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Obesity: HELP
Articles by Boyd A. Swinburn
Based on 145 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, B. Swinburn wrote the following 145 articles about Obesity.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6
1 Editorial WHO report on ending childhood obesity echoes earlier recommendations. 2016

Swinburn, Boyd / Vandevijvere, Stefanie. ·The University of Auckland School of Population Health,Auckland,New Zealand. · Email:s.vandevijvere@auckland.ac.nz. ·Public Health Nutr · Pubmed #26745231.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Childhood obesity in New Zealand. 2015

Kelly, Steven / Swinburn, Boyd. ·Department of General Surgery, Christchurch Hospital, Riccarton Ave, Christchurch 4710, New Zealand. stevenkelly@clear.net.nz. ·N Z Med J · Pubmed #26149897.

ABSTRACT: New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service.

3 Editorial Reducing childhood overweight and obesity in New Zealand through setting a clear and achievable target. 2014

Vandevijvere, Stefanie / Swinburn, Boyd. ·School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. s.vandevijvere@auckland.ac.nz. ·N Z Med J · Pubmed #25447245.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial A settings-based theoretical framework for obesity prevention community interventions and research. 2011

Gibbs, Lisa / Waters, Elizabeth / St Leger, Lawrence / Green, Julie / Gold, Lisa / Swinburn, Boyd. · ·Aust N Z J Public Health · Pubmed #21463401.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Review The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change: The Lancet Commission report. 2019

Swinburn, Boyd A / Kraak, Vivica I / Allender, Steven / Atkins, Vincent J / Baker, Phillip I / Bogard, Jessica R / Brinsden, Hannah / Calvillo, Alejandro / De Schutter, Olivier / Devarajan, Raji / Ezzati, Majid / Friel, Sharon / Goenka, Shifalika / Hammond, Ross A / Hastings, Gerard / Hawkes, Corinna / Herrero, Mario / Hovmand, Peter S / Howden, Mark / Jaacks, Lindsay M / Kapetanaki, Ariadne B / Kasman, Matt / Kuhnlein, Harriet V / Kumanyika, Shiriki K / Larijani, Bagher / Lobstein, Tim / Long, Michael W / Matsudo, Victor K R / Mills, Susanna D H / Morgan, Gareth / Morshed, Alexandra / Nece, Patricia M / Pan, An / Patterson, David W / Sacks, Gary / Shekar, Meera / Simmons, Geoff L / Smit, Warren / Tootee, Ali / Vandevijvere, Stefanie / Waterlander, Wilma E / Wolfenden, Luke / Dietz, William H. ·School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Global Obesity Centre, School of Health & Social Development, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia. Electronic address: boyd.swinburn@auckland.ac.nz. · Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA. · Global Obesity Centre, School of Health & Social Development, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia. · Caribbean Community Secretariat, Bridgetown, Barbados. · Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Brisbane, QLD, Australia. · World Obesity Federation, London, UK. · El Poder del Consumidor, Mexico City, Mexico. · Institute for Interdisciplinary Research in Legal Sciences, Catholic University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. · Public Health Foundation of India, Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi, India. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK. · School of Regulation and Global Governance, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia. · Center on Social Dynamics & Policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, USA; Public Health & Social Policy Department, Brown School, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA. · Institute for Social Marketing, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK. · Centre for Food Policy, City University, University of London, London, UK. · Social System Design Lab, Brown School, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA. · Climate Change Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Marketing and Enterprise, Hertfordshire Business School, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK. · Center on Social Dynamics & Policy, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, USA. · Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. · Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Milken Institute School of Public Health, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA. · Physical Fitness Research Laboratory of São Caetano do Sul, São Caetano do Sul, São Paulo, Brazil. · Institute of Health & Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · The Morgan Foundation, Wellington, New Zealand. · Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO, USA. · Obesity Action Coalition, Tampa, FL, USA. · School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. · International Development Law Organization, The Hague, Netherlands. · Global Obesity Centre, School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · Health, Nutrition, and Population Global Practice, The World Bank, Washington, DC, USA. · African Centre for Cities, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. · Diabetes Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; Scientific Institute of Public Health (Sciensano), Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Public Health Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands. · School of Medicine and Public Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. ·Lancet · Pubmed #30700377.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Review The application of theories of the policy process to obesity prevention: a systematic review and meta-synthesis. 2016

