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Obesity: HELP
Articles from Athens, GR
Based on 505 articles published since 2008
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These are the 505 published articles about Obesity that originated from Athens, GR during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline The polycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the European Society of Endocrinology. 2014

Conway, Gerard / Dewailly, Didier / Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia / Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F / Franks, Stephen / Gambineri, Alessandra / Kelestimur, Fahrettin / Macut, Djuro / Micic, Dragan / Pasquali, Renato / Pfeifer, Marija / Pignatelli, Duarte / Pugeat, Michel / Yildiz, Bulent O / Anonymous6720794. ·Department of EndocrinologyUniversity College London Hospitals, 250 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, UKDepartment of Endocrine Gynaecology and Reproductive MedicineCentre Hospitalier de Lille, Hopital Jeanne de Fiandre, Lille, FranceEndocrine Unit3rd Department of Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, GreeceDepartment of Endocrinology and NutritionUniversidad de Alcalá and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, SpainImperial College LondonInstitute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London, UKDivision of EndocrinologyDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, ItalyDepartment of EndocrinologySchool of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, TurkeyClinic for EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolic Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, SerbiaDepartment of EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Medical Faculty, University Medical Centre, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, SloveniaDepartment of EndocrinologyFaculty of Medicine of Porto, Hospital S. Joao, Porto, PortugalInsermFédération d'Endocrinologie, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon-1, Lyon, France andDivision of Endocrinology and MetabolismDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. · Department of EndocrinologyUniversity College London Hospitals, 250 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, UKDepartment of Endocrine Gynaecology and Reproductive MedicineCentre Hospitalier de Lille, Hopital Jeanne de Fiandre, Lille, FranceEndocrine Unit3rd Department of Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Athens, GreeceDepartment of Endocrinology and NutritionUniversidad de Alcalá and Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas CIBERDEM and Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS, Madrid, SpainImperial College LondonInstitute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, London, UKDivision of EndocrinologyDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, St. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University Alma Mater Studiorum, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, ItalyDepartment of EndocrinologySchool of Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, TurkeyClinic for EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolic Diseases, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, SerbiaDepartment of EndocrinologyDiabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Medical Faculty, University Medical Centre, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, SloveniaDepartment of EndocrinologyFaculty of Medicine of Porto, Hospital S. Joao, Porto, PortugalInsermFédération d'Endocrinologie, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon-1, Lyon, France andDivision of Endocrinology and MetabolismDepartment of Internal Medicine, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey renato.pasquali@unibo.it. ·Eur J Endocrinol · Pubmed #24849517.

ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. Great efforts have been made in the last 2 decades to define the syndrome. The presence of three different definitions for the diagnosis of PCOS reflects the phenotypic heterogeneity of the syndrome. Major criteria are required for the diagnosis, which in turn identifies different phenotypes according to the combination of different criteria. In addition, the relevant impact of metabolic issues, specifically insulin resistance and obesity, on the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the susceptibility to develop earlier than expected glucose intolerance states, including type 2 diabetes, has supported the notion that these aspects should be considered when defining the PCOS phenotype and planning potential therapeutic strategies in an affected subject. This paper offers a critical endocrine and European perspective on the debate on the definition of PCOS and summarises all major aspects related to aetiological factors, including early life events, potentially involved in the development of the disorder. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions. We have also paid specific attention to the role of obesity, sleep disorders and neuropsychological aspects of PCOS and on the relevant pathogenetic aspects of cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, we have discussed how to target treatment choices based according to the phenotype and individual patient's needs. Finally, we have suggested potential areas of translational and clinical research for the future with specific emphasis on hormonal and metabolic aspects of PCOS.

