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Obesity: HELP
Articles from Yale University
Based on 685 articles published since 2008

These are the 685 published articles about Obesity that originated from Yale University during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). 2018

Davies, Melanie J / D'Alessio, David A / Fradkin, Judith / Kernan, Walter N / Mathieu, Chantal / Mingrone, Geltrude / Rossing, Peter / Tsapas, Apostolos / Wexler, Deborah J / Buse, John B. ·Diabetes Research Centre, University of Leicester, Leicester, U.K. · Leicester Diabetes Centre, Leicester General Hospital, Leicester, U.K. · Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. · National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. · Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. · Clinical and Experimental Endocrinology, UZ Gasthuisberg, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. · Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic University, Rome, Italy. · Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences, King's College London, London, U.K. · Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Second Medical Department, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. · Department of Medicine and Diabetes Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. · Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC jbuse@med.unc.edu. ·Diabetes Care · Pubmed #30291106.

ABSTRACT: The American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes convened a panel to update the prior position statements, published in 2012 and 2015, on the management of type 2 diabetes in adults. A systematic evaluation of the literature since 2014 informed new recommendations. These include additional focus on lifestyle management and diabetes self-management education and support. For those with obesity, efforts targeting weight loss, including lifestyle, medication, and surgical interventions, are recommended. With regards to medication management, for patients with clinical cardiovascular disease, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist with proven cardiovascular benefit is recommended. For patients with chronic kidney disease or clinical heart failure and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, an SGLT2 inhibitor with proven benefit is recommended. GLP-1 receptor agonists are generally recommended as the first injectable medication.

2 Guideline Practice Policy Statement: Integrating Effective Weight Management Into Practice. 2016

Edshteyn, Ingrid / Uduhiri, Kelechi A / Morgan, Toyosi O / Rhodes, Katrina L / Sherin, Kevin M / Anonymous13240873. ·Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, Derby, Connecticut. Electronic address: iedshteyn@gmail.com. · Providence Hospital, Washington, District of Columbia. · Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. · American Association of Public Health Physicians, Green Cove Springs, Florida. · Department of Family Medicine, Florida State University College of Medicine, Tallahassee, Florida; University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida; Florida Department of Health in Orange County, Orlando, Florida. ·Am J Prev Med · Pubmed #27374207.

ABSTRACT: The American College of Preventive Medicine Prevention Practice Committee contributes to policy guidelines and recommendations on preventive health topics for clinicians and public health decision makers. As an update to a previously published statement on weight management counseling of overweight adults, the College is providing a consensus-based recommendation designed to more effectively integrate weight management strategies into clinical practice and to incorporate referrals to effective evidence-based community and commercial weight management programs. The goal is to empower providers to include lifestyle interventions as part of the foundation of clinical practice.

3 Editorial Comment on: Systematic review and retrospective validation demonstrate prediction models can predict weight loss after bariatric surgery. 2017

Ghiassi, Saber. ·Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·Surg Obes Relat Dis · Pubmed #29031943.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Physical Activity Prevents Obesity and Heart Failure: Now What Are We Going to Do About It? 2017

Ahmad, Tariq / Testani, Jeffrey M. ·Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address: tariq.ahmad@yale.edu. · Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·JACC Heart Fail · Pubmed #28449798.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial We are not in Kansas anymore: The unfamiliar landscape of NASH. 2016

Mehal, Wajahat Z. ·Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale University, New Haven, CT. ·Hepatology · Pubmed #26567082.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Obesity increases stroke risk in young adults: opportunity for prevention. 2015

Kernan, Walter N / Dearborn, Jennifer L. ·From the Departments of Internal Medicine (W.N.K.) and Neurology (J.L.D.), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. Walter.Kernan@Yale.Edu. · From the Departments of Internal Medicine (W.N.K.) and Neurology (J.L.D.), Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. ·Stroke · Pubmed #25944321.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Oblivobesity: looking over the overweight that parents keep overlooking. 2015

Katz, David L. ·Editor-in-Chief, Childhood Obesity; Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center, Griffin Hospital, Derby, CT. ·Child Obes · Pubmed #25923983.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Raising kids, in a cultural blind spot. 2015

Katz, David L. ·Editor-in-Chief, Childhood Obesity; Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center , Griffin Hospital, Derby, CT. ·Child Obes · Pubmed #25692866.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Obesity. Introduction. 2014

