / Gillman, Matthew W / Kemper, Alex R / Krist, Alex H / Kurth, Ann E / Landefeld, C Seth / Mangione, Carol M / Phillips, William R / Phipps, Maureen G / Pignone, Michael P / Siu, Albert L. ·University of California, San Francisco. · Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington. · University of Iowa, Iowa City. · Columbia University, New York, New York. · University of Georgia, Athens. · State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse. · Pima County Department of Health, Tucson, Arizona. · Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute, Boston, Massachusetts. · Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. · Fairfax Family Practice Residency, Fairfax, Virginia11Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. · Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. · University of Alabama at Birmingham. · University of California, Los Angeles. · University of Washington, Seattle. · Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · University of Texas at Austin. · Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York19James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York. ·JAMA · Pubmed #27458948.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Basal and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types of cancer in the United States and represent the vast majority of all cases of skin cancer; however, they rarely result in death or substantial morbidity, whereas melanoma skin cancer has notably higher mortality rates. In 2016, an estimated 76,400 US men and women will develop melanoma and 10,100 will die from the disease. OBJECTIVE: To update the 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for skin cancer. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of screening for skin cancer with a clinical visual skin examination in reducing skin cancer morbidity and mortality and death from any cause; its potential harms, including any harms resulting from associated diagnostic follow-up; its test characteristics when performed by a primary care clinician vs a dermatologist; and whether its use leads to earlier detection of skin cancer compared with usual care. FINDINGS: Evidence to assess the net benefit of screening for skin cancer with a clinical visual skin examination is limited. Direct evidence on the effectiveness of screening in reducing melanoma morbidity and mortality is limited to a single fair-quality ecologic study with important methodological limitations. Information on harms is similarly sparse. The potential for harm clearly exists, including a high rate of unnecessary biopsies, possibly resulting in cosmetic or, more rarely, functional adverse effects, and the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of visual skin examination by a clinician to screen for skin cancer in adults (I statement).

2 Editorial Visual Inspection and the US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation on Skin Cancer Screening. 2016

Tsao, Hensin / Weinstock, Martin A. ·Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island3Division of Dermatology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island. ·JAMA · Pubmed #27458944.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review "Man in Istanbul" Lesions of the Urinary Tract (Known Entities in an Unusual Context): Melanoma, Carcinoid Tumors, Epithelioid Angiosarcoma. 2018

Samaan, Sameh / Quddus, M Ruhul / Matoso, Andres. ·Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Weinberg 2242, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231-2410, USA. · Department of Pathology, Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 101 Dudley Street, Providence, RI 02903, USA. · Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Weinberg 2242, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231-2410, USA; Department of Urology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Weinberg 2242, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231-2410, USA; Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Weinberg 2242, 401 North Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21231-2410, USA. Electronic address: amatoso1@jhmi.edu. ·Surg Pathol Clin · Pubmed #30447844.

ABSTRACT: Certain tumors are more difficult to recognize when they present in an unusual location. Within the urinary tract, primary melanomas, carcinoid tumors, or epithelioid angiosarcoma could present diagnostic challenges due to their infrequent occurrence. This article emphasizes the clinical and histopathologic features of these entities and their differential diagnoses including the immunophenotype and their prognoses.

4 Review Genital diseases in the mature woman. 2018

Matthews, Natalie / Wong, Vivian / Brooks, Joe / Kroumpouzos, George. ·Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI. · Arizona Vulva Clinic, Phoenix, AZ. · Department of Dermatology, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Department of Dermatology, Medical School of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: gk@gkderm.com. ·Clin Dermatol · Pubmed #29566925.

ABSTRACT: Vulvovaginal conditions are common in mature women. This reflects age-related changes in immunity and skin barrier function of vulvovaginal tissues. Vaginal atrophy is commonly complicated by dryness and inflammation, which makes postmenopausal atrophic vaginitis a virtually ubiquitous condition. The differential of vaginitis includes inflammatory, infectious, and malignant diseases, plus drug hypersensitivity. Atrophic vaginitis is treated with estrogen replacement therapy. Vulvovaginal malignant melanoma occurs predominantly in postmenopausal women and carries a poor prognosis. Similarly, the incidence of vulvovaginal malignancies, such as squamous cell carcinoma and extramammary Paget disease, rises exponentially after 65 years of age. Early diagnosis of these malignancies is of utmost importance. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus and vulvovaginal candidosis are among the most common postmenopausal vulvovaginal conditions. Lichen sclerosus et atrophicus is associated with significant morbidity, and its management can be challenging. The incidence of vulvovaginal candidosis increases in patients on estrogen replacement therapy.