2 Editorial Comment on: Adiponectin gene variant RS rs266729: Relation to lipid profile changes and circulating adiponectin after bariatric surgery. 2018

Koliaki, Chrysi / Kokkinos, Alexander. ·First Department of Propaedeutic Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece. ·Surg Obes Relat Dis · Pubmed #30061069.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Weight loss for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. 2018

Paschou, Stavroula A / Anagnostis, Panagiotis / Goulis, Dimitrios G. ·Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, "Aghia Sophia" Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. · Unit of Reproductive Endocrinology, First Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address: dgg@auth.gr. ·Maturitas · Pubmed #28985976.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Focus on prevention and treatment of obstructive sleep disordered breathing in childhood. 2015

Kaditis, Athanasios / Lévy, Patrick. ·Pediatric Pulmonology Unit, First Dept of Paediatrics, University of Athens School of Medicine and Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece kaditia@hotmail.com. · HP2 Laboratory, University Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France HP2 Laboratory U1042, INSERM, Grenoble, France. ·Eur Respir J · Pubmed #26324693.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial The obesity paradox in cardiac arrest patients. 2014

Chalkias, Athanasios / Xanthos, Theodoros. ·National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, MSc "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation", Athens, Greece. · National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, MSc "Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation", Athens, Greece. Electronic address: theodorosxanthos@yahoo.com. ·Int J Cardiol · Pubmed #24360157.

ABSTRACT: Evidence from clinical cohorts indicates an obesity paradox in overweight and obese patients who seem to have a more favorable short-term and long-term prognosis than leaner patients. Although obese cardiac arrest victims are theoretically more difficult to be resuscitated due to difficulties in providing adequate chest compressions, ventilation, and oxygenation, research so far has shown that there is an obesity paradox in cardiac arrest.

6 Review Insulin resistance and adrenal incidentalomas: A bidirectional relationship. 2019

Sydney, Guy I / Ioakim, Kalliopi J / Paschou, Stavroula A. ·School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus. · School of Medicine, European University Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus; Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, "Aghia Sophia" Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: s.a.paschou@gmail.com. ·Maturitas · Pubmed #30704559.

ABSTRACT: An adrenal incidentaloma (AI) is an adrenal mass incidentally found via a radiological modality, independent of an endocrinological investigation. In this review, we aimed to investigate the possible reasons behind the increased frequency in AI detection, especially in ageing populations. The pathophysiological effects of insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia and various anabolic pathways are analyzed. In addition, we review data from studies indicating an increased incidence of adrenal adenomas and carcinomas in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The establishment of obesity as a global epidemic, with a higher prevalence in the female than in the male population, coincide with data regarding AIs and the conditions may share a pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, we discuss the bidirectional association of AIs with obesity, insulin resistance and T2DM, especially in patients with autonomous cortisol secretion. Lastly, as per the definition of an AI, we touch upon the evolution of radiological imaging as another possible cause of the rise in prevalence of AIs, especially concerning the greater use and precision of computed tomography (CT).

7 Review Dietary Composition and Cardiovascular Risk: A Mediator or a Bystander? 2018

Korakas, Emmanouil / Dimitriadis, George / Raptis, Athanasios / Lambadiari, Vaia. ·Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece. mankor-th@hotmail.com. · Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece. gdimitr@med.uoa.gr. · Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece. atraptis@med.uoa.gr. · Second Department of Internal Medicine and Research Institute, University General Hospital Attikon, 124 62 Haidari, Greece. vlambad@otenet.gr. ·Nutrients · Pubmed #30518065.

ABSTRACT: The role of nutrition in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has long been debated. The established notion of the deleterious effects of fat is recently under question, with numerous studies demonstrating the benefits of low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets in terms of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and metabolic derangement. Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially

8 Review Classic and Novel Adipocytokines at the Intersection of Obesity and Cancer: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies. 2018

