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Multiple Sclerosis HELP
Based on 23,313 articles published since 2009
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These are the 23313 published articles about Multiple Sclerosis that originated from Worldwide during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline [Indications and follow-up for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) in association with the Francophone Society of Multiple Sclerosis]. 2019

Zephir, Helène / Puyade, Mathieu / Gueguen, Antoine / Michel, Laure / Terriou, Louis / Dive, Dominique / Laureys, Guy / Mathey, Guillaume / Labauge, Pierre / Marjanovic, Zora / Pugnet, Grégory / Badoglio, Manuela / Lansiaux, Pauline / Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim / Béguin, Yves / Farge, Dominique. ·CHU de Lille, université de Lille, pôle des neurosciences et de l'appareil locomoteur, LIRIC (Lille Inflammation Research International Center) UMR 995, rue Emile-Laine, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address: helene.zephir@chru-lille.fr. · CHU de Poitiers, service de médecine interne, 2, rue de la Milétrie, 86021 Poitiers cedex, France. · Fondation A.-de Rothschild, service de neurologie, 25, rue Manin, 75940 Paris cedex 19, France. · CHU de Nantes, hôpital Laennec, service de neurologie, boulevard Jacques-Monod, 44800 Saint-Herblain, France. · CHRU, hôpital Claude-Huriez, service des maladies du sang, rue Michel-Polonovski, 59037 Lille cedex, France. · CHU de Liège, unité de neuro-immunologie clinique, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 4000 Liège, Belgique. · University hospital Ghent, department of neurology, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgique. · CHRU de Nancy, hôpital Central, service de neurologie, 29, avenue du Maréchal-de-Lattre-de-Tassigny, 54035 Nancy cedex, France. · CHU de Montpellier, hôpital Gui-de-Chauliac, centre de ressources et de compétences sclérose en plaques, 80, avenue Augustin-Fliche, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France. · AP-HP, hôpital Saint-Antoine, hématologie clinique et thérapie cellulaire, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France. · CHU de Toulouse, hôpital Purpan, service de médecine interne, 1, place Baylac, 31059 Toulouse, France. · Hôpital Saint-Antoine, EBMT Data Office, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75571 Paris cedex 12, France. · Hôpital Saint-Louis, centre de référence des maladies auto-immunes systémiques rares d'Île-de-France, filière FAI2R, IUH EA-3518, UF04, unité de médecine interne, maladies auto-immunes et pathologie vasculaire, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris, France. · CHU de Lille, université de Lille 2, LIRIC Inserm U995, 59000 Lille, France. · CHU de Liège, université de Liège, service d'hématologie, 1, avenue de l'Hôpital, 4000 Liège, Belgique. · Hôpital Saint-Louis, centre de référence des maladies auto-immunes systémiques rares d'Île-de-France, filière FAI2R, IUH EA-3518, UF04, unité de médecine interne, maladies auto-immunes et pathologie vasculaire, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris, France. Electronic address: dominique.farge-bancel@aphp.fr. ·Bull Cancer · Pubmed #30527815.

ABSTRACT: The Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) organized the 8th allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinical practices harmonization workshop series in September 2017 in Lille, France. In this article we give the indications of autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple sclerosis as well as recommendations regarding post-transplant follow-up of patients under the hospice of the SFGM-TC and the Francophone Society of Multiple Sclerosis.

2 Guideline Standardizing Magnetic Resonance Imaging Protocols, Requisitions, and Reports in Multiple Sclerosis: An Update for Radiologist Based on 2017 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis and 2018 Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers Consensus Guidelines. 2019

Arevalo, Octavio / Riascos, Roy / Rabiei, Pejman / Kamali, Arash / Nelson, Flavia. ·Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN. ·J Comput Assist Tomogr · Pubmed #30015803.

ABSTRACT: The advent of magnetic resonance imaging has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology and natural course of multiple sclerosis (MS). The ability of magnetic resonance imaging to show the evolution of MS lesions on sequential scans has brought it to be one of the endpoints in clinical trials for disease-modifying therapies. Based on the most updated consensus guidelines from the American (Consortium of MS Centers) and European (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) boards of experts in MS, this document shows the most relevant landmarks related to imaging findings, diagnostic criteria, indications to obtain a magnetic resonance, scan protocols and sequence options for patients with MS. Although incorporating the knowledge derived from the research arena into the daily clinical practice is always challenging, in this article, the authors provide useful recommendations to improve the information contained in the magnetic resonance report oriented to facilitate communication between radiologists and specialized medical teams involved in MS patients' multidisciplinary care.

3 Guideline Brazilian Consensus for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis: Brazilian Academy of Neurology and Brazilian Committee on Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis. 2018