Monsey, Melissa S / Gerhard, Danielle M. ·Issue Editors, Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·Yale J Biol Med · Pubmed #24910555.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Childhood obesity trends: time for champagne? 2014

Katz, David L. ·Editor-in-Chief, Childhood Obesity; Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center , Griffin Hospital, Derby, CT. ·Child Obes · Pubmed #24738484.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Are our children "diseased"? 2014

Katz, David L. ·Editor-in-Chief, Childhood Obesity; Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center , Griffin Hospital, Derby, CT. ·Child Obes · Pubmed #24450383.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in obese adolescents: a looming marker of cardiac dysfunction. 2014

Santoro, Nicola / Caprio, Sonia. ·Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT. ·Hepatology · Pubmed #23913480.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Review Food Cues and Obesity: Overpowering Hormones and Energy Balance Regulation. 2018

Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata / Seo, Dongju. ·Department of Internal Medicine Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, 300 Cedar Street, TAC S135, New Haven, CT, 06520, USA. Renata.Aguiar@yale.edu. · Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, 2 Church Street S. Suite 209, New Haven, CT, 06519, USA. Dongju.Seo@yale.edu. ·Curr Obes Rep · Pubmed #29619632.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the modern obesogenic environment, food cues play a crucial role in the development of obesity by disrupting hormone and energy balance mechanisms. Thus, it is critical to understand the neurobiology of feeding behaviors and obesity in the context of ubiquitous food cues. The current paper reviews the physiology of feeding, hormonal regulation of energy balance, and food cue responses and discusses their contributions to obesity. RECENT FINDINGS: Food cues have strong impact on human physiology. Obese individuals have altered food cue-elicited responses in the brain and periphery, overpowering hormone and energy balance regulation. Disrupted homeostasis during food cue exposure leads to continued food intake, unsuccessful weight management, and poor treatment outcomes, which further contributes to obesity epidemic. Findings from the review emphasize the crucial role of food cues in obesity epidemic, which necessitates multidimensional approaches to the prevention and treatment of obesity, including psychosocial interventions to reduce food cue reactivity, along with conventional treatment.

14 Review The "adipose tissue expandability" hypothesis: a potential mechanism for insulin resistance in obese youth. 2018

Caprio, Sonia / Pierpont, Bridget / Kursawe, Romy. ·Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. · The Jackson Laboratory, Diabetes and Obesity, 10 Discovery Drive Farmington, CT, USA. ·Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig · Pubmed #29596053.

ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a major global health challenge of the 21st century, as it is associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular complications, even at a very early age in life. The root causes of pediatric obesity remain incompletely understood. The obesity epidemic together with the relationship of obesity to the growing population burden of chronic disease presents unprecedented research opportunities and challenges. Decades of obesity-related research funded by governments around the world have yielded many important discoveries about both etiological pathways and preventive or therapeutic interventions. Yet, there is a sense that the problem is outpacing these research efforts. Obesity poses a significant risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) , diabetes and certain cancers thereby shortening life expectancy. Nevertheless, many obese individuals do not develop any of these comorbidities. One hypothesis explaining this dilemma is that total body fat is not the culprit of adverse health in obesity rather the relative proportion of lipids in various fat depots is what determines the metabolic risk. In this review, we describe the role of altered fat partitioning in youth onset obesity and its relation to fatty liver and T2D during adolescence.

15 Review Obesity and the Risk of Colonic Diverticulosis: A Meta-analysis. 2018

Wijarnpreecha, Karn / Ahuja, Wasin / Chesdachai, Supavit / Thongprayoon, Charat / Jaruvongvanich, Veeravich / Cheungpasitporn, Wisit / Ungprasert, Patompong. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, New York. · Department of Internal Medicine, Norwalk Hospital, Yale University, Norwalk, Connecticut. · Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. · Department of Internal Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. · Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. · Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. ·Dis Colon Rectum · Pubmed #29521829.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The possible relationship between obesity and the risk of colonic diverticulosis has been suggested by recent epidemiologic studies, although the results were inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize all of the available data. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases through January 2017. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that compared the risk of colonic diverticulosis among subjects with obesity versus those without obesity were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effect estimates from each study were extracted and combined together using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method. RESULTS: Of 2989 potentially eligible articles, 10 studies (9 cross-sectional studies and 1 prospective cohort study) with 53,520 participants met the eligibility criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of colonic diverticulosis in obese subjects was significantly higher than in those without obesity, with a pooled OR of 1.41 (95% CI, 1.20-1.65). The statistical heterogeneity was high, with an I of 75%. LIMITATIONS: High statistical heterogeneity and publication bias in favor of positive studies may have been present in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between colonic diverticulosis and obesity was shown in this study. However, additional studies are still required to determine the causality. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A500.