Clarke, Brydie / Swinburn, Boyd / Sacks, Gary. ·Global Obesity Centre, Centre for Population Health Research, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125, Australia. e.brydie.clarke@health.vic.gov.au. · Population Health & Prevention Strategy Unit, Prevention, Population, Primary and Community Health Branch, Department of Health and Human Services, 50 Lonsdale Street, Melbourne, Victoria, 3000, Australia. e.brydie.clarke@health.vic.gov.au. · Global Obesity Centre, Centre for Population Health Research, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC, 3125, Australia. · Population Nutrition and Global Health, University of Auckland, Victoria Street West, Auckland, 1142, New Zealand. ·BMC Public Health · Pubmed #27737707.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Theories of the policy process are recommended as tools to help explain both policy stasis and change. METHODS: A systematic review of the application of such theoretical frameworks within the field of obesity prevention policy was conducted. A meta-synthesis was also undertaken to identify the key influences on policy decision-making. RESULTS: The review identified 17 studies of obesity prevention policy underpinned by political science theories. The majority of included studies were conducted in the United States (US), with significant heterogeneity in terms of policy level (e.g., national, state) studied, areas of focus, and methodologies used. Many of the included studies were methodologically limited, in regard to rigour and trustworthiness. Prominent themes identified included the role of groups and networks, political institutions, and political system characteristics, issue framing, the use of evidence, personal values and beliefs, prevailing political ideology, and timing. CONCLUSIONS: The limited application of political science theories indicates a need for future theoretically based research into the complexity of policy-making and multiple influences on obesity prevention policy processes.

7 Review Critical design features for establishing a childhood obesity monitoring program in Australia. 2015

Lacy, Kathleen E / Nichols, Melanie S / de Silva, Andrea M / Allender, Steven E / Swinburn, Boyd A / Leslie, Eva R / Jones, Laura V / Kremer, Peter J. · ·Aust J Prim Health · Pubmed #26349806.

ABSTRACT: Efforts to combat childhood obesity in Australia are hampered by the lack of quality epidemiological data to routinely monitor the prevalence and distribution of the condition. This paper summarises the literature on issues relevant to childhood obesity monitoring and makes recommendations for implementing a school-based childhood obesity monitoring program in Australia. The primary purpose of such a program would be to collect population-level health data to inform both policy and the development and evaluation of community-based obesity prevention interventions. Recommendations are made for the types of data to be collected, data collection procedures and program management and evaluation. Data from an obesity monitoring program are crucial for directing and informing policies, practices and services, identifying subgroups at greatest risk of obesity and evaluating progress towards meeting obesity-related targets. Such data would also increase the community awareness necessary to foster change.

8 Review Getting serious about protecting New Zealand children against unhealthy food marketing. 2015

Vandevijvere, Stefanie / Swinburn, Boyd. ·University of Auckland, School of Population Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Auckland, New Zealand. s.vandevijvere@auckland.ac.nz. ·N Z Med J · Pubmed #26149902.

ABSTRACT: Reducing childhood obesity is now a high priority for Government and New Zealand society, and foremost in these efforts should be getting serious about protecting children from being targeted by sophisticated marketing for the very foods and beverages that are making them fat. The marketing of unhealthy food products to children is powerful, pervasive and predatory. Previous studies in New Zealand found that food marketing targeted at children through various media is predominantly for unhealthy food products. Statutory comprehensive regulations providing full protections for children against unhealthy food marketing are recommended, but strengthening voluntary codes into a more quasi-regulatory system would allow food companies to clearly demonstrate their commitments to becoming part of the solution for New Zealand's unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity.