Marques, Vanessa Daccach / Passos, Giordani Rodrigues Dos / Mendes, Maria Fernanda / Callegaro, Dagoberto / Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio / Comini-Frota, Elizabeth Regina / Vasconcelos, Cláudia Cristina Ferreira / Sato, Douglas Kazutoshi / Ferreira, Maria Lúcia Brito / Parolin, Mônica Koncke Fiuza / Damasceno, Alfredo / Grzesiuk, Anderson Kuntz / Muniz, André / Matta, André Palma da Cunha / Oliveira, Bianca Etelvina Santos de / Tauil, Carlos Bernardo / Maciel, Damacio Ramón Kaimen / Diniz, Denise Sisteroli / Corrêa, Eber Castro / Coronetti, Fernando / Jorge, Frederico M H / Sato, Henry Koiti / Gonçalves, Marcus Vinícius Magno / Sousa, Nise Alessandra de C / Nascimento, Osvaldo J M / Gama, Paulo Diniz da / Domingues, Renan / Simm, Renata Faria / Thomaz, Rodrigo Barbosa / Morales, Rogério de Rizo / Dias, Ronaldo Maciel / Apóstolos-Pereira, Samira Dos / Machado, Suzana Costa Nunes / Junqueira, Thiago de Faria / Becker, Jefferson. ·Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Hospital das Clínicas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto SP, Brasil. · Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre RS, Brasil. · Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Centro de Investigação em Esclerose Múltipla de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte MG, Brasil. · Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, Belo Horizonte MG, Brasil. · Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil. · Hospital da Restauração, Recife PE, Brasil. · Clínica Gonçalves Dias, Curitiba PR, Brasil. · Universidade de Campinas, Campinas SP, Brasil. · Clínica Privada, Cuiabá MT, Brasil. · Hospital São Rafael, Salvador BA, Brasil. · Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói RJ, Brasil. · Fundação Centro Integrado de Apoio ao Portador de Deficiência, João Pessoa PB, Brazil. · Universidade de Brasília, Brasília DF, Brasil. · Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília DF, Brasil. · Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Londrina, Londrina PR, Brasil. · Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia GO, Brasil. · Clínica de Neurologia e Endocrinologia, Brasília DF, Brasil. · Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba, Curitiba PR, Brasil. · Universidade da Região de Joinville, Joinville SC, Brasil. · Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas, Manaus AM, Brazil. · Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo, Sorocaba SP, Brasil. · Senne Líquor Diagnóstico, São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Hospital Cruz Azul, São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Faculdade São Leopoldo Mandic, Campinas SP, Brasil. · Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia MG, Brasil. · Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Brasília DF, Brasil. · Imperial Hospital de Caridade, Florianópolis SC, Brasil. · Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador BA, Brasil. ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #30231128.

ABSTRACT: The expanding therapeutic arsenal in multiple sclerosis (MS) has allowed for more effective and personalized treatment, but the choice and management of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) is becoming increasingly complex. In this context, experts from the Brazilian Committee on Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis and the Neuroimmunology Scientific Department of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology have convened to establish this Brazilian Consensus for the Treatment of MS, based on their understanding that neurologists should be able to prescribe MS DMTs according to what is better for each patient, based on up-to-date evidence and practice. We herein propose practical recommendations for the treatment of MS, with the main focus on the choice and management of DMTs, as well as present a review of the scientific rationale supporting therapeutic strategies in MS.

4 Guideline Consensus Recommendations of the Multiple Sclerosis Study Group and Portuguese Neuroradiological Society for the Use of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis in Clinical Practice: Part 1. 2018

Abreu, Pedro / Pedrosa, Rui / Sá, Maria José / Cerqueira, João / Sousa, Lívia / Da Silva, Ana Martins / Pinheiro, Joaquim / De Sá, João / Batista, Sónia / Simões, Rita Moiron / Pereira, Daniela Jardim / Vilela, Pedro / Vale, José. ·Serviço de Neurologia. Centro Hospitalar de São João. Porto. Portugal; Departamento de Neurociências Clínicas e Saúde Mental. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade do Porto. Porto. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Hospital dos Capuchos. Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Central. Lisboa. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Centro Hospitalar de São João. Porto. Portugal; Unidade de Investigação, Energia, Ambiente e Saúde. Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde. Universidade Fernando Pessoa. Porto. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Hospital de Braga. Braga. Portugal; Departamento de Neurologia. Escola de Medicina. Universidade do Minho. Braga. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal; Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Centro Hospitalar do Porto. Porto. Portugal; Unidade de Investigação Multidisciplinar em Biomedicina. Departamento de Neurociências. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar. Universidade do Porto. Porto. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Hospital de Vila Nova de Gaia. Centro Hospitalar Vila Nova de Gaia/Espinho. Vila Nova de Gaia. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Hospital de Santa Maria. Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Norte. Lisboa. Portugal; Departamento de Neurociências. Faculdade de Medicina. Universidade de Lisboa. Lisboa. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurologia. Hospital Beatriz Ângelo. Loures. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurradiologia. Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra. Coimbra. Portugal. · Serviço de Neurradiologia. Hospital Beatriz Ângelo. Loures. Portugal; Serviço de Neurradiologia. Hospital da Luz. Lisboa. Portugal. ·Acta Med Port · Pubmed #29916361.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging is established as a recognizable tool in the diagnosis and monitoring of multiple sclerosis patients. In the present, among multiple sclerosis centers, there are different magnetic resonance imaging sequences and protocols used to study multiple sclerosis that may hamper the optimal use of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. In this context, the Group of Studies of Multiple Sclerosis and the Portuguese Society of Neuroradiology, after a joint discussion, appointed a committee of experts to create recommendations adapted to the national reality on the use of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. The purpose of this document is to publish the first Portuguese consensus recommendations on the use of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis in clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Group of Studies of Multiple Sclerosis and the Portuguese Society of Neuroradiology, after discussion of the topic in national meetings and after a working group meeting held in Figueira da Foz on May 2017, have appointed a committee of experts that have developed by consensus several standard protocols on the use of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis and follow-up of multiple sclerosis. The document obtained was based on the best scientific evidence and expert opinion. Subsequently, the majority of Portuguese multiple sclerosis consultants and departments of neuroradiology scrutinized and reviewed the consensus paper; comments and suggestions were considered. Technical magnetic resonance imaging protocols regarding diagnostic, monitoring and the recommended information to be included in the magnetic resonance imaging report will be published in a separate paper. RESULTS: We provide some practical guidelines to promote standardized strategies to be applied in the clinical practice setting of Portuguese healthcare professionals regarding the use of magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis. CONCLUSION: We hope that these first Portuguese magnetic resonance imaging guidelines, based in the best available clinical evidence and practices, will serve to optimize multiple sclerosis management and improve multiple sclerosis patient care across Portugal.