Spyrou, Nikolaos / Avgerinos, Konstantinos I / Mantzoros, Christos S / Dalamaga, Maria. ·251 Airforce General Hospital, Kanellopoulou 3, 11525, Athens, Greece. · Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · Section of Endocrinology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Mikras Asias 75, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece. madalamaga@med.uoa.gr. ·Curr Obes Rep · Pubmed #30145771.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we investigate the role of classic and novel adipocytokines in cancer pathogenesis synopsizing the mechanisms underlying the association between adipocytokines and malignancy. Special emphasis is given on novel adipocytokines as new evidence is emerging regarding their entanglement in neoplastic development. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data have emphasized the role of the triad of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance and adipocytokines in cancer. In the setting of obesity, classic and novel adipocytokines present independent and joint effects on activation of major intracellular signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation, expansion, survival, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis. Until now, more than 15 adipocytokines have been associated with cancer, and this list continues to expand. While the plethora of circulating pro-inflammatory adipocytokines, such as leptin, resistin, extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase, and chemerin are elevated in malignancies, some adipocytokines such as adiponectin and omentin-1 are generally decreased in cancers and are considered protective against carcinogenesis. Elucidating the intertwining of inflammation, cellular bioenergetics, and adiposopathy is significant for the development of preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic strategies against cancer. Novel more effective and safe adipocytokine-centered therapeutic interventions may pave the way for targeted oncotherapy.

9 Review Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension: coprevalent or correlated? 2018

Oikonomou, Dimitrios / Georgiopoulos, Georgios / Katsi, Vassiliki / Kourek, Chris / Tsioufis, Constantinos / Alexopoulou, Alexendra / Koutli, Evaggelia / Tousoulis, Dimitrios. ·Department of Cardiology, 'Evaggelismos' General Hospital of Athens. · First Department of Cardiology. · Department of Internal Medicine, 'Hippokration' Hospital, University of Athens, Medical School, Athens, Greece. ·Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol · Pubmed #30048367.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review summarizing the existing evidence on the association between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and hypertension (HT) independent of other components of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We searched the literature through Medline and the Cochrane Library for studies evaluating the relationship between hypertension and fatty liver disease. RESULTS: Studies testing this association are limited, but agree that HT and fatty liver disease are inter-related independent of other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Clinical evidence shows that NAFLD is associated with new-onset HT, whereas increased blood pressure is related to the development of fatty liver disease and the possible subsequent progression to liver fibrosis. Insulin resistance and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) might provide potential pathophysiologic links between these clinical entities. Until further evidence is available, patients with HT should be meticulously evaluated and treated for fatty liver disease and vice versa. RAAS inhibitors have been tested in NAFLD, presenting a favorable profile by decreasing insulin resistance and fibrosis progression. CONCLUSION: NAFLD and HT are associated independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance appears to be the main linking mechanism. Although RAAS inhibitors are the most beneficial treatment option for HT in patients with NAFLD, randomized studies on the administration of these agents in HT patients with NAFDL are warranted to provide optimal treatment options in these high cardiovascular risk individuals.

10 Review Chronic stress and body composition disorders: implications for health and disease. 2018

Stefanaki, Charikleia / Pervanidou, Panagiota / Boschiero, Dario / Chrousos, George P. ·Choremeion Research Laboratory, First Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Thivon and Levadeias streets, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece. cstefanaki@gmail.com. · Unit of Translational and Clinical Research in Endocrinology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. cstefanaki@gmail.com. · Choremeion Research Laboratory, First Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Thivon and Levadeias streets, Goudi, 11527, Athens, Greece. · BIOTEKNA Biomedical Technologies, Venice, Italy. · Unit of Translational and Clinical Research in Endocrinology, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. ·Hormones (Athens) · Pubmed #29858868.

ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that body composition is key to health and disease. First, fat tissue is a complex, essential, and highly active metabolic and endocrine organ that responds to afferent signals from traditional hormone systems and the central nervous system but also expresses and secretes factors with important endocrine, metabolic, and immune functions. Second, skeletal muscle mass is an important predictor of health in adult life, while severe mass loss has been associated with the frailty of old age. Studies have shown that skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that secretes factors with autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions, which have been associated with inflammatory processes. Third, the bone is also a systemic endocrine regulator playing a pivotal role in health and disease. Finally, proper hydration in humans has been neglected as a health factor, especially in adults. Chronic stress and stress hormone hypersecretion alone or associated with distinct disorders, such as anxiety, depression, obesity, metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disorders, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), have been associated with psychological and somatic manifestations, typically, increased fat mass, osteosarcopenia/frailty, cellular dehydration, and chronic systemic inflammation. This review aims to provide new insights into the newly developed concept of stress-related osteosarcopenic obesity and its prevention.