9 Review Modeling the Cost Effectiveness of Child Care Policy Changes in the U.S. 2015

Wright, Davene R / Kenney, Erica L / Giles, Catherine M / Long, Michael W / Ward, Zachary J / Resch, Stephen C / Moodie, Marj L / Carter, Robert C / Wang, Y Claire / Sacks, Gary / Swinburn, Boyd A / Gortmaker, Steven L / Cradock, Angie L. ·Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington. Electronic address: davene.wright@seattlechildrens.org. · Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Center for Health Decision Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Deakin Health Economics, Deakin Population Health, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Health Policy and Management, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ·Am J Prev Med · Pubmed #26094234.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Child care facilities influence diet and physical activity, making them ideal obesity prevention settings. The purpose of this study is to quantify the health and economic impacts of a multi-component regulatory obesity policy intervention in licensed U.S. child care facilities. METHODS: Two-year costs and BMI changes resulting from changes in beverage, physical activity, and screen time regulations affecting a cohort of up to 6.5 million preschool-aged children attending child care facilities were estimated in 2014 using published data. A Markov cohort model simulated the intervention's impact on changes in the U.S. population from 2015 to 2025, including short-term BMI effects and 10-year healthcare expenditures. Future outcomes were discounted at 3% annually. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses simulated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) around outcomes. RESULTS: Regulatory changes would lead children to watch less TV, get more minutes of moderate and vigorous physical activity, and consume fewer sugar-sweetened beverages. Within the 6.5 million eligible population, national implementation could reach 3.69 million children, cost $4.82 million in the first year, and result in 0.0186 fewer BMI units (95% UI=0.00592 kg/m(2), 0.0434 kg/m(2)) per eligible child at a cost of $57.80 per BMI unit avoided. Over 10 years, these effects would result in net healthcare cost savings of $51.6 (95% UI=$14.2, $134) million. The intervention is 94.7% likely to be cost saving by 2025. CONCLUSIONS: Changing child care regulations could have a small but meaningful impact on short-term BMI at low cost. If effects are maintained for 10 years, obesity-related healthcare cost savings are likely.

10 Review Cost Effectiveness of a Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Excise Tax in the U.S. 2015

Long, Michael W / Gortmaker, Steven L / Ward, Zachary J / Resch, Stephen C / Moodie, Marj L / Sacks, Gary / Swinburn, Boyd A / Carter, Rob C / Claire Wang, Y. ·Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: michael.long@mail.harvard.edu. · Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Center for Health Decision Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Deakin Health Economics, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the School of Population Health, University of Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Health Policy and Management, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York. ·Am J Prev Med · Pubmed #26094232.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Reducing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption through taxation is a promising public health response to the obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study quantifies the expected health and economic benefits of a national sugar-sweetened beverage excise tax of $0.01/ounce over 10 years. METHODS: A cohort model was used to simulate the impact of the tax on BMI. Assuming ongoing implementation and effect maintenance, quality-adjusted life-years gained and disability-adjusted life-years and healthcare costs averted were estimated over the 2015-2025 period for the 2015 U.S. POPULATION: Costs and health gains were discounted at 3% annually. Data were analyzed in 2014. RESULTS: Implementing the tax nationally would cost $51 million in the first year. The tax would reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 20% and mean BMI by 0.16 (95% uncertainty interval [UI]=0.06, 0.37) units among youth and 0.08 (95% UI=0.03, 0.20) units among adults in the second year for a cost of $3.16 (95% UI=$1.24, $8.14) per BMI unit reduced. From 2015 to 2025, the policy would avert 101,000 disability-adjusted life-years (95% UI=34,800, 249,000); gain 871,000 quality-adjusted life-years (95% UI=342,000, 2,030,000); and result in $23.6 billion (95% UI=$9.33 billion, $54.9 billion) in healthcare cost savings. The tax would generate $12.5 billion in annual revenue (95% UI=$8.92, billion, $14.1 billion). CONCLUSIONS: The proposed tax could substantially reduce BMI and healthcare expenditures and increase healthy life expectancy. Concerns regarding the potentially regressive tax may be addressed by reduced obesity disparities and progressive earmarking of tax revenue for health promotion.

11 Review A proposed approach to systematically identify and monitor the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health using publicly available information. 2015

Mialon, M / Swinburn, B / Sacks, G. ·World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia. · School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #25988272.