5 Guideline Vitamin D supplementation in the prevention and management of major chronic diseases not related to mineral homeostasis in adults: research for evidence and a scientific statement from the European society for clinical and economic aspects of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis (ESCEO). 2017

Cianferotti, Luisella / Bertoldo, Francesco / Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A / Bruyere, Olivier / Cooper, Cyrus / Cutolo, Maurizio / Kanis, John A / Kaufman, Jean-Marc / Reginster, Jean-Yves / Rizzoli, Rene / Brandi, Maria Luisa. ·Bone Metabolic Diseases Unit, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University Hospital of Florence and University of Florence, Florence, Italy. · Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Geriatrics and Aging Research, University Hospital Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Liege, CHU Sart Tilman, Liege, 4000, Belgium. · MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, Hants, UK. · Research Laboratory and Academic Division of Clinical Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genova, Genoa, Italy. · Centre for Metabolic Bone Diseases, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK. · Institute for Health and Aging, Catholic University of Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Unit for Osteoporosis and Metabolic Bone Diseases, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. · Department of Public Health, Epidemiology and Health Economics, University of Liège, CHU Sart-Tilman, Liège, Belgium. · Service of Bone Diseases, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, Geneva, Switzerland. · Bone Metabolic Diseases Unit, Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, University Hospital of Florence and University of Florence, Florence, Italy. marialuisa.brandi@unifi.it. ·Endocrine · Pubmed #28390010.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Optimal vitamin D status promotes skeletal health and is recommended with specific treatment in individuals at high risk for fragility fractures. A growing body of literature has provided indirect and some direct evidence for possible extraskeletal vitamin D-related effects. PURPOSE AND METHODS: Members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis have reviewed the main evidence for possible proven benefits of vitamin D supplementation in adults at risk of or with overt chronic extra-skeletal diseases, providing recommendations and guidelines for future studies in this field. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Robust mechanistic evidence is available from in vitro studies and in vivo animal studies, usually employing cholecalciferol, calcidiol or calcitriol in pharmacologic rather than physiologic doses. Although many cross-sectional and prospective association studies in humans have shown that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (i.e., <50 nmol/L) are consistently associated with chronic diseases, further strengthened by a dose-response relationship, several meta-analyses of clinical trials have shown contradictory results. Overall, large randomized controlled trials with sufficient doses of vitamin D are missing, and available small to moderate-size trials often included people with baseline levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels >50 nmol/L, did not simultaneously assess multiple outcomes, and did not report overall safety (e.g., falls). Thus, no recommendations can be made to date for the use of vitamin D supplementation in general, parental compounds, or non-hypercalcemic vitamin D analogs in the prevention and treatment of extra-skeletal chronic diseases. Moreover, attainment of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels well above the threshold desired for bone health cannot be recommended based on current evidence, since safety has yet to be confirmed. Finally, the promising findings from mechanistic studies, large cohort studies, and small clinical trials obtained for autoimmune diseases (including type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus), cardiovascular disorders, and overall reduction in mortality require further confirmation.

6 Guideline [Clinical guidelines for the use of dimethyl fumarate in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis]. 2017

Alifirova, V M / Boiko, A N / Vlasov, Ya V / Davydovskaya, M V / Zakharova, M N / Malkova, N A / Popova, E V / Sivertseva, S A / Spirin, N N / Khachanova, N V / Shmidt, Т Е. ·Siberian State Medical University, Tomsk, Russia. · Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia. · Samara State Medical University, Samara, Russia. · Research Center of Neurology, Moscow, Russia. · Novosibirsk State Medical University, Novosibirsk, Russia. · Tyumen Regional Center of Multiple Sclerosis, Tyumen, Russia. · Yaroslavl State Medical University, Yaroslavl, Russia. · Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia. ·Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova · Pubmed #28252608.

ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, in which autoimmune inflammation and oxidative stress play essential pathogenetic roles. Activation and infiltration of immune cells in brain tissues, lipid peroxidation products, mitochondrial dysfunction, defective antioxidant protection, and many other pathological factors result in demyelination, axonal injury and death, and apoptosis of oligodendrocytes and neurons, all of which causes constant progression of the disease. The new oral agent for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), helps change the pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease, thus decreasing the rate of exacerbations, slowing down disease progression, and reducing the risk of radiological progression of the disease.

7 Guideline Guideline for multiple sclerosis treatment in Brazil: Consensus from the Neuroimmunology Scientific Department of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology. 2017

Comini-Frota, Elizabeth Regina / Vasconcelos, Cláudia C F / Mendes, Maria Fernanda. ·Universidade José do Rosário Vellano, UNIFENAS, Belo Horizonte MG, Brasil. · Academia Brasileira de Neurologia, Departamento Científico de Neuroimunologia (DCNI), São Paulo SP, Brasil. · Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Neurologia, Rio de Janeiro RJ, Brasil. · Santa Casa de São Paulo, Departamento de Neurologia, São Paulo SP, Brasil. ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #28099564.

ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis has become an ever-increasing challenge to neurologists. With the release of the latest medications on the market, Brazilian neurologists feel divided between following their patients' evolution in accordance with the strict rules established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health regarding drug distribution, or following disease progression and worsening in accordance with the evidence in the literature. Therefore, a systematic review of the main published treatment guidelines was conducted and an escalating therapy proposed for guiding multiple sclerosis patient treatment in Brazil.