5 Review Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors. 2017

Hendry, Shona / Salgado, Roberto / Gevaert, Thomas / Russell, Prudence A / John, Tom / Thapa, Bibhusal / Christie, Michael / van de Vijver, Koen / Estrada, M V / Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I / Sanders, Melinda / Solomon, Benjamin / Solinas, Cinzia / Van den Eynden, Gert G G M / Allory, Yves / Preusser, Matthias / Hainfellner, Johannes / Pruneri, Giancarlo / Vingiani, Andrea / Demaria, Sandra / Symmans, Fraser / Nuciforo, Paolo / Comerma, Laura / Thompson, E A / Lakhani, Sunil / Kim, Seong-Rim / Schnitt, Stuart / Colpaert, Cecile / Sotiriou, Christos / Scherer, Stefan J / Ignatiadis, Michail / Badve, Sunil / Pierce, Robert H / Viale, Giuseppe / Sirtaine, Nicolas / Penault-Llorca, Frederique / Sugie, Tomohagu / Fineberg, Susan / Paik, Soonmyung / Srinivasan, Ashok / Richardson, Andrea / Wang, Yihong / Chmielik, Ewa / Brock, Jane / Johnson, Douglas B / Balko, Justin / Wienert, Stephan / Bossuyt, Veerle / Michiels, Stefan / Ternes, Nils / Burchardi, Nicole / Luen, Stephen J / Savas, Peter / Klauschen, Frederick / Watson, Peter H / Nelson, Brad H / Criscitiello, Carmen / O'Toole, Sandra / Larsimont, Denis / de Wind, Roland / Curigliano, Giuseppe / André, Fabrice / Lacroix-Triki, Magali / van de Vijver, Mark / Rojo, Federico / Floris, Giuseppe / Bedri, Shahinaz / Sparano, Joseph / Rimm, David / Nielsen, Torsten / Kos, Zuzana / Hewitt, Stephen / Singh, Baljit / Farshid, Gelareh / Loibl, Sibylle / Allison, Kimberly H / Tung, Nadine / Adams, Sylvia / Willard-Gallo, Karen / Horlings, Hugo M / Gandhi, Leena / Moreira, Andre / Hirsch, Fred / Dieci, Maria V / Urbanowicz, Maria / Brcic, Iva / Korski, Konstanty / Gaire, Fabien / Koeppen, Hartmut / Lo, Amy / Giltnane, Jennifer / Rebelatto, Marlon C / Steele, Keith E / Zha, Jiping / Emancipator, Kenneth / Juco, Jonathan W / Denkert, Carsten / Reis-Filho, Jorge / Loi, Sherene / Fox, Stephen B. ·Departments of *Pathology §§§Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne †The Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology Departments of **Pathology ∥∥Medicine, University of Melbourne ¶¶Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville #Department of Anatomical Pathology, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Fitzroy ††Department of Medical Oncology, Austin Health ‡‡Olivia Newton-John Cancer Research Institute, Heidelberg §§School of Cancer Medicine, La Trobe University, Bundoora §§§§§Centre for Clinical Research and School of Medicine, The University of Queensland ∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane §§§§§§§§§§The Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Australian Clinical Labs, Bella Vista ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Directorate of Surgical Pathology, SA Pathology §§§§§§§§§§§§Discipline of Medicine, Adelaide University, Adelaide, Australia ***********Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute †††††††††††††Department of Pathology ##Divisions of Diagnostic Oncology & Molecular Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, Amsterdam, The Netherlands ###Université Paris-Est ****INSERM, UMR 955 ††††Département de pathologie, APHP, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Créteil ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Service de Biostatistique et d'Epidémiologie, Gustave Roussy, CESP, Inserm U1018, Université-Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶INSERM Unit U981, and Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif ##########Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris Sud, Kremlin-Bicêtre †††††††Department of Surgical Pathology and Biopathology, Jean Perrin Comprehensive Cancer Centre ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡University of Auvergne UMR1240, Clermont-Ferrand, France ‡‡‡‡Department of Medicine, Clinical Division of Oncology §§§§Institute of Neurology, Comprehensive Cancer Centre Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna ††††††††††††††Institute of Pathology, Medical University of Graz, Austria ∥∥∥∥European Institute of Oncology ¶¶¶¶School of Medicine ######Department of Pathology, Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, University of Milan, Milan ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova #############Medical Oncology 2, Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padua, Italy †††††Molecular Oncology Group, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Barcelona †††††††††††Pathology Department, IIS-Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, UAM, Madrid, Spain §Department of Pathology and TCRU, GZA ¶¶¶Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Antwerp ∥Laboratory of Experimental Urology, Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium ¶Department of Pathology, AZ Klina, Brasschaat ††††††Department of Pathology, GZA Ziekenhuizen, Sint-Augustinus, Wilrijk ∥∥∥Molecular Immunology Unit ‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles ‡Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory/Breast International Group, Institut Jules Bordet **************European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Headquarters *******Department of Pathology, Institut Jules Bordet, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium §§§§§§§Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical School, Hirakata, Japan #######Severance Biomedical Science Institute and Department of Medical Oncology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Tumor Pathology Department, Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Institute of Oncology, Gliwice Branch, Gliwice, Poland ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Pathology and Tissue Analytics, Roche Innovation Centre Munich, Penzberg †††††††††Institute of Pathology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡VMscope GmbH, Berlin ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶German Breast Group GmbH, Neu-Isenburg, Germany **********Trev & Joyce Deeley Research Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency ††††††††††Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, Victoria Departments of ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Medical Genetics #########Pathology and Laboratory Medicine ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Genetic Pathology Evaluation Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC ###########Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada §§§§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Rhode Island Hospital and Lifespan Medical Center §§§§§§§§Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence ¶¶¶¶¶National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Operations Center/NRG Oncology, Pittsburgh, PA †††Breast Cancer Research Program, Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Departments of ‡‡‡Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology ########Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre *********Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville §§§§§§§§§Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Oncology, Montefiore Medical Centre, Albert Einstein College of Medicine ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Montefiore Medical Center ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶The Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY ********Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital #####Cancer Research Institute and Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Cancer Center ******Harvard Medical School ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Division of Hematology-Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center ††††††††Department of Cancer Biology ‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡‡Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO ‡‡‡‡‡Department of Cancer Biology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL ∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN ¶¶¶¶¶¶Cancer Immunotherapy Trials Network, Central Laboratory and Program in Immunology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA ††††††††††††Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Centre ############New York University Medical School *************Perlmutter Cancer Center §§§§§§§§§§§§§Pulmonary Pathology, New York University Center for Biospecimen Research and Development, New York University ***************Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center ####Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY *****Department of Pathology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Pathology Department, Stanford University Medical Centre, Stanford ∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥∥Department of Pathology, Stanford University, Palo Alto ***Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego §§§§§§§§§§§§§§Research Pathology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA *************Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda ¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶¶Translational Sciences, MedImmune, Gaithersberg, MD §§§§§§Academic Medical Innovation, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover ##############Translational Medicine, Merck & Co. Inc., Kenilworth, NJ. ·Adv Anat Pathol · Pubmed #28777143.