ABSTRACT: Unhealthy diets represent one of the major risk factors for non-communicable diseases. There is currently a risk that the political influence of the food industry results in public health policies that do not adequately balance public and commercial interests. This paper aims to develop a framework for categorizing the corporate political activity of the food industry with respect to public health and proposes an approach to systematically identify and monitor it. The proposed framework includes six strategies used by the food industry to influence public health policies and outcomes: information and messaging; financial incentive; constituency building; legal; policy substitution; opposition fragmentation and destabilization. The corporate political activity of the food industry could be identified and monitored through publicly available data sourced from the industry itself, governments, the media and other sources. Steps for country-level monitoring include identification of key food industry actors and related sources of information, followed by systematic data collection and analysis of relevant documents, using the proposed framework as a basis for classification of results. The proposed monitoring approach should be pilot tested in different countries as part of efforts to increase the transparency and accountability of the food industry. This approach has the potential to help redress any imbalance of interests and thereby contribute to the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.

12 Review Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture. 2015

Lobstein, Tim / Jackson-Leach, Rachel / Moodie, Marjory L / Hall, Kevin D / Gortmaker, Steven L / Swinburn, Boyd A / James, W Philip T / Wang, Youfa / McPherson, Klim. ·World Obesity Federation (formerly the International Association for the Study of Obesity), London, UK. Electronic address: tlobstein@worldobesity.org. · World Obesity Federation (formerly the International Association for the Study of Obesity), London, UK. · Deakin Health Economics, Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. · National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention Deakin University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; School of Population Health, University of Auckland, New Zealand. · Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Health Professions, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, NY, USA. · New College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ·Lancet · Pubmed #25703114.

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has risen substantially worldwide in less than one generation. In the USA, the average weight of a child has risen by more than 5 kg within three decades, to a point where a third of the country's children are overweight or obese. Some low-income and middle-income countries have reported similar or more rapid rises in child obesity, despite continuing high levels of undernutrition. Nutrition policies to tackle child obesity need to promote healthy growth and household nutrition security and protect children from inducements to be inactive or to overconsume foods of poor nutritional quality. The promotion of energy-rich and nutrient-poor products will encourage rapid weight gain in early childhood and exacerbate risk factors for chronic disease in all children, especially those showing poor linear growth. Whereas much public health effort has been expended to restrict the adverse marketing of breastmilk substitutes, similar effort now needs to be expanded and strengthened to protect older children from increasingly sophisticated marketing of sedentary activities and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. To meet this challenge, the governance of food supply and food markets should be improved and commercial activities subordinated to protect and promote children's health.

13 Review Patchy progress on obesity prevention: emerging examples, entrenched barriers, and new thinking. 2015

Roberto, Christina A / Swinburn, Boyd / Hawkes, Corinna / Huang, Terry T-K / Costa, Sergio A / Ashe, Marice / Zwicker, Lindsey / Cawley, John H / Brownell, Kelly D. ·Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: croberto@hsph.harvard.edu. · School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · World Cancer Research Fund International, London, UK. · City University of New York, School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA; University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE, USA. · ChangeLab Solutions, Oakland, CA, USA. · ChangeLab Solutions, Oakland, CA, USA; Law Center to Prevent Gun Violence, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA. · Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. ·Lancet · Pubmed #25703111.

ABSTRACT: Despite isolated areas of improvement, no country to date has reversed its obesity epidemic. Governments, together with a broad range of stakeholders, need to act urgently to decrease the prevalence of obesity. In this Series paper, we review several regulatory and non-regulatory actions taken around the world to address obesity and discuss some of the reasons for the scarce and fitful progress. Additionally, we preview the papers in this Lancet Series, which each identify high-priority actions on key obesity issues and challenge some of the entrenched dichotomies that dominate the thinking about obesity and its solutions. Although obesity is acknowledged as a complex issue, many debates about its causes and solutions are centred around overly simple dichotomies that present seemingly competing perspectives. Examples of such dichotomies explored in this Series include personal versus collective responsibilities for actions, supply versus demand-type explanations for consumption of unhealthy food, government regulation versus industry self-regulation, top-down versus bottom-up drivers for change, treatment versus prevention priorities, and a focus on undernutrition versus overnutrition. We also explore the dichotomy of individual versus environmental drivers of obesity and conclude that people bear some personal responsibility for their health, but environmental factors can readily support or undermine the ability of people to act in their own self-interest. We propose a reframing of obesity that emphasises the reciprocal nature of the interaction between the environment and the individual. Today's food environments exploit people's biological, psychological, social, and economic vulnerabilities, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods. This reinforces preferences and demands for foods of poor nutritional quality, furthering the unhealthy food environments. Regulatory actions from governments and increased efforts from industry and civil society will be necessary to break these vicious cycles.