8 Guideline Revised Recommendations of the Consortium of MS Centers Task Force for a Standardized MRI Protocol and Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Multiple Sclerosis. 2016

Traboulsee, A / Simon, J H / Stone, L / Fisher, E / Jones, D E / Malhotra, A / Newsome, S D / Oh, J / Reich, D S / Richert, N / Rammohan, K / Khan, O / Radue, E-W / Ford, C / Halper, J / Li, D. ·From the Department of Medicine (Neurology) (A.T.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada t.traboulsee@ubc.ca. · Portland VA Research Foundation and Oregon Health and Sciences University (J.H.S.), Portland, Oregon. · Mellen Center for MS Treatment and Research (L.S.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic (E.F.). Cleveland, Ohio. · Department of Neurology, University of Virginia (D.E.J.), Charlottesville, Virginia. · Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University (A.M.), New Haven, Connecticut. · Department of Neurology (S.D.N.), Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland. · St. Michael's Hospital (J.O.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Translational Neuroradiology Unit (D.S.R.), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. · Biogen Idec (N.R.), Cambridge, Massachusetts. · University of Miami Multiple Sclerosis Center (K.R.), Miami, Florida. · Department of Neurology (O.K.), Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan. · Department of Radiology (E.-W.R.), University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland. · University of New Mexico Health Science Center (C.F.), Albuquerque, New Mexico. · Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (J.H.), Hackensack, New Jersey. · Departments of Radiology (D.L.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia Canada. ·AJNR Am J Neuroradiol · Pubmed #26564433.

ABSTRACT: An international group of neurologists and radiologists developed revised guidelines for standardized brain and spinal cord MR imaging for the diagnosis and follow-up of MS. A brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended for the diagnosis of MS. A spinal cord MR imaging is recommended if the brain MR imaging is nondiagnostic or if the presenting symptoms are at the level of the spinal cord. A follow-up brain MR imaging with gadolinium is recommended to demonstrate dissemination in time and ongoing clinically silent disease activity while on treatment, to evaluate unexpected clinical worsening, to re-assess the original diagnosis, and as a new baseline before starting or modifying therapy. A routine brain MR imaging should be considered every 6 months to 2 years for all patients with relapsing MS. The brain MR imaging protocol includes 3D T1-weighted, 3D T2-FLAIR, 3D T2-weighted, post-single-dose gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences, and a DWI sequence. The progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy surveillance protocol includes FLAIR and DWI sequences only. The spinal cord MR imaging protocol includes sagittal T1-weighted and proton attenuation, STIR or phase-sensitive inversion recovery, axial T2- or T2*-weighted imaging through suspicious lesions, and, in some cases, postcontrast gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging. The clinical question being addressed should be provided in the requisition for the MR imaging. The radiology report should be descriptive, with results referenced to previous studies. MR imaging studies should be permanently retained and available. The current revision incorporates new clinical information and imaging techniques that have become more available.

9 Guideline Evidence-based guidelines: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines on the use of MRI in multiple sclerosis--establishing disease prognosis and monitoring patients. 2015

Wattjes, Mike P / Rovira, Àlex / Miller, David / Yousry, Tarek A / Sormani, Maria P / de Stefano, Maria P / Tintoré, Mar / Auger, Cristina / Tur, Carmen / Filippi, Massimo / Rocca, Maria A / Fazekas, Franz / Kappos, Ludwig / Polman, Chris / Frederik Barkhof, ? / Xavier Montalban, ? / Anonymous4560842. · ·Nat Rev Neurol · Pubmed #26369511.

ABSTRACT: The role of MRI in the assessment of multiple sclerosis (MS) goes far beyond the diagnostic process. MRI techniques can be used as regular monitoring to help stage patients with MS and measure disease progression. MRI can also be used to measure lesion burden, thus providing useful information for the prediction of long-term disability. With the introduction of a new generation of immunomodulatory and/or immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of MS, MRI also makes an important contribution to the monitoring of treatment, and can be used to determine baseline tissue damage and detect subsequent repair. This use of MRI can help predict treatment response and assess the efficacy and safety of new therapies. In the second part of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network's guidelines on the use of MRI in MS, we focus on the implementation of this technique in prognostic and monitoring tasks. We present recommendations on how and when to use MRI for disease monitoring, and discuss some promising MRI approaches that may be introduced into clinical practice in the near future.

10 Guideline [Update on Current Care Guideline: Multiple sclerosis]. 2015

Remes, Anne / Airas, Laura / Atula, Sari / Färkkilä, Markus / Hartikainen, Päivi / Koivisto, Keijo / Mäenpää, Eliisa / Ruutiainen, Juhani / Sumelahti, Marja-Liisa / Anonymous3440838. · ·Duodecim · Pubmed #26237913.

ABSTRACT: Treatment for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is initiated upon fulfillment of new McDonald 2010 criteria for RRMS. In addition, lumbar puncture is an essential diagnostic method. Interferon-β, dimethyl fumarate, glatiramer acetate and teriflunomide are the first-line immunomodulating drugs (IMD) for RRMS. If the disease is active according to clinical or MRI evaluation during the first-line IMD treatment, alemtuzumab, fingolimod or natalizumab may be considered as second-line therapies. IMD treatment is discontinued upon the transition of RRMS to secondary progressive phase. Rehabilitation should be considered at every phase of the disease.

11 Guideline Evidence-based guidelines: MAGNIMS consensus guidelines on the use of MRI in multiple sclerosis-clinical implementation in the diagnostic process. 2015

Rovira, Àlex / Wattjes, Mike P / Tintoré, Mar / Tur, Carmen / Yousry, Tarek A / Sormani, Maria P / De Stefano, Nicola / Filippi, Massimo / Auger, Cristina / Rocca, Maria A / Barkhof, Frederik / Fazekas, Franz / Kappos, Ludwig / Polman, Chris / Miller, David / Montalban, Xavier / Anonymous3670835. ·Magnetic Resonance Unit, Cemcat, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain. · MS Centre Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre, Netherlands. · Neurology/Neuroimmunology Unit, Cemcat, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035 Barcelona, Spain. · Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, UCLH National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Institute of Neurology, UK. · Biostatistics Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Italy. · Department of Neurological and Behavioural Sciences, University of Siena, Italy. · Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Italy. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. · Department of Neurology, University of Basel, Switzerland. · NMR Research Unit, Queen Square MS Centre, University College London Institute of Neurology, UK. ·Nat Rev Neurol · Pubmed #26149978.