11 Review Obesity and bone metabolism. 2018

Savvidis, Christos / Tournis, Symeon / Dede, Anastasia D. ·Department of Endocrinology, Hippokrateion General Hospital, Athens, Greece. · Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System "Th. Garofalidis", KAT hospital, Medical school, Athens, Greece. · Laboratory for Research of the Musculoskeletal System "Th. Garofalidis", KAT hospital, Medical school, Athens, Greece. denatasa@yahoo.gr. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London, SW10 9NH, UK. denatasa@yahoo.gr. ·Hormones (Athens) · Pubmed #29858847.

ABSTRACT: The interaction between obesity and bone metabolism is complex. The effects of fat on the skeleton are mediated by both mechanical and biochemical factors. Though obesity is characterized by higher bone mineral density, studies conducted on bone microarchitecture have produced conflicting results. The majority of studies indicate that obesity has a positive effect on skeletal strength, even though most likely the effects are site-dependent and, in fact, obese individuals might be at risk of certain types of fractures. Mechanical loading and higher lean mass are associated with improved outcomes, whereas systemic inflammation, observed especially with abdominal obesity, may exert negative effects. Weight loss interventions likely lead to bone loss over time. Pharmacological treatment options seem to be safe in terms of skeletal health; however, the skeletal effects of bariatric surgery are dependent on the type of surgical procedure. Malabsorptive procedures are associated with higher short-term adverse effects on bone health. In this narrative review, we discuss the effects of obesity and weight loss interventions on skeletal health.

12 Review Schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2018

Mamakou, V / Thanopoulou, A / Gonidakis, F / Tentolouris, N / Kontaxakis, V. ·Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens. · Dromokaiteio Psychiatric Hospital, Athens. · Diabetes Centre, 2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens. · 1st Psychiatric Department, Eginition Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens. · First Department of Propaedeutic and Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Medical School, Laiko General Hospital, Athens, Greece. ·Psychiatriki · Pubmed #29754122.

ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, resulting in elevated cardiovascular risk and limited life expectancy, translated into a weighted average of 14.5 years of potential life lost and an overall weighted average life expectancy of 64.7 years. The exact prevalence of type 2 diabetes among people with schizophrenia varies across studies and ranges 2-5fold higher than in the general population, whereas the aetiology is complex and multifactorial. Besides common diabetogenic factors, applied similarly in the general population, such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, smoking, hypertension, poor diet and limited physical activity, the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and diabetes is also attributed to unique conditions. Specifically, excessive sedentary lifestyle, social determinants, adverse effects of antipsychotic drugs and limited access to medical care are considered aggravating factors for diabetes onset and low quality of diabetes management. Schizophrenia itself is further proposed as causal factor for diabetes, given the observed higher prevalence of diabetes in young patients, newly diagnosed with schizophrenia and unexposed to antipsychotics. Furthermore, studies support genetic predisposition to diabetes among people with schizophrenia, suggesting shared genetic risk and disclosing a number of overlapped risk loci. Therefore, special attention should be paid in preventing diabetes in people with schizophrenia, through intervention in all possible modifiable risk factors. Implementation of careful antipsychotic prescription, provision of adequate motivation for balanced diet and physical activity and facilitating access to primary health care, could serve in reducing diabetes prevalence. On the other hand, increasing calls are made for early diagnosis of diabetes, application of the appropriate anti-diabetic therapy and strict inspection of therapy adherence, to limit the excess mortality due to cardiovascular events in people with schizophrenia. Moreover, population health programs could help counseling and preventing diabetes risk, additionally to early screening and diagnosis set, aiming to reduce disparities in populations. Finally, mental health-care providers might greatly promote offered health services to patients with schizophrenia, through a holistic individualized approach, considering additionally the physical health of the patients and working closely, preventively and therapeutically, in collaboration with the physicians and diabetologists.