14 Review Strengthening of accountability systems to create healthy food environments and reduce global obesity. 2015

Swinburn, Boyd / Kraak, Vivica / Rutter, Harry / Vandevijvere, Stefanie / Lobstein, Tim / Sacks, Gary / Gomes, Fabio / Marsh, Tim / Magnusson, Roger. ·School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: boyd.swinburn@auckland.ac.nz. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia; Department of Human Nutrition, Foods & Exercise, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA. · London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK. · School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · World Obesity Federation, London, UK. · WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. · National Cancer Institute of Brazil, Ministry of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. · UK Health Forum, London, UK. · Sydney Law School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. ·Lancet · Pubmed #25703108.

ABSTRACT: To achieve WHO's target to halt the rise in obesity and diabetes, dramatic actions are needed to improve the healthiness of food environments. Substantial debate surrounds who is responsible for delivering effective actions and what, specifically, these actions should entail. Arguments are often reduced to a debate between individual and collective responsibilities, and between hard regulatory or fiscal interventions and soft voluntary, education-based approaches. Genuine progress lies beyond the impasse of these entrenched dichotomies. We argue for a strengthening of accountability systems across all actors to substantially improve performance on obesity reduction. In view of the industry opposition and government reluctance to regulate for healthier food environments, quasiregulatory approaches might achieve progress. A four step accountability framework (take the account, share the account, hold to account, and respond to the account) is proposed. The framework identifies multiple levers for change, including quasiregulatory and other approaches that involve government-specified and government-monitored progress of private sector performance, government procurement mechanisms, improved transparency, monitoring of actions, and management of conflicts of interest. Strengthened accountability systems would support government leadership and stewardship, constrain the influence of private sector actors with major conflicts of interest on public policy development, and reinforce the engagement of civil society in creating demand for healthy food environments and in monitoring progress towards obesity action objectives.

15 Review Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys. 2014

Vandevijvere, Stefanie / Swinburn, Boyd / Anonymous3020794. ·University of Auckland, School of Population Health, Auckland, New Zealand. ·BMJ Open · Pubmed #24833697.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, 'environmental equity' indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International 'best practice benchmarks' will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. DISSEMINATION: This research is highly original due to the very 'upstream' approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs.

16 Review An accountability framework to promote healthy food environments. 2014

Kraak, Vivica I / Swinburn, Boyd / Lawrence, Mark / Harrison, Paul. ·1World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention,Deakin Population Health Strategic Research Centre,School of Health and Social Development,Faculty of Health,Deakin University,221 Burwood Highway,Melbourne,Victoria 3125,Australia. · 2Population Nutrition and Global Health,University of Auckland,Auckland,New Zealand. · 3Public Health Nutrition,School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences,Faculty of Health,Deakin University,Burwood,Victoria,Australia. · 4School of Business,Faculty of Business and Law,Deakin University,Burwood,Victoria,Australia. ·Public Health Nutr · Pubmed #24564894.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To review the available literature on accountability frameworks to construct a framework that is relevant to voluntary partnerships between government and food industry stakeholders. DESIGN: Between November 2012 and May 2013, a desk review of ten databases was conducted to identify principles, conceptual frameworks, underlying theories, and strengths and limitations of existing accountability frameworks for institutional performance to construct a new framework relevant to promoting healthy food environments. SETTING: Food policy contexts within high-income countries to address obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. SUBJECTS: Eligible resources (n 26) were reviewed and the guiding principles of fifteen interdisciplinary frameworks were used to construct a new accountability framework. RESULTS: Strengths included shared principles across existing frameworks, such as trust, inclusivity, transparency and verification; government leadership and good governance; public deliberations; independent bodies recognizing compliance and performance achievements; remedial actions to improve accountability systems; and capacity to manage conflicts of interest and settle disputes. Limitations of the three-step frameworks and 'mutual accountability' approach were an explicit absence of an empowered authority to hold all stakeholders to account for their performance. CONCLUSIONS: We propose a four-step accountability framework to guide government and food industry engagement to address unhealthy food environments as part of a broader government-led strategy to address obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases. An independent body develops clear objectives, a governance process and performance standards for all stakeholders to address unhealthy food environments. The empowered body takes account (assessment), shares the account (communication), holds to account (enforcement) and responds to the account (improvements).