ABSTRACT: The clinical use of MRI in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has advanced markedly over the past few years. Technical improvements and continuously emerging data from clinical trials and observational studies have contributed to the enhanced performance of this tool for achieving a prompt diagnosis in patients with MS. The aim of this article is to provide guidelines for the implementation of MRI of the brain and spinal cord in the diagnosis of patients who are suspected of having MS. These guidelines are based on an extensive review of the recent literature, as well as on the personal experience of the members of the MAGNIMS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS) network. We address the indications, timing, coverage, reporting and interpretation of MRI studies in patients with suspected MS. Our recommendations are intended to help radiologists and neurologists standardize and optimize the use of MRI in clinical practice for the diagnosis of MS.

12 Guideline OFSEP, a nationwide cohort of people with multiple sclerosis: Consensus minimal MRI protocol. 2015

Cotton, F / Kremer, S / Hannoun, S / Vukusic, S / Dousset, V / Anonymous511368. ·Service de radiologie, hospices civils de Lyon, centre hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre-Bénite, France; Inserm U1044, université de Lyon, université Lyon 1, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Villeurbanne, France. Electronic address: francois.cotton@chu-lyon.fr. · Service d'imagerie 2, FMTS, université de Strasbourg, hôpital de Hautepierre, ICube UMR 7357, CHU de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. · Inserm U1044, université de Lyon, université Lyon 1, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, Villeurbanne, France. · Service de neurologie A et fondation Eugène-Devic EDMUS pour la sclérose en plaques, hôpital neurologique, hospices civils de Lyon, Bron, France. · Institut de bio-imagerie de Bordeaux UMS 3428, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Inserm, U862, physiopathologie de la plasticité neuronale, Bordeaux, France; Service de neuroimagerie diagnostique de thérapeutique, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. ·J Neuroradiol · Pubmed #25660217.

ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is most generally considered as a severe disease with high physical and mental risks of disability. Since the end of the 1990s, several high cost long-term disease-modifying treatments provided some clinical efficiency. However, patient's follow-up was needed for the detection and the assessment of their side-effects. The "Observatoire français de la sclérose en plaques" (OFSEP) project aims to improve the clinical, biological and imaging systematic longitudinal follow-up of patients. It should increase the quality, efficiency and safety of patients' care, with a unique opportunity of large scale, about 41,000 patients followed in 62 French centers using the European Database for Multiple Sclerosis (EDMUS) software. OFSEP is divided into three working groups (clinical, biological and imaging). The imaging working group defines standards for routine MRI follow-up in the whole cohort and contains three subgroups: acquisition, workflow, and data processing. A common and feasible brain and spinal cord acquisition protocol has been defined by the acquisition group, and accepted by the OFSEP steering and scientific committees. This protocol can be implemented in all French MRI centers. The major MRI manufacturers have agreed to provide the dedicated collection of sequences as an "OFSEP box" with every software upgrade or new MRI machine. The new OFSEP protocol will provide a unique opportunity to study a population-based collection of data from people with MS.

13 Guideline Multiple sclerosis: summary of NICE guidance. 2014

Perry, Mark / Swain, Sharon / Kemmis-Betty, Sophia / Cooper, Paul / Anonymous8510808. ·National Clinical Guideline Centre, Royal College of Physicians, London NW1 4LE, UK mark.perry@rcplondon.ac.uk. · National Clinical Guideline Centre, Royal College of Physicians, London NW1 4LE, UK. · Neurology Department, Salford Royal Foundation Trust, Salford, UK Department of Medicine, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. ·BMJ · Pubmed #25298369.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Guideline Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 3 treatment practicalities and recommendations. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists. 2014

Broadley, Simon A / Barnett, Michael H / Boggild, Mike / Brew, Bruce J / Butzkueven, Helmut / Heard, Robert / Hodgkinson, Suzanne / Kermode, Allan G / Lechner-Scott, Jeannette / Macdonell, Richard A L / Marriott, Mark / Mason, Deborah F / Parratt, John / Reddel, Stephen W / Shaw, Cameron P / Slee, Mark / Spies, Judith / Taylor, Bruce V / Carroll, William M / Kilpatrick, Trevor J / King, John / McCombe, Pamela A / Pollard, John D / Willoughby, Ernest / Anonymous2940799. ·School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia; Department of Neurology, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia. Electronic address: simon.broadley@griffith.edu.au. · Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, The Townsville Hospital, Douglas, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology and St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Neurology, Eastern Health and Monash University, 2/5 Arnold Street, Box Hill VIC 3128, Australia. · Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia. · Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia. · Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · School of Medicine, Deakin University, VIC, Australia. · Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University, SA, Australia. · Menzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, TAS, Australia. · Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #24993136.

ABSTRACT: In this third and final part of our review of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment we look at the practical day-to-day management issues that are likely to influence individual treatment decisions. Whilst efficacy is clearly of considerable importance, tolerability and the potential for adverse effects often play a significant role in informing individual patient decisions. Here we review the issues surrounding switching between therapies, and the evidence to assist guiding the choice of therapy to change to and when to change. We review the current level of evidence with regards to the management of women in their child-bearing years with regards to recommendations about treatment during pregnancy and whilst breast feeding. We provide a summary of recommended pre- and post-treatment monitoring for the available therapies and review the evidence with regards to the value of testing for antibodies which are known to be neutralising for some therapies. We review the occurrence of adverse events, both the more common and troublesome effects and those that are less common but have potentially much more serious outcomes. Ways of mitigating these risks and managing the more troublesome adverse effects are also reviewed. Finally, we make specific recommendations with regards to the treatment of MS. It is an exciting time in the world of MS neurology and the prospects for further advances in coming years are high.