16 Review Capacity-oriented approaches to developing childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review. 2018

Foster, B A / Fu, E / Bendiks, N / Gaspard, C S / Sharifi, M. ·Departments of Dermatology and Pediatrics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA. · School of Public Health, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. · Briscoe Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. · Department of Pediatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ·Clin Obes · Pubmed #29224227.

ABSTRACT: Capacity-oriented approaches to health interventions seek to empower the target population or community to manage the health issue themselves using resources they can control. Positive deviance, resilience and asset-based approaches are three such methods of developing and implementing health interventions. This study aimed to review the efficacy of interventions explicitly applying these methods in addressing childhood obesity using adiposity as the primary outcome, measured by standardized body mass index. The search strategy was developed and implemented across four electronic databases. Of the 181 records identified and screened, 11 studies were identified as using a capacity-oriented approach overall. Asset-based approaches (n = 8 studies) consisted of 47 880 participants, positive deviance (n = 2 studies) consisted of 781 participants, and resilience-based interventions (n = 1 study) consisted of 35 participants. The asset-based approaches were mixed, with three of the eight studies showing a significant reduction in adiposity, while the other five did not find a difference. The positive deviance and resilience-based studies showed signs of efficacy in reducing adiposity. There was significant design heterogeneity across studies, and varied interpretations and definitions of the approaches were used. Further work should attempt to achieve some consensus on the use of these approaches to facilitate comparison and advance the science of capacity-oriented interventions for childhood obesity.

17 Review Weight management and physical activity throughout the cancer care continuum. 2018

Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy / Schmitz, Kathryn H / Alfano, Catherine M / Bail, Jennifer R / Goodwin, Pamela J / Thomson, Cynthia A / Bradley, Don W / Courneya, Kerry S / Befort, Christie A / Denlinger, Crystal S / Ligibel, Jennifer A / Dietz, William H / Stolley, Melinda R / Irwin, Melinda L / Bamman, Marcas M / Apovian, Caroline M / Pinto, Bernardine M / Wolin, Kathleen Y / Ballard, Rachel M / Dannenberg, Andrew J / Eakin, Elizabeth G / Longjohn, Matt M / Raffa, Susan D / Adams-Campbell, Lucile L / Buzaglo, Joanne S / Nass, Sharyl J / Massetti, Greta M / Balogh, Erin P / Kraft, Elizabeth S / Parekh, Anand K / Sanghavi, Darshak M / Morris, G Stephen / Basen-Engquist, Karen. ·Professor of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. · Professor of Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA. · Vice President, Survivorship, American Cancer Society, Inc., Washington, DC. · Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. · Professor of Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospital, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute at the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Professor of Health Promotion Sciences, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. · Associate Consulting Professor, Community and Family Medicine, Duke School of Medicine, Durham, NC. · Professor of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. · Associate Professor of Preventive Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS. · Associate Professor of Hematology/Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA. · Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. · Chair, Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness, George Washington University, Washington, DC. · Professor of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. · Professor of Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT. · Professor of Cell Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. · Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. · Professor of Nursing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. · CEO, Coeus Health, Chicago, IL. · Director, Prevention Research Coordination, Office of Disease Prevention, Office of the Director, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. · Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY. · Professor and Director, Cancer Prevention Research Centre, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Vice President and National Health Officer, YMCA of the USA, Chicago, IL. · National Program Director for Weight Management, Veterans Health Administration, Durham, NC. · Professor of Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, DC. · Senior Vice President, Research and Training Institute, Cancer Support Community, Philadelphia, PA. · Director, National Cancer Policy Forum and Board on Health Care Services, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC. · Associate Director for Science, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. · Senior Program Officer, National Cancer Policy Forum, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, Washington, DC. · Senior Clinical Officer, Anthem Blue Cross Colorado, Denver, CO. · Chief Medical Advisor, Bipartisan Policy Center, Washington, DC. · Chief Medical Officer, Senior Vice President, Translation, Optum Labs, Cambridge, MA. · Professor of Physical Therapy, Wingate University, Wingate, NC. · Professor of Behavioral Science, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. ·CA Cancer J Clin · Pubmed #29165798.