ABSTRACT: Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

6 Review Combinatorial immunotherapy for melanoma. 2017

George, D D / Armenio, V A / Katz, S C. ·Division of Dermatology, Roger Williams Medical Center, Department of Medicine RWMC, Providence, RI, USA. · Division of Oncology, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA. · Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Surgery, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA. · Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. ·Cancer Gene Ther · Pubmed #27834353.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma has been a long-standing focal point for immunotherapy development. In this review, we explore the evolution of melanoma treatments with particular attention to the history and recent advances in melanoma immunotherapy. We also discuss novel combinations of these modalities and their potential to offer novel therapeutic options for patients with advanced melanoma.

7 Review Mechanisms of Melanoma Promotion by Ultraviolet Radiation. 2016

Rünger, Thomas M. ·Department of Dermatology, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island, USA and Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Electronic address: truenger@bu.edu. ·J Invest Dermatol · Pubmed #27542295.

ABSTRACT: The mutagenic properties of ultraviolet radiation drive the initiation of melanoma. Induction of matrix metalloproteinases in melanoma cells by longwave UVA radiation, possibly via a Warburg-like effect, promotes melanoma invasiveness. This is one of several mechanisms by which ultraviolet radiation also promotes further growth of previously established melanomas.

8 Review Methods of Melanoma Detection. 2016

Leachman, Sancy A / Cassidy, Pamela B / Chen, Suephy C / Curiel, Clara / Geller, Alan / Gareau, Daniel / Pellacani, Giovanni / Grichnik, James M / Malvehy, Josep / North, Jeffrey / Jacques, Steven L / Petrie, Tracy / Puig, Susana / Swetter, Susan M / Tofte, Susan / Weinstock, Martin A. ·Department of Dermatology and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue, CH16D, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. leachmas@ohsu.edu. · Department of Dermatology and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, 3125 SW Sam Jackson Park Road, L468R, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. cassidyp@ohsu.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Emory University School of Medicine, 1525 Clifton Road NE, 1st Floor, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. schen2@emory.edu. · Department of Dermatology and Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, 1515 N Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA. ccuriel@email.arizona.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Harvard School of Public Health and Massachusetts General Hospital, Landmark Center, 401 Park Drive, 3rd Floor East, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. ageller@hsph.harvard.edu. · Laboratory of Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA. daniel.gareau@rockefeller.edu. · Department of Dermatology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, Modena, Italy. giovanni.pellacani@unimore.it. · Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami School of Medicine, Room 912, BRB (R-125), 1501 NW 10th Avenue, Miami, FL, 33136, USA. grichnik@miami.edu. · Melanoma Unit, Dermatology Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain. jmalvehy@clinic.ub.es. · University of California, San Francisco, 1701 Divisadero Street, Suite 280, San Francisco, CA, 94115, USA. jeffrey.north@ucsf.edu. · Department of Biomedical Engineering and Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue, CH13B, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. jacquess@ohsu.edu. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health and Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue, CH13B, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. petrie@ohsu.edu. · Melanoma Unit, Dermatology Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Villarroel 170, 08036, Barcelona, Spain. spuig@clinic.ub.es. · Department of Dermatology/Cutaneous Oncology, Stanford University, 900 Blake Wilbur Drive, W3045, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA. sswetter@stanford.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Oregon Health and Science University, 3303 SW Bond Avenue, CH16D, Portland, OR, 97239, USA. toftes@ohsu.edu. · Departments of Dermatology and Epidemiology, Brown University, V A Medical Center 111D, 830 Chalkstone Avenue, Providence, RI, 02908, USA. maw@brown.edu. ·Cancer Treat Res · Pubmed #26601859.