15 Guideline Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 1 historical and established therapies. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists. 2014

Broadley, Simon A / Barnett, Michael H / Boggild, Mike / Brew, Bruce J / Butzkueven, Helmut / Heard, Robert / Hodgkinson, Suzanne / Kermode, Allan G / Lechner-Scott, Jeannette / Macdonell, Richard A L / Marriott, Mark / Mason, Deborah F / Parratt, John / Reddel, Stephen W / Shaw, Cameron P / Slee, Mark / Spies, Judith / Taylor, Bruce V / Carroll, William M / Kilpatrick, Trevor J / King, John / McCombe, Pamela A / Pollard, John D / Willoughby, Ernest / Anonymous2930799. ·School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia; Department of Neurology, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia. Electronic address: simon.broadley@griffith.edu.au. · Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, The Townsville Hospital, Douglas, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology and St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia. · Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia; Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, WA, Australia. · Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · School of Medicine, Deakin University, VIC, Australia. · Centre for Neuroscience and Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University, SA, Australia. · Menzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, TAS, Australia. · Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia. · Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #24993135.

ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially life-changing immune mediated disease of the central nervous system. Until recently, treatment has been largely confined to acute treatment of relapses, symptomatic therapies and rehabilitation. Through persistent efforts of dedicated physicians and scientists around the globe for 160 years, a number of therapies that have an impact on the long term outcome of the disease have emerged over the past 20 years. In this three part series we review the practicalities, benefits and potential hazards of each of the currently available and emerging treatment options for MS. We pay particular attention to ways of abrogating the risks of these therapies and provide advice on the most appropriate indications for using individual therapies. In Part 1 we review the history of the development of MS therapies and its connection with the underlying immunobiology of the disease. The established therapies for MS are reviewed in detail and their current availability and indications in Australia and New Zealand are summarised. We examine the evidence to support their use in the treatment of MS.

16 Guideline Therapeutic approaches to disease modifying therapy for multiple sclerosis in adults: an Australian and New Zealand perspective: part 2 new and emerging therapies and their efficacy. MS Neurology Group of the Australian and New Zealand Association of Neurologists. 2014

Broadley, Simon A / Barnett, Michael H / Boggild, Mike / Brew, Bruce J / Butzkueven, Helmut / Heard, Robert / Hodgkinson, Suzanne / Kermode, Allan G / Lechner-Scott, Jeannette / Macdonell, Richard A L / Marriott, Mark / Mason, Deborah F / Parratt, John / Reddel, Stephen W / Shaw, Cameron P / Slee, Mark / Spies, Judith / Taylor, Bruce V / Carroll, William M / Kilpatrick, Trevor J / King, John / McCombe, Pamela A / Pollard, John D / Willoughby, Ernest / Anonymous1550799. ·School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, QLD 4222, Australia; Department of Neurology, Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia. Electronic address: simon.broadley@griffith.edu.au. · Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, The Townsville Hospital, Douglas, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology and St Vincent's Centre for Applied Medical Research, St Vincent's Hospital, University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; Department of Neurology, Eastern Health and Monash University, 2/5 Arnold Street, Box Hill VIC 3128, Australia. · Westmead Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · South Western Sydney Clinical School, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia. · Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia; Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, WA, Australia. · Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton, NSW, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Heidelberg, VIC, Australia. · Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Christchurch Hospital, Christchurch, New Zealand. · Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia. · School of Medicine, Deakin University, VIC, Australia. · Flinders Medical Centre, Flinders University, SA, Australia. · Menzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, TAS, Australia. · Centre for Neuromuscular and Neurological Disorders, University of Western Australia, WA, Australia. · Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia. · University of Queensland Centre for Clinical Research, QLD, Australia. · Department of Neurology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #24986155.

ABSTRACT: In Part 2 of this three part review of multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment with a particular focus on the Australian and New Zealand perspective, we review the newer therapies that have recently become available and emerging therapies that have now completed phase III clinical trial programs. We go on to compare the relative efficacies of these newer and emerging therapies alongside the existing therapies. The effectiveness of β-interferon in the treatment of different stages and the different disease courses of MS is critically reviewed with the conclusion that the absolute level of response in term of annualised relapse rates (where relapses occur) and MRI activity are similar, but are disappointing in terms of sustained disability progression for progressive forms of the disease. Finally we review the controversial area of combination therapy for MS. Whilst it remains the case that we have no cure or means of preventing MS, we do have a range of effective therapies that when used appropriately and early in the disease course can have a significant impact on short term and longer term outcomes.

17 Guideline Guidelines on the clinical use for the detection of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) to IFN beta in multiple sclerosis therapy: report from the Italian Multiple Sclerosis Study group. 2014

Bertolotto, Antonio / Capobianco, Marco / Amato, Maria Pia / Capello, Elisabetta / Capra, Ruggero / Centonze, Diego / Di Ioia, Maria / Gallo, Antonio / Grimaldi, Luigi / Imberti, Luisa / Lugaresi, Alessandra / Mancinelli, Chiara / Marrosu, Maria Giovanna / Moiola, Lucia / Montanari, Enrico / Romano, Silvia / Musu, Luigina / Paolicelli, Damiano / Patti, Francesco / Pozzilli, Carlo / Rossi, Silvia / Salvetti, Marco / Tedeschi, Gioachino / Tola, Maria Rosaria / Trojano, Maria / Zaffaroni, Mauro / Malucchi, Simona / Anonymous1000780. ·Neurologia 2-CRESM, AOU San Luigi, Orbassano, Italy. ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #24374787.