ABSTRACT: Mounting evidence suggests that weight management and physical activity (PA) improve overall health and well being, and reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors. Although many opportunities exist to include weight management and PA in routine cancer care, several barriers remain. This review summarizes key topics addressed in a recent National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine workshop entitled, "Incorporating Weight Management and Physical Activity Throughout the Cancer Care Continuum." Discussions related to body weight and PA among cancer survivors included: 1) current knowledge and gaps related to health outcomes; 2) effective intervention approaches; 3) addressing the needs of diverse populations of cancer survivors; 4) opportunities and challenges of workforce, care coordination, and technologies for program implementation; 5) models of care; and 6) program coverage. While more discoveries are still needed for the provision of optimal weight-management and PA programs for cancer survivors, obesity and inactivity currently jeopardize their overall health and quality of life. Actionable future directions are presented for research; practice and policy changes required to assure the availability of effective, affordable, and feasible weight management; and PA services for all cancer survivors as a part of their routine cancer care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:64-89. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

18 Review Role of addiction and stress neurobiology on food intake and obesity. 2018

Sinha, Rajita. ·Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, School of Medicine, Yale Stress Center, 2 Church Street South, Suite 209, New Haven, CT 06519, United States; Department of Neuroscience, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, United States. Electronic address: rajita.sinha@yale.edu. ·Biol Psychol · Pubmed #28479142.

ABSTRACT: The US remains at the forefront of a global obesity epidemic with a significant negative impact on public health. While it is well known that a balance between energy intake and expenditure is homeostatically regulated to control weight, growing evidence points to multifactorial social, neurobehavioral and metabolic determinants of food intake that influence obesity risk. This review presents factors such as the ubiquitous presence of rewarding foods in the environment and increased salience of such foods that stimulate brain reward motivation and stress circuits to influence eating behaviors. These rewarding foods via conditioned and reinforcing effects stimulate not only metabolic, but also stress hormones, that, in turn, hijack the brain emotional (limbic) and motivational (striatal) pathways, to promote food craving and excessive food intake. Furthermore, the impact of high levels of stress and trauma and altered metabolic environment (e.g. higher weight, altered insulin sensitivity) on prefrontal cortical self-control processes that regulate emotional, motivational and visceral homeostatic mechanisms of food intake and obesity risk are also discussed. A heuristic framework is presented in which the interactive dynamic effects of neurobehavioral adaptations in metabolic, motivation and stress neurobiology may further support food craving, excessive food intake and weight gain in a complex feed-forward manner. Implications of such adaptations in brain addictive-motivational and stress pathways and their effects on excessive food intake and weight gain are discussed to highlight key questions that requires future research attention in order to better understand and address the growing obesity epidemic.

19 Review American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery updated position statement on sleeve gastrectomy as a bariatric procedure. 2017

Ali, Mohamed / El Chaar, Maher / Ghiassi, Saber / Rogers, Ann M / Anonymous2760924. ·Department of Surgery, University of California-Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California. · Department of Surgery, Division of Bariatric and Minimally Invasive Surgery, the Medical School of Temple University/St Luke's University Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania. · Department of Surgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. · Division of Minimally Invasive and Bariatric Surgery, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: arogers@pennstatehealth.psu.edu. ·Surg Obes Relat Dis · Pubmed #29054173.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Review Diet, Physical Activity, and Body Weight in Cancer Survivorship. 2017

Mehra, Karishma / Berkowitz, Alyssa / Sanft, Tara. ·Department of Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. · Department of Medical Oncology, Yale School of Medicine, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address: Tara.sanft@yale.edu. ·Med Clin North Am · Pubmed #28992860.

ABSTRACT: Diet, physical activity, and body weight have been shown to play an important role in cancer survivorship. The impact of each of these lifestyle factors differs slightly among cancer types, and adherence to recommended diet and physical activity guidelines has been associated with positive outcomes, including decrease in the risk of cancer recurrence and improvement of quality of life. Although there are compelling data that appropriate diet, physical activity, and body weight have beneficial effects in cancer survivorship, additional trials are needed to understand the relationship.