13 Review Effectiveness of school food environment policies on children's dietary behaviors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2018

Micha, Renata / Karageorgou, Dimitra / Bakogianni, Ioanna / Trichia, Eirini / Whitsel, Laurie P / Story, Mary / Peñalvo, Jose L / Mozaffarian, Dariush. ·Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States of America. · Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Policy Research, American Heart Association, Dallas, TX, United States of America. · Global Health Institute and Community and Family Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #29596440.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: School food environment policies may be a critical tool to promote healthy diets in children, yet their effectiveness remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review and quantify the impact of school food environment policies on dietary habits, adiposity, and metabolic risk in children. METHODS: We systematically searched online databases for randomized or quasi-experimental interventions assessing effects of school food environment policies on children's dietary habits, adiposity, or metabolic risk factors. Data were extracted independently and in duplicate, and pooled using inverse-variance random-effects meta-analysis. Habitual (within+outside school) dietary intakes were the primary outcome. Heterogeneity was explored using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's test evaluated potential publication bias. RESULTS: From 6,636 abstracts, 91 interventions (55 in US/Canada, 36 in Europe/New Zealand) were included, on direct provision of healthful foods/beverages (N = 39 studies), competitive food/beverage standards (N = 29), and school meal standards (N = 39) (some interventions assessed multiple policies). Direct provision policies, which largely targeted fruits and vegetables, increased consumption of fruits by 0.27 servings/d (n = 15 estimates (95%CI: 0.17, 0.36)) and combined fruits and vegetables by 0.28 servings/d (n = 16 (0.17, 0.40)); with a slight impact on vegetables (n = 11; 0.04 (0.01, 0.08)), and no effects on total calories (n = 6; -56 kcal/d (-174, 62)). In interventions targeting water, habitual intake was unchanged (n = 3; 0.33 glasses/d (-0.27, 0.93)). Competitive food/beverage standards reduced sugar-sweetened beverage intake by 0.18 servings/d (n = 3 (-0.31, -0.05)); and unhealthy snacks by 0.17 servings/d (n = 2 (-0.22, -0.13)), without effects on total calories (n = 5; -79 kcal/d (-179, 21)). School meal standards (mainly lunch) increased fruit intake (n = 2; 0.76 servings/d (0.37, 1.16)) and reduced total fat (-1.49%energy; n = 6 (-2.42, -0.57)), saturated fat (n = 4; -0.93%energy (-1.15, -0.70)) and sodium (n = 4; -170 mg/d (-242, -98)); but not total calories (n = 8; -38 kcal/d (-137, 62)). In 17 studies evaluating adiposity, significant decreases were generally not identified; few studies assessed metabolic factors (blood lipids/glucose/pressure), with mixed findings. Significant sources of heterogeneity or publication bias were not identified. CONCLUSIONS: Specific school food environment policies can improve targeted dietary behaviors; effects on adiposity and metabolic risk require further investigation. These findings inform ongoing policy discussions and debates on best practices to improve childhood dietary habits and health.

14 Review Developmental origins of adult health and disease: The metabolic role of BDNF from early life to adulthood. 2018

Briana, Despina D / Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne. ·Department of Neonatology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Department of Neonatology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address: amalpu@med.uoa.gr. ·Metabolism · Pubmed #29217485.

ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that the origins of adult disease may occur during fetal life. Thus, the concept of "developmental programming" has been introduced and supported by epidemiological and experimental data. This concept supports the idea that the nutritional and hormonal status during pregnancy could interfere in metabolism control. The mechanisms responsible for this "developmental programming" remain poorly documented. Current research indicates that neurotrophins and particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a crucial role in this process. Although mainly expressed in the nervous system, BDNF and its receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), are immunolocalized in several regions of the human placenta and have important functions during pregnancy. BDNF serves widespread roles in regulating energy homeostasis in both fetuses and adults, by controlling patterns of fetal growth, adult feeding and physical activity, and by regulating glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. Impaired BDNF signaling may be implicated in the etiopathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. Novel BDNF-focused interventions are being developed for obesity, diabetes and neurological disorders. The aim of this article is to provide a brief comprehensive literary review regarding the potential implications of BDNF in "developmental programming", through regulation of metabolism and energy balance from early life to adulthood.

15 Review Non-invasive methods for the assessment of brown adipose tissue in humans. 2018

Chondronikola, Maria / Beeman, Scott C / Wahl, Richard L. ·Center for Human Nutrition, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. · Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Department of Radiology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA. ·J Physiol · Pubmed #29119565.

ABSTRACT: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a recently rediscovered tissue in people that has shown promise as a potential therapeutic target against obesity and its metabolic abnormalities. Reliable non-invasive assessment of BAT volume and activity is critical to allow its importance in metabolic control to be evaluated. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in combination with 2-deoxy-2-[

16 Review Epicardial Adipose Tissue: Another Tassel in the Complex Fabric of Atherosclerosis. 2018

Alexopoulos, Nikolaos / Raggi, Paolo. ·Cardiology Department, Athens Euroclinic, Athens, Greece. · Division of Cardiology and Department of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. · Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada. ·Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #28124603.

ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis affects the majority of adult individuals in industrialized nations and it is beginning to affect even traditionally spared populations. The classic view has been that the precipitating events are intraluminal. However, good evidence supports the possibility that at least part of the atherosclerosis burden may be the consequence of extra-luminal noxious stimuli. Additionally, the epidemic of obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus has generated a strong interest in the potential role of visceral adipose tissue as an extra-luminal promoter of atherosclerosis. The epicardial space is filled with adipose tissue with an embryological origin similar to that of abdominal visceral fat. Both fats are highly inflamed in obese patients, patients with the metabolic syndrome and in those with established coronary artery disease. Additionally they are capable of secreting large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines and free fatty acids but also anti-inflammatory adipokines like adiponectin. In this manuscript we review the current evidence supporting the role of epicardial adipose tissue in the development of atherosclerosis and its complications.

17 Review ERS statement on obstructive sleep disordered breathing in 1- to 23-month-old children. 2017

Kaditis, Athanasios G / Alonso Alvarez, Maria Luz / Boudewyns, An / Abel, Francois / Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I / Ersu, Refika / Joosten, Koen / Larramona, Helena / Miano, Silvia / Narang, Indra / Tan, Hui-Leng / Trang, Ha / Tsaoussoglou, Marina / Vandenbussche, Nele / Villa, Maria Pia / Van Waardenburg, Dick / Weber, Silke / Verhulst, Stijn. ·Paediatric Pulmonology Unit, First Dept of Paediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine and Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece kaditia@hotmail.com. · Multidisciplinary Sleep Unit, Pulmonology, University Hospital of Burgos and CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Burgos Foundation for Health Research, Burgos, Spain. · Dept of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Antwerp University Hospital, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium. · Dept of Respiratory Medicine, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, UK. · Sleep Disorders Laboratory, University of Thessaly School of Medicine and Larissa University Hospital, Larissa, Greece. · Division of Paediatric Pulmonology, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey. · Erasmus MC, Sophia Children's Hospital, Paediatric Intensive Care, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Paediatric Pulmonology Unit, Dept of Paediatrics, University Autonoma of Barcelona, Corporacio Sanitaria Parc Tauli, Hospital of Sabadell, Barcelona, Spain. · Sleep and Epilepsy Centre, Neurocentre of Southern Switzerland, Civic Hospital of Lugano, Lugano, Switzerland. · Division of Respiratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