ABSTRACT: Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed.

9 Review Melanoma in situ: Part II. Histopathology, treatment, and clinical management. 2015

Higgins, H William / Lee, Kachiu C / Galan, Anjela / Leffell, David J. ·Department of Dermatology, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address: higgi125@gmail.com. · Department of Dermatology, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. · Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·J Am Acad Dermatol · Pubmed #26183968.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma in situ (MIS) poses special challenges with regard to histopathology, treatment, and clinical management. The negligible mortality and normal life expectancy associated with patients with MIS should guide treatment for this tumor. Similarly, the approach to treatment should take into account the potential for MIS to transform into invasive melanoma, which has a significant impact on morbidity and mortality. Part II of this continuing medical education article reviews the histologic features, treatment, and management of MIS.

10 Review Melanoma in situ: Part I. Epidemiology, screening, and clinical features. 2015

Higgins, H William / Lee, Kachiu C / Galan, Anjela / Leffell, David J. ·Department of Dermatology, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address: williamhiggins@brown.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. · Department of Dermatology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·J Am Acad Dermatol · Pubmed #26183967.

ABSTRACT: The incidence of melanoma has steadily increased over the past 3 decades, with melanoma in situ comprising a disproportionately high percentage of the rising incidence. Our understanding of melanoma in situ has been shaped by epidemiologic and clinical studies. Central to a review of melanoma in situ is a focus on its epidemiology, pathology, biologic behavior, treatment, and clinical outcome, which may differ significantly from that of malignant melanoma. Part I of this continuing medical education article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features of melanoma in situ; part II covers the histopathology, treatment options, and clinical management.

11 Review Long-term survival after pneumonectomy for primary pulmonary malignant melanoma. 2015

Mahowald, Madeline K / Aswad, Bassam I / Okereke, Ikenna C / Ng, Thomas. ·Department of Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Pathology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address: tng@usasurg.org. ·Ann Thorac Surg · Pubmed #25841827.

ABSTRACT: As few as 30 cases of primary malignant melanoma of the lung have been reported in the literature. Many patients die within months of diagnosis; few published cases describe patients who survive long-term after treatment. We report a case of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma in a patient who remains disease-free 60 months after pneumonectomy.

12 Review Ipilimumab treatment associated pituitary hypophysitis: clinical presentation and imaging diagnosis. 2014

Chodakiewitz, Yosef / Brown, Sanford / Boxerman, Jerrold L / Brody, Jeffrey M / Rogg, Jeffrey M. ·Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 222 Richmond St, Providence 02903, USA. · Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 593 Eddy Street, Providence 02903, USA. · Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, 593 Eddy Street, Providence 02903, USA. Electronic address: jrogg@lifespan.org. ·Clin Neurol Neurosurg · Pubmed #25127260.

ABSTRACT: Ipilimumab is an immunomodulating drug for use in treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma with autoimmune lymphocytic hypophysitis as a reported complication. We describe three recent cases of ipilimumab associated autoimmune hypophysitis (IAH) at our institution, and provide a selected literature review showing its variable clinical presentation, imaging appearance and treatment in order to expedite early and appropriate IAH management. Patients had variable clinical presentation of hypophysitis, including headache, fatigue, visual changes, endocrinopathy, and/or hyponatremia. Contrast enhanced MRI showed symmetric pituitary gland and stalk enlargement in all of our cases and received a presumptive diagnosis of IAH. Following cessation of therapy and treatment there was normalization of pituitary morphology at follow-up MRI and return to clinical baseline. Varying clinical presentation can complicate the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis. One must be cognizant of its overall clinical and radiologic picture in patients receiving ipilimumab, now commonly used for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

13 Review Longitudinal melanonychia: detection and management of nail melanoma. 2013

Mannava, Kathleen A / Mannava, Sandeep / Koman, L Andrew / Robinson-Bostom, Leslie / Jellinek, Nathaniel. ·Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. smannava@wakehealth.edu ·Hand Surg · Pubmed #23413869.

ABSTRACT: Malignant melanoma of the nail confers a higher mortality rate compared to other cutaneous melanomas, which is often attributable to delayed diagnosis. Two-thirds of nail melanomas present as longitudinal melanonychia (LM), longitudinally-oriented brown-black bands of pigment in the nail plate. This article delineates the appropriate clinical approach toward evaluation and management of a patient with longitudinal melanonychia, which includes determining risk factors for melanoma, recognizing scenarios in which biopsy is indicated, selecting the appropriate biopsy technique, and managing a patient in whom the diagnosis of nail melanoma has been made.

14 Review Novel immunotherapeutic agents and small molecule antagonists of signalling kinases for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. 2011

Natarajan, Nagendra / Telang, Sucheta / Miller, Donald / Chesney, Jason. ·Division of Medical Oncology/Hematology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, KY 40202, USA. ·Drugs · Pubmed #21770473.