ABSTRACT: Interferon beta (IFNβ) was the first specific disease-modifying treatment licensed for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and is still one of the most commonly prescribed treatments. A strong body of evidence supports the effectiveness of IFNβ preparations in reducing the annual relapse rate, magnetic resonance (MRI) disease activity and disease progression. However, the development of binding/neutralizing antibodies (BAbs/NAbs) during treatment negatively affects clinical and MRI outcomes. Therefore, guidelines for the clinical use for the detection of NAbs in MS may result in better treatment of these patients. In October 2012, a panel of Italian neurologists from 17 MS clinics convened in Milan to review and discuss data on NAbs and their clinical relevance in the treatment of MS. In this paper, we report the panel's recommendations for the use of IFNβ Nabs detection in the early identification of IFNβ non-responsiveness and the management of patients on IFNβ treatment in Italy, according to a model of therapeutically appropriate care.

18 Guideline Guideline for the diagnosis and management of multiple sclerosis: a Southern African perspective. 2013

Giampaolo, D / Bhigjee, A / Retief, C / Isaacs, M / Britz, M / Opperman, D / Govender, R / van Rensburg, M / Anonymous5020777. ·Netcare Rosebank Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. docman1@me.com. ·S Afr Med J · Pubmed #24300689.

ABSTRACT: Before making a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is imperative that alternative diagnoses are considered and excluded. This is particularly important in South Africa, which is a moderate prevalence MS area, has a high burden of neurological infections and where the majority of the people are black - an ethnic group that has a very low frequency of MS. Before applying diagnostic criteria, there should be no better explanation for the patient's presentation. This guideline, written on behalf of the Multiple Sclerosis Society of South Africa, aims to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of MS in Southern Africa. 

19 Guideline [Consensus document on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Grupo de Enfermedades Desmielinizantes de la Sociedad Española de Neurología]. 2013

Oreja-Guevara, Celia / Montalban, Xavier / de Andrés, Clara / Casanova-Estruch, Bonaventura / Muñoz-García, Delicias / García, Inmaculada / Fernández, Óscar / Anonymous1050771. ·Hospital Clinico San Carlos, 28040 Madrid, Espana. ·Rev Neurol · Pubmed #24081891.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic neurological inflammatory demyelinating disease. Specialists involved in the symptomatic treatment of this disease tend to apply heterogeneous diagnostic and treatment criteria. AIM: To establish homogeneous criteria for treating spasticity based on available scientific knowledge, facilitating decision-making in regular clinical practice. DEVELOPMENT: A group of multiple sclerosis specialists from the Spanish Neurological Society demyelinating diseases working group met to review aspects related to spasticity in this disease and draw up the consensus. After an exhaustive bibliographic search and following a metaplan technique, a number of preliminary recommendations were established to incorporate into the document. Finally, each argument was classified depending on the degree of recommendation according to the SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network) system. The resulting text was submitted for review by the demyelinating disease group. An experts' consensus was reached regarding spasticity triggering factors, related symptoms, diagnostic criteria, assessment methods, quality of life and therapeutic management (drug and non-drug) criteria. CONCLUSION: The recommendations included in this consensus can be a useful tool for improving the quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients, as they enable improved diagnosis and treatment of spasticity.

20 Guideline Guidelines from The Italian Neurological and Neuroradiological Societies for the use of magnetic resonance imaging in daily life clinical practice of multiple sclerosis patients. 2013

Filippi, Massimo / Rocca, Maria A / Bastianello, Stefano / Comi, Giancarlo / Gallo, Paolo / Gallucci, Massimo / Ghezzi, Angelo / Marrosu, Maria Giovanna / Minonzio, Giorgio / Pantano, Patrizia / Pozzilli, Carlo / Tedeschi, Gioacchino / Trojano, Maria / Falini, Andrea / De Stefano, Nicola / Anonymous1400763 / Anonymous1410763. ·Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, m.filippi@hsr.it. ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #23828372.

ABSTRACT: MRI is highly sensitive in detecting focal white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS). For this reason, it has been formally included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, through the definition of ad hoc sets of criteria to show disease dissemination in space and time. MRI is used in virtually all clinical trials of the disease as a surrogate measure of treatment response. Several guidelines have been published to help characterizing the imaging features on conventional MR sequences of "typical" MS lesions and work has also been performed to identify "red flags" which should alert the clinicians to exclude possible alternative conditions. Despite this, the application of the available guidelines and criteria in daily life clinical practice is still limited and varies among and within countries (including Italy) due to regulatory issues and heterogeneity of MRI facilities. It is crucial for neurologists and neuroradiologists to become familiar with these criteria to improve the quality of their diagnostic assessment. In patients with established MS, the main problem is to define standard procedures for monitoring the course of the disease and treatment response. This review aims at providing daily life guidelines to clinicians for a correct application of MRI in the workup of patients suspected of having MS as well as in the monitoring of disease evolution in those with established MS. It also offers clues for the standardization of MRI studies and relative reporting to be applied at a national level.

21 Guideline Consensus Statement on medication use in multiple sclerosis by the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group for demyelinating diseases. 2013

García-Merino, A / Fernández, O / Montalbán, X / de Andrés, C / Oreja-Guevara, C / Rodríguez-Antigüedad, A / Arbizu, T / Anonymous3440757. ·Servicio de Neurología/Unidad de Neuroinmunología, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Majadahonda, Madrid, España. jgarciam.hpth@salud.madrid.org ·Neurologia · Pubmed #23643683.