21 Review Oxidative stress and inflammation as central mediators of atrial fibrillation in obesity and diabetes. 2017

Karam, Basil S / Chavez-Moreno, Alejandro / Koh, Wonjoon / Akar, Joseph G / Akar, Fadi G. ·Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. · Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. · Cardiovascular Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. fadi.akar@mssm.edu. ·Cardiovasc Diabetol · Pubmed #28962617.

ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans. Several risk factors promote AF, among which diabetes mellitus has emerged as one of the most important. The growing recognition that obesity, diabetes and AF are closely intertwined disorders has spurred major interest in uncovering their mechanistic links. In this article we provide an update on the growing evidence linking oxidative stress and inflammation to adverse atrial structural and electrical remodeling that leads to the onset and maintenance of AF in the diabetic heart. We then discuss several therapeutic strategies to improve atrial excitability by targeting pathways that control oxidative stress and inflammation.

22 Review Food addiction and bariatric surgery: a systematic review of the literature. 2017

Ivezaj, V / Wiedemann, A A / Grilo, C M. ·Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. · Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ·Obes Rev · Pubmed #28948684.

ABSTRACT: Emerging research suggests that rates of food addiction are high among individuals seeking bariatric surgery, but little is known about associated features and the prognostic significance of pre-operative food addiction. Thus, this article provides a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on food addiction and bariatric surgery. Articles were identified through PubMed and SCOPUS databases, resulting in a total of 19 studies which assessed food addiction among pre-bariatric and/or post-bariatric surgery patients using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Most studies were cross-sectional, and only two studies prospectively measured food addiction both pre-operatively and post-operatively. The presence of pre-surgical food addiction was not associated with pre-surgical weight or post-surgical weight outcomes, yet pre-surgical food addiction was related to broad levels of psychopathology. The relationship between food addiction and substance misuse among individuals undergoing bariatric surgery is mixed. In addition, very few studies have attempted to validate the construct of food addiction among bariatric surgery patients. Results should be interpreted with caution due to the methodological limitations and small sample sizes reported in most studies. Future rigorous research with larger and more diverse samples should prospectively examine the clinical utility and validity of the food addiction construct following bariatric surgery.

23 Review The Systemic Effects of Endometriosis. 2017

Alderman, Myles H / Yoder, Nicole / Taylor, Hugh S. ·Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·Semin Reprod Med · Pubmed #28658710.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

24 Review Lifestyle determinants of health: Isn't it all about genetics and environment? 2017

Grey, Margaret. ·Yale University School of Nursing, West Haven, CT. Electronic address: margaret.grey@yale.edu. ·Nurs Outlook · Pubmed #28601253.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Drawn from one of the keynote addresses at the State of the Science Conference held by the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science (CANS), the purpose of this paper is to review the evidence from clinical trials about the importance of lifestyle behaviors in human health. METHODS: Evidence from trials on the impact of lifestyle interventions on outcomes in diabetes and prediabetes are presented. RESULTS: These findings suggest that lifestyle behaviors are important to diabetes prevention and outcomes in youth and adults. IMPLICATIONS: More research is needed on the factors that predict these outcomes, especially genetics and environment.

25 Review "Three Hits" Hypothesis for Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases in View of Cardiovascular Abnormalities. 2017

Li, Xiang / Zhang, Mengshu / Pan, Xinghua / Xu, Zhice / Sun, Miao. ·Institute for Fetology, First Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences. · Key Laboratory of Biochip Technology in Guangdong province, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China. · Department of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. ·Birth Defects Res · Pubmed #28509412.

ABSTRACT: "Fetal Origins of Adult Diseases" (FOAD) or "Barker hypothesis," also known as the developmental origins of health and diseases (DoHaD), was initially proposed by David Barker in the 1980s. Progress in past 2 to 3 decades demonstrated that many adult disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others, could be linked to poor development resulting from in utero insults. Utero-environments play a critical role in fetal development. Because the placenta and umbilical cord are the only important connections between the fetus and mother in the uterus, this review pays special attention to recent research and progress in the study of the relationship between those tissues and FOAD. We discuss the conception and possible underlying mechanisms of FOAD, and focus on cardiovascular diseases and epigenetic mechanisms. This review also summarizes physiology, pathology, and the important roles of fetoplacental vasculature, which might contribute to FOAD as initiators. We proposed the "Three hits" hypothesis that highlights the importance of intrauterine and early postnatal factors as contributors to FOAD, which could be significant for early prevention and treatments of FOAD. Birth Defects Research 109:744-757, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.