ABSTRACT: Melanoma incidence is increasing annually and over 40,000 die of this disease each year worldwide. In this review, we discuss the rationale and recent trial results of several novel immunotherapeutic approaches and small molecule inhibitors of signalling kinases. Ipilimumab is a humanized anti-CTLA4 antibody that has been proven to increase the median overall survival of large cohorts of patients with unresectable melanoma in two phase III trials. OncoVEX(GM-CSF) is an oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 recombined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor that has demonstrated durable objective responses in a phase II trial. Tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes given after lymphocyte depletion and followed by high-dose interleukin (IL)-2 yield durable complete responses in a significant percentage of melanoma patients. Lastly, denileukin diftitox, a fusion of IL-2 and diphtheria toxin, was recently observed to deplete regulatory T cells and cause durable partial responses, particularly in chemo/immune-naïve patients. These agents are enabling the rational design of novel combination trials to simultaneously increase antigen presentation, deplete regulatory T cells and block immune check-points in order to activate melanoma antigen-specific immunity. Although melanoma metastases have been found to contain thousands of mutations, the V600E BRAF mutation is clearly a driver of the neoplastic phenotype and is present in 40-60% of melanomas. Two separate small molecule antagonists of B-Raf have been found to yield very high partial response rates in metastatic melanoma, and the B-Raf inhibitor, vemurafenib (PLX4032), was recently observed to increase median overall survival in an interim analysis. However, B-Raf inhibitor resistance through up-regulation or activating mutations of alternative oncogenic signalling receptors and enzymes is proving to be a major challenge. Inhibitors of c-Kit and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) have also been found to have activity against melanomas and MEK inhibitors are now being examined as a strategy to overcome B-Raf inhibitor resistance. In summary, these studies reveal that, for the first time, several immunotherapeutic and targeted agents are yielding dramatic clinical responses and improvements in overall survival in patients with unresectable stage III and IV melanoma.

15 Review The operative management of melanoma: where does Mohs surgery fit in? 2011

Chang, Kyung Hee / Dufresne, Raymond / Cruz, Antonio / Rogers, Gary S. ·Division of Dermatological Surgery, Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA. ·Dermatol Surg · Pubmed #21585592.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a life-threatening malignancy. Surgery is the primary management for melanoma, and management guidelines have evolved gradually over a century from radical surgery with lymph node dissection to conservative margin surgery. There are specific rationales and problems with Mohs micrographic (MMS) surgery for managing melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for the surgical management of melanoma and to understand where MMS fits in this spectrum of management options. CONCLUSIONS: MMS should be considered as an option for melanoma surgery, especially when the tumor is found in photodamaged skin. Further randomized prospective clinical trials are needed to select the best therapeutic approach for the treatment of melanoma. Until then, careful margin control is the key for successful tumor removal whether it is standard excision, staged excision, or MMS.

16 Article Cutaneous nevi and risk of melanoma death in women and men: A prospective study. 2019

Li, Wen-Qing / Cho, Eunyoung / Weinstock, Martin A / Li, Suyun / Stampfer, Meir J / Qureshi, Abrar A. ·Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, China; Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Electronic address: nhwli@channing.harvard.edu. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Center for Dermatoepidemiology, VA Medical Center, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; School of Public Health, Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. ·J Am Acad Dermatol · Pubmed #30639880.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It was unclear whether an increased number of common nevi (moles) predicts melanoma death. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively examined the association between number of common nevi and risk of melanoma death. METHODS: Our study used data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 77,288 women) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (n = 32,455 men). In 1986, participants were asked about the number of moles they had with a ≥3-mm diameter on the upper extremity, and we stratified their answers into 3 categories (none, 1-2, or ≥3) on the basis of data distribution. RESULTS: During follow-up (1986-2012), 2452 melanoma cases were pathologically confirmed; among these, we identified 196 deaths due to melanoma. Increased number of nevi was associated with melanoma death; the hazard ratio (HR) for ≥3 nevi compared with no nevi was 2.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-4.12) for women and 3.97 (95% CI 2.54-6.22) for men. Among melanoma cases, increased number of nevi was associated with melanoma death in men (≥3 nevi, HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.17-3.05) but not in women. Similarly, the number of nevi was positively associated with Breslow thickness in men only (P LIMITATIONS: This is an epidemiologic study without examination into mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Increased number of cutaneous nevi was significantly associated with melanoma death. High nevus count might serve as an independent prognostic factor to predict the risk of melanoma death particularly among male melanoma patients.