17 Review Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand. 2013

Swinburn, B / Wood, A. ·School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; WHO Collaborating Centre for Obesity Prevention, Deakin University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24102746.

ABSTRACT: The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development.

18 Review Monitoring and benchmarking population diet quality globally: a step-wise approach. 2013

Vandevijvere, S / Monteiro, C / Krebs-Smith, S M / Lee, A / Swinburn, B / Kelly, B / Neal, B / Snowdon, W / Sacks, G / Anonymous6200770. ·School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074217.

ABSTRACT: INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support) aims to monitor and benchmark the healthiness of food environments globally. In order to assess the impact of food environments on population diets, it is necessary to monitor population diet quality between countries and over time. This paper reviews existing data sources suitable for monitoring population diet quality, and assesses their strengths and limitations. A step-wise framework is then proposed for monitoring population diet quality. Food balance sheets (FBaS), household budget and expenditure surveys (HBES) and food intake surveys are all suitable methods for assessing population diet quality. In the proposed 'minimal' approach, national trends of food and energy availability can be explored using FBaS. In the 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches, the dietary share of ultra-processed products is measured as an indicator of energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets using HBES and food intake surveys, respectively. In addition, it is proposed that pre-defined diet quality indices are used to score diets, and some of those have been designed for application within all three monitoring approaches. However, in order to enhance the value of global efforts to monitor diet quality, data collection methods and diet quality indicators need further development work.

19 Review Monitoring the impacts of trade agreements on food environments. 2013

Friel, S / Hattersley, L / Snowdon, W / Thow, A-M / Lobstein, T / Sanders, D / Barquera, S / Mohan, S / Hawkes, C / Kelly, B / Kumanyika, S / L'Abbe, M / Lee, A / Ma, J / Macmullan, J / Monteiro, C / Neal, B / Rayner, M / Sacks, G / Swinburn, B / Vandevijvere, S / Walker, C / Anonymous6190770. ·National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074216.

ABSTRACT: The liberalization of international trade and foreign direct investment through multilateral, regional and bilateral agreements has had profound implications for the structure and nature of food systems, and therefore, for the availability, nutritional quality, accessibility, price and promotion of foods in different locations. Public health attention has only relatively recently turned to the links between trade and investment agreements, diets and health, and there is currently no systematic monitoring of this area. This paper reviews the available evidence on the links between trade agreements, food environments and diets from an obesity and non-communicable disease (NCD) perspective. Based on the key issues identified through the review, the paper outlines an approach for monitoring the potential impact of trade agreements on food environments and obesity/NCD risks. The proposed monitoring approach encompasses a set of guiding principles, recommended procedures for data collection and analysis, and quantifiable 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' measurement indicators to be tailored to national priorities, capacity and resources. Formal risk assessment processes of existing and evolving trade and investment agreements, which focus on their impacts on food environments will help inform the development of healthy trade policy, strengthen domestic nutrition and health policy space and ultimately protect population nutrition.

20 Review Monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in community and consumer retail food environments globally. 2013

Ni Mhurchu, C / Vandevijvere, S / Waterlander, W / Thornton, L E / Kelly, B / Cameron, A J / Snowdon, W / Swinburn, B / Anonymous6180770. ·National Institute for Health Innovation, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074215.