ABSTRACT: Treatments for multiple sclerosis therapy are rapidly evolving. It is believed that new drugs will be approved in the near future, thereby changing current indications for treatment. In this context, the Spanish Society of Neurology's study group on demyelinating diseases, which evaluates medication use in MS, has decided to draw up a consensus statement on the current indications and guidelines for multiple sclerosis treatment.

22 Guideline International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis and immune-mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders: revisions to the 2007 definitions. 2013

Krupp, Lauren B / Tardieu, Marc / Amato, Maria Pia / Banwell, Brenda / Chitnis, Tanuja / Dale, Russell C / Ghezzi, Angelo / Hintzen, Rogier / Kornberg, Andrew / Pohl, Daniela / Rostasy, Kevin / Tenembaum, Silvia / Wassmer, Evangeline / Anonymous2050755. ·Lourie Center for Pediatric MS. Stony Brook University Medical Center, USA. lauren.krupp@stonybrook.edu ·Mult Scler · Pubmed #23572237.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There has been tremendous growth in research in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) and immune mediated central nervous system demyelinating disorders since operational definitions for these conditions were first proposed in 2007. Further, the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG), which proposed the criteria, has expanded substantially in membership and in its international scope. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to revise the 2007 definitions in order to incorporate advances in delineating the clinical and neuroradiologic features of these disorders. METHODS: Through a consensus process, in which input was sought from the 150 members of the Study Group, criteria were drafted, revised and finalized. Final approval was sought through a web survey. RESULTS: Revised criteria are proposed for pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, pediatric clinically isolated syndrome, pediatric neuromyelitis optica and pediatric MS. These criteria were approved by 93% or more of the 56 Study Group members who responded to the final survey. CONCLUSIONS: These definitions are proposed for clinical and research purposes. Their utility will depend on the outcomes of their application in prospective research.

23 Guideline Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis. 2013

Yamout, B / Alroughani, R / Al-Jumah, M / Khoury, S / Abouzeid, N / Dahdaleh, M / Alsharoqi, I / Inshasi, J / Hashem, S / Zakaria, M / ElKallab, K / Alsaadi, T / Tawfeek, T / Bohlega, S. ·American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. yamoutba@gmail.com ·Curr Med Res Opin · Pubmed #23514115.

ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is dependent on the presence of clinical and paraclinical evidence demonstrating dissemination of central nervous system lesions in both space and time, as well as the exclusion of other disorders. Diagnostic criteria were originally promulgated in 1965 by the Schumacher committee and modified subsequently by the Poser committee to include paraclinical evidence. The most recent criteria are the 2010 modifications of the 2001 McDonald criteria, which are focused on making an earlier diagnosis of MS. This article provides guidelines, derived from clinical experience as well as evidence-based medicine, for the diagnosis and management of MS with special emphasis on practices in the Middle East.

24 Guideline LSN MS guidelines for the management of multiple sclerosis. 2013

Shatila, A R / Koussa, S / Jabbour, R / Mourad, A / Aouad, A / Sabbagh, G / Kallab, K / Hilal, R / Khalifeh, R / Gebeily, S / Tourbah, A / Anonymous290751. ·Neurology Division Makassed Hospital, Ouzai Street Tarik Al-Jadida, Beirut, Lebanon. ·Rev Neurol (Paris) · Pubmed #23434141.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Lebanon is unknown, as there are no available or reliable epidemiological studies to date. The circumstances of Middle East countries are different from those of Europe and North America in terms of differential diagnoses and disease management. The aim of the conference is to establish guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and management of patients with MS in Lebanon. Another objective is to discuss and participate in research projects based on epidemiology, clinical trials and more fundamental aspects of the disease in the future. METHODS: Under the authority of the Lebanese Society of Neurology (LSN), a group of neurologists took the initiative to participate in this LSN MS committee with the purpose of establishing a consensus for the management of patients with MS, and under the supervision of a Coordinator (A.T.) designed by the LSN board. RESULTS: Diagnostic and therapeutic, follow-up and research recommendations were proposed with special emphasis on the specific needs and circumstances of Lebanon. The experts highlighted the importance of considering particular needs, the identification of patients at high risk of developing MS in order to maximize therapeutic opportunities, and cost-effective control of treatment efficacy, as well as global assessment of disability. CONCLUSIONS: The experts established guidelines concerning diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with MS in Lebanon. Furthermore, they recommended some clinical and fundamental research projects.

25 Guideline Recommendations for useful serum testing with suspected multiple sclerosis. 2013

Ouallet, J-C / Bodiguel, E / Bensa, C / Blanc, F / Brassat, D / Laplaud, D / Zephir, H / de Seze, J / Magy, L / Anonymous210718. ·Inserm U 1049, pôle des neurosciences cliniques, service de neurologie, CHU de Bordeaux Pellegrin Tripode, université de Bordeaux Segalen, place Amélie-Raba-Léon, 33076 Bordeaux cedex, France. jean-christophe.ouallet@chu-bordeaux.fr ·Rev Neurol (Paris) · Pubmed #22325711.

ABSTRACT: Several practical questions useful for management of patients with multiple sclerosis remain unanswered in the current scientific literature. Decisions are often made individually, without the support of solid scientific evidence. In order to facilitate concurring practices, we present guidelines concerning useful serum exams for the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. The methodology used was that of a formal expert consensus. A working group performed a systematic analysis of the literature, taking into account both previously existing recommendations and original articles, and then drafted guideline proposals. These proposals were subjected to the critical review of a rating group. Three written drafts, followed by rating of the guideline proposals culminated in a consensual document, which was submitted for review to a second independent reading group. The final resulting document provided the material for the present article, in which each recommendation is presented with its grade according to the level of proof or its degree of consensus in the absence of scientific proof.

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