17 Article Patient-reported treatment-related symptom burden for patients with advanced melanoma in Canada. 2019

Cheung, Winson Y / White, Michelle K / Bayliss, Martha S / Stroupe, Angela / Lovley, Andrew / King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L / Lasch, Kathryn. ·BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. · Optum, Johnston, RI, USA. mwhite@qualitymetric.com. · Optum, Johnston, RI, USA. · Pharmerit International, Boston, MA, USA. ·Support Care Cancer · Pubmed #29934684.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known on the impact of emerging treatments for advanced melanoma (stages III and IV) on patients' functioning and well-being. The objective of this study was to describe the patient-reported treatment-related symptom (TRS) burden in advanced melanoma. METHOD: Twenty-nine in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted among adult patients with advanced melanoma in Canada using a semi-structured interview method. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, and key concepts were identified using a grounded theory analytic approach. RESULTS: The 29 patients reported 13 unique treatment journeys involving the following drug therapy categories: cytotoxic chemotherapies, CTLA-4 inhibitors, BRAF or MEK inhibitors, and PD-1 inhibitors. Patients typically underwent multiple treatment episodes over time. Common TRSs included nausea, fatigue, diarrhea or constipation, and skin rashes. Patients described these as impacting their physical functioning, ability to perform activities of daily living, social functioning, and overall quality of life. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a description of the patient's experience with treatment for advanced melanoma. Our sample included patients typically diagnosed in mid-life, facing an urgent sequence of medical procedures and a pharmacological treatment journey that was burdensome. There is a need for less toxic and more efficacious treatments earlier in the patient journey to alleviate the impact of advanced melanoma treatment on patients' health-related quality of life.

18 Article Intake of folate and other nutrients related to one-carbon metabolism and risk of cutaneous melanoma among US women and men. 2018

Dhana, Ashar / Yen, Hsi / Li, Tricia / Holmes, Michelle D / Qureshi, Abrar A / Cho, Eunyoung. ·Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Division of Dermatology, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Dermatology, The Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address: eunyoung_cho@brown.edu. ·Cancer Epidemiol · Pubmed #29990794.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism - folate, vitamins B6 and B12, methionine, choline, and betaine - have been inversely associated with multiple cancer sites and may be related to skin cancer. However, there is a lack of research on the association between intake of these nutrients and cutaneous melanoma risk. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between intake of one-carbon metabolism nutrients and cutaneous melanoma risk in two large prospective cohorts. METHODS: The cohorts included 75,311 white women and 48,523 white men. Nutrient intake was assessed repeatedly by food frequency questionnaires and self-reported supplement use. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and then pooled HRs using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Over 24-26 years of follow-up, we documented 1328 melanoma cases (648 men and 680 women). Higher intake of folate from food only, but not total folate, was associated with increased melanoma risk (pooled HR for top versus bottom quintile: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.13-1.64; P for trend = 0.001). The association was significant in men, but attenuated in women. Higher intake of vitamins B6 and B12, choline, betaine, and methionine were not associated with melanoma risk, although there was modest increasing trend of risk for vitamin B6 from food only (pooled HR for top versus bottom quintile: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.99-1.41; P for trend = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence that higher intake of folate from food only was associated with a modest increased risk of cutaneous melanoma. However, since other factors related to dietary folate intake may account for the observed association, our findings warrant further investigation.

19 Article Red meat and processed meat intake and risk for cutaneous melanoma in white women and men: Two prospective cohort studies. 2018

Yen, Hsi / Li, Wen-Qing / Dhana, Ashar / Li, Tricia / Qureshi, Abrar / Cho, Eunyoung. ·Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Dermatology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital Linkou and Taipei Branch, Taoyuan, Taiwan; College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Dermatology, Groote Schuur Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University School of Public Health, Providence, Rhode Island; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: eunyoung_cho@brown.edu. ·J Am Acad Dermatol · Pubmed #29698709.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat consumption has been associated with increased risk for several cancers, but the association with cutaneous melanoma risk has been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between red and processed meat intake and melanoma risk. METHODS: Dietary information was assessed by using food frequency questionnaires in 2 prospective cohorts: 75,263 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 48,523 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010). Melanoma cases were confirmed by reviewing pathology records. Pooled multivariable hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: A total of 679 female and 639 male melanoma cases were documented during follow-up. Red and processed meat intake was inversely associated with melanoma risk (P = .002 for trend); the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of the 2 cohorts were 1.00 (reference), 1.00 (0.87-1.14), 0.98 (0.86-1.13), 0.89 (0.77-1.02), and 0.81 (0.70-0.95) for increasing quintiles of intake. LIMITATIONS: Findings might have limited generalizability, considering that the cohorts were limited to white health professionals. CONCLUSION: Red and processed meat intake was inversely associated with melanoma risk in these 2 cohorts.

20 Article Pathologist characteristics associated with accuracy and reproducibility of melanocytic skin lesion interpretation. 2018