ABSTRACT: Retail food environments are increasingly considered influential in determining dietary behaviours and health outcomes. We reviewed the available evidence on associations between community (type, availability and accessibility of food outlets) and consumer (product availability, prices, promotions and nutritional quality within stores) food environments and dietary outcomes in order to develop an evidence-based framework for monitoring the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail food environments. Current evidence is suggestive of an association between community and consumer food environments and dietary outcomes; however, substantial heterogeneity in study designs, methods and measurement tools makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions. The use of standardized tools to monitor local food environments within and across countries may help to validate this relationship. We propose a step-wise framework to monitor and benchmark community and consumer retail food environments that can be used to assess density of healthy and unhealthy food outlets; measure proximity of healthy and unhealthy food outlets to homes/schools; evaluate availability of healthy and unhealthy foods in-store; compare food environments over time and between regions and countries; evaluate compliance with local policies, guidelines or voluntary codes of practice; and determine the impact of changes to retail food environments on health outcomes, such as obesity.

21 Review Monitoring foods and beverages provided and sold in public sector settings. 2013

L'Abbé, M / Schermel, A / Minaker, L / Kelly, B / Lee, A / Vandevijvere, S / Twohig, P / Barquera, S / Friel, S / Hawkes, C / Kumanyika, S / Lobstein, T / Ma, J / Macmullan, J / Mohan, S / Monteiro, C / Neal, B / Rayner, M / Sacks, G / Sanders, D / Snowdon, W / Swinburn, B / Walker, C / Anonymous6170770. ·Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074214.

ABSTRACT: This paper outlines a step-wise framework for monitoring foods and beverages provided or sold in publicly funded institutions. The focus is on foods in schools, but the framework can also be applied to foods provided or sold in other publicly funded institutions. Data collection and evaluation within this monitoring framework will consist of two components. In component I, information on existing food or nutrition policies and/or programmes within settings would be compiled. Currently, nutrition standards and voluntary guidelines associated with such policies/programmes vary widely globally. This paper, which provides a comprehensive review of such standards and guidelines, will facilitate institutional learnings for those jurisdictions that have not yet established them or are undergoing review of existing ones. In component II, the quality of foods provided or sold in public sector settings is evaluated relative to existing national or sub-national nutrition standards or voluntary guidelines. Where there are no (or only poor) standards or guidelines available, the nutritional quality of foods can be evaluated relative to standards of a similar jurisdiction or other appropriate standards. Measurement indicators are proposed (within 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' approaches) that can be used to monitor progress over time in meeting policy objectives, and facilitate comparisons between countries.

22 Review Monitoring the price and affordability of foods and diets globally. 2013

Lee, A / Mhurchu, C N / Sacks, G / Swinburn, B / Snowdon, W / Vandevijvere, S / Hawkes, C / L'abbé, M / Rayner, M / Sanders, D / Barquera, S / Friel, S / Kelly, B / Kumanyika, S / Lobstein, T / Ma, J / Macmullan, J / Mohan, S / Monteiro, C / Neal, B / Walker, C / Anonymous6160770. ·School of Public Health and Social Work and School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074213.

ABSTRACT: Food prices and food affordability are important determinants of food choices, obesity and non-communicable diseases. As governments around the world consider policies to promote the consumption of healthier foods, data on the relative price and affordability of foods, with a particular focus on the difference between 'less healthy' and 'healthy' foods and diets, are urgently needed. This paper briefly reviews past and current approaches to monitoring food prices, and identifies key issues affecting the development of practical tools and methods for food price data collection, analysis and reporting. A step-wise monitoring framework, including measurement indicators, is proposed. 'Minimal' data collection will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods; 'expanded' monitoring will assess the differential price of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' diets; and the 'optimal' approach will also monitor food affordability, by taking into account household income. The monitoring of the price and affordability of 'healthy' and 'less healthy' foods and diets globally will provide robust data and benchmarks to inform economic and fiscal policy responses. Given the range of methodological, cultural and logistical challenges in this area, it is imperative that all aspects of the proposed monitoring framework are tested rigorously before implementation.