Elder, David E / Piepkorn, Michael W / Barnhill, Raymond L / Longton, Gary M / Nelson, Heidi D / Knezevich, Stevan R / Pepe, Margaret S / Carney, Patricia A / Titus, Linda J / Onega, Tracy / Tosteson, Anna N A / Weinstock, Martin A / Elmore, Joann G. ·Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington; Dermatopathology Northwest, Bellevue, Washington. · Department of Pathology, Institut Curie, Paris, France; University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France. · Program in Biostatistics and Biomathematics, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. · Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. · Pathology Associates, Clovis, California. · Department of Family Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. · Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Department of Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Department of Biomedical Data Science, Department of Epidemiology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Department of Medicine, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire; Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Center for Dermatoepidemiology, VA Medical Center, Providence Department of Dermatology, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Dermatology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island; Department of Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address: jelmore@uw.edu. ·J Am Acad Dermatol · Pubmed #29524584.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Diagnostic interpretations of melanocytic skin lesions vary widely among pathologists, yet the underlying reasons remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Identify pathologist characteristics associated with rates of accuracy and reproducibility. METHODS: Pathologists independently interpreted the same set of biopsy specimens from melanocytic lesions on 2 occasions. Diagnoses were categorized into 1 of 5 classes according to the Melanocytic Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis system. Reproducibility was determined by pathologists' concordance of diagnoses across 2 occasions. Accuracy was defined by concordance with a consensus reference standard. Associations of pathologist characteristics with reproducibility and accuracy were assessed individually and in multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Rates of diagnostic reproducibility and accuracy were highest among pathologists with board certification and/or fellowship training in dermatopathology and in those with 5 or more years of experience. In addition, accuracy was high among pathologists with a higher proportion of melanocytic lesions in their caseload composition and higher volume of melanocytic lesions. LIMITATIONS: Data gathered in a test set situation by using a classification tool not currently in clinical use. CONCLUSION: Diagnoses are more accurate among pathologists with specialty training and those with more experience interpreting melanocytic lesions. These findings support the practice of referring difficult cases to more experienced pathologists to improve diagnostic accuracy, although the impact of these referrals on patient outcomes requires additional research.

21 Article Regulation of chitinase-3-like-1 in T cell elicits Th1 and cytotoxic responses to inhibit lung metastasis. 2018

Kim, Do-Hyun / Park, Hong-Jai / Lim, Sangho / Koo, Ja-Hyun / Lee, Hong-Gyun / Choi, Jin Ouk / Oh, Ji Hoon / Ha, Sang-Jun / Kang, Min-Jong / Lee, Chang-Min / Lee, Chun Geun / Elias, Jack A / Choi, Je-Min. ·Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Korea. · Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. · Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Korea. · Section of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. · Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912, USA. · Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, 04763, Korea. · Division of Medical and Biological Sciences, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02903, USA. · Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Korea. jeminchoi@hanyang.ac.kr. · Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul, 04763, Korea. jeminchoi@hanyang.ac.kr. · Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research (CNIR), Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, 16419, Korea. jeminchoi@hanyang.ac.kr. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #29403003.

ABSTRACT: Chitinase-3-like-1 (Chi3l1) is known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 inflammation and cancer. However, the function of Chi3l1 in T cell and its clinical implications are largely unknown. Here we show that Chi3l1 expression was increased in activated T cells, especially in Th2 cells. In addition, Chi3l1-deficient T cells are hyper-responsive to TcR stimulation and are prone to differentiating into Th1 cells. Chi3l1-deficient Th1 cells show increased expression of anti-tumor immunity genes and decreased Th1 negative regulators. Deletion of Chi3l1 in T cells in mice show reduced melanoma lung metastasis with increased IFNγ and TNFα-producing T cells in the lung. Furthermore, silencing of Chi3l1 expression in the lung using peptide-siRNA complex (dNP2-siChi3l1) efficiently inhibit lung metastasis with enhanced Th1 and CTL responses. Collectively, this study demonstrates Chi3l1 is a regulator of Th1 and CTL which could be a therapeutic target to enhance anti-tumor immunity.

22 Article Humanistic burden of disease for patients with advanced melanoma in Canada. 2018

Cheung, Winson Y / Bayliss, Martha S / White, Michelle K / Stroupe, Angela / Lovley, Andrew / King-Kallimanis, Bellinda L / Lasch, Kathryn. ·BC Cancer Agency and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. · Optum, Johnston, RI, USA. · Optum, Johnston, RI, USA. mwhite@qualitymetric.com. · Pharmerit International, Boston, MA, USA. ·Support Care Cancer · Pubmed #29322243.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer, often striking in the prime of life. This study provides new information directly from advanced melanoma (stage III and IV) patients on how their disease impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQL). METHODS: Twenty-nine in-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with adult patients with advanced melanoma in Canada. A semi-structured interview guide was used. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and key concepts were identified using a grounded theory analytic approach. RESULTS: Many patients' journeys began with the startling diagnosis of an invasive disease and a vastly shortened life expectancy. By the time they reached an advanced stage of melanoma, these patients' overall functioning and quality of life had been greatly diminished by this quickly progressing cancer. The impact was described in terms of physical pain and disability, emotional distress, diminished interactions with friends and family, and burden on caregivers. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide evidence of signs, symptoms, and functional impacts of advanced melanoma. Signs and symptoms reported (physical, mental, and social) confirm and expand on those reported in the existing clinical literature. Primary care physicians should be better trained to identify melanomas early. Oncology care teams can improve on their current approaches for helping patients navigate treatment options, with information about ancillary services to mitigate disease impacts on HRQL, such as mental health and social supports, as well as employment or financial support services.