23 Review Monitoring the health-related labelling of foods and non-alcoholic beverages in retail settings. 2013

Rayner, M / Wood, A / Lawrence, M / Mhurchu, C N / Albert, J / Barquera, S / Friel, S / Hawkes, C / Kelly, B / Kumanyika, S / L'abbé, M / Lee, A / Lobstein, T / Ma, J / Macmullan, J / Mohan, S / Monteiro, C / Neal, B / Sacks, G / Sanders, D / Snowdon, W / Swinburn, B / Vandevijvere, S / Walker, C / Anonymous6150770. ·British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074212.

ABSTRACT: Food labelling on food packaging has the potential to have both positive and negative effects on diets. Monitoring different aspects of food labelling would help to identify priority policy options to help people make healthier food choices. A taxonomy of the elements of health-related food labelling is proposed. A systematic review of studies that assessed the nature and extent of health-related food labelling has been conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food labelling. A step-wise approach has been developed for independently assessing the nature and extent of health-related food labelling in different countries and over time. Procedures for sampling the food supply, and collecting and analysing data are proposed, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators and benchmarks for health-related food labelling.

24 Review Monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions to children. 2013

Kelly, B / King, L / Baur, L / Rayner, M / Lobstein, T / Monteiro, C / Macmullan, J / Mohan, S / Barquera, S / Friel, S / Hawkes, C / Kumanyika, S / L'Abbé, M / Lee, A / Ma, J / Neal, B / Sacks, G / Sanders, D / Snowdon, W / Swinburn, B / Vandevijvere, S / Walker, C / Anonymous6140770. ·School of Health and Society, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074211.

ABSTRACT: Food and non-alcoholic beverage marketing is recognized as an important factor influencing food choices related to non-communicable diseases. The monitoring of populations' exposure to food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions, and the content of these promotions, is necessary to generate evidence to understand the extent of the problem, and to determine appropriate and effective policy responses. A review of studies measuring the nature and extent of exposure to food promotions was conducted to identify approaches to monitoring food promotions via dominant media platforms. A step-wise approach, comprising 'minimal', 'expanded' and 'optimal' monitoring activities, was designed. This approach can be used to assess the frequency and level of exposure of population groups (especially children) to food promotions, the persuasive power of techniques used in promotional communications (power of promotions) and the nutritional composition of promoted food products. Detailed procedures for data sampling, data collection and data analysis for a range of media types are presented, as well as quantifiable measurement indicators for assessing exposure to and power of food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions. The proposed framework supports the development of a consistent system for monitoring food and non-alcoholic beverage promotions for comparison between countries and over time.

25 Review Monitoring the levels of important nutrients in the food supply. 2013

Neal, B / Sacks, G / Swinburn, B / Vandevijvere, S / Dunford, E / Snowdon, W / Webster, J / Barquera, S / Friel, S / Hawkes, C / Kelly, B / Kumanyika, S / L'Abbé, M / Lee, A / Lobstein, T / Ma, J / Macmullan, J / Mohan, S / Monteiro, C / Rayner, M / Sanders, D / Walker, C / Anonymous6130770. ·The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #24074210.

ABSTRACT: A food supply that delivers energy-dense products with high levels of salt, saturated fats and trans fats, in large portion sizes, is a major cause of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The highly processed foods produced by large food corporations are primary drivers of increases in consumption of these adverse nutrients. The objective of this paper is to present an approach to monitoring food composition that can both document the extent of the problem and underpin novel actions to address it. The monitoring approach seeks to systematically collect information on high-level contextual factors influencing food composition and assess the energy density, salt, saturated fat, trans fats and portion sizes of highly processed foods for sale in retail outlets (with a focus on supermarkets and quick-service restaurants). Regular surveys of food composition are proposed across geographies and over time using a pragmatic, standardized methodology. Surveys have already been undertaken in several high- and middle-income countries, and the trends have been valuable in informing policy approaches. The purpose of collecting data is not to exhaustively document the composition of all foods in the food supply in each country, but rather to provide information to support governments, industry and communities to develop and enact strategies to curb food-related NCDs.

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