23 Article Nanoparticle anchoring targets immune agonists to tumors enabling anti-cancer immunity without systemic toxicity. 2018

Zhang, Yuan / Li, Na / Suh, Heikyung / Irvine, Darrell J. ·Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. yuanzhang@uri.edu. · Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA. yuanzhang@uri.edu. · Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. djirvine@mit.edu. · Department of Biological Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. djirvine@mit.edu. · Department of Materials Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA. djirvine@mit.edu. · Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. djirvine@mit.edu. · Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA. djirvine@mit.edu. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #29295974.

ABSTRACT: Immunostimulatory agents such as agonistic anti-CD137 and interleukin (IL)-2 generate effective anti-tumor immunity but also elicit serious toxicities, hampering their clinical application. Here we show that combination therapy with anti-CD137 and an IL-2-Fc fusion achieves significant initial anti-tumor activity, but also lethal immunotoxicity deriving from stimulation of circulating leukocytes. To overcome this toxicity, we demonstrate that anchoring IL-2 and anti-CD137 on the surface of liposomes allows these immune agonists to rapidly accumulate in tumors while lowering systemic exposure. In multiple tumor models, immunoliposome delivery achieves anti-tumor activity equivalent to free IL-2/anti-CD137 but with the complete absence of systemic toxicity. Immunoliposomes stimulated tumor infiltration by cytotoxic lymphocytes, cytokine production, and granzyme expression, demonstrating equivalent immunostimulatory effects to the free drugs in the local tumor microenvironment. Thus, surface-anchored particle delivery may provide a general approach to exploit the potent stimulatory activity of immune agonists without debilitating systemic toxicities.

24 Article Tetracycline use and risk of incident skin cancer: a prospective study. 2018

Li, Wen-Qing / Drucker, Aaron M / Cho, Eunyoung / Laden, Francine / VoPham, Trang / Li, Suyun / Weinstock, Martin A / Qureshi, Abrar A. ·Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China. · Department of Dermatology, Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Exposure, Epidemiology, and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · School of Public Health, Institute for Chemical Carcinogenesis, Guangzhou Medical University, 195 Dongfengxi Road, Guangzhou 510182, China. · Center for Dermatoepidemiology, VA Medical Center, Providence, RI, USA. ·Br J Cancer · Pubmed #29073637.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Tetracycline is a photosensitising medication that increases skin vulnerability to UV-related damage. METHODS: We prospectively examined tetracycline use and risk of incident melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) based on 213 536 participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHS2, and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Information on ever use of tetracycline was asked via questionnaire. Diagnoses of melanoma and SCC were pathologically confirmed. RESULTS: Tetracycline use was associated with a modestly increased risk of BCC (n CONCLUSION: Tetracycline use was associated with a modestly increased risk of BCC, but was not associated with melanoma or SCC.

25 Article Pathologists' Use of Second Opinions in Interpretation of Melanocytic Cutaneous Lesions: Policies, Practices, and Perceptions. 2018

Geller, Berta M / Frederick, Paul D / Knezevich, Stevan R / Lott, Jason P / Nelson, Heidi D / Titus, Linda J / Carney, Patricia A / Tosteson, Anna N A / Onega, Tracy L / Barnhill, Raymond L / Weinstock, Martin A / Elder, David E / Piepkorn, Michael W / Elmore, Joann G. ·Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont. · Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. · Pathology Associates, Clovis, California. · Dermatology, Bayer Healthcare LLC, Whippany, New Jersey. · Providence Cancer Center, Providence Health and Services Oregon, and Departments of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology and Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. · Departments of Epidemiology and Pediatrics, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth and the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Departments of Family Medicine and Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon. · Department of Medicine and The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Departments of Biomedical Data Science, and. · Epidemiology, Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire. · Department of Pathology, Institut Curie, and Faculty of Medicine, University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France. · Center for Dermatoepidemiology, VA Medical Center, Providence Department of Dermatology, Rhode Island Hospital Departments of Dermatology and Epidemiology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. · Dermatopathology Northwest, Bellevue, Washington. ·Dermatol Surg · Pubmed #28858936.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research examining the role of second opinions in pathology for diagnosis of melanocytic lesions is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess current laboratory policies, clinical use of second opinions, and pathologists' perceptions of second opinions for melanocytic lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data collected from 207 pathologists in 10 US states who diagnose melanocytic lesions. The web-based survey ascertained pathologists' professional information, laboratory second opinion policy, use of second opinions, and perceptions of second opinion value for melanocytic lesions. RESULTS: Laboratory policies required second opinions for 31% of pathologists and most commonly required for melanoma in situ (26%) and invasive melanoma (30%). In practice, most pathologists reported requesting second opinions for melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential (85%) and atypical Spitzoid lesions (88%). Most pathologists perceived that second opinions increased interpretive accuracy (78%) and protected them from malpractice lawsuits (62%). CONCLUSION: Use of second opinions in clinical practice is greater than that required by laboratory policies, especially for melanocytic tumors of uncertain malignant potential and atypical Spitzoid lesions. Quality of care in surgical interventions for atypical melanocytic proliferations critically depends on the accuracy of diagnosis in pathology reporting. Future research should examine the extent to which second opinions improve accuracy of melanocytic lesion diagnosis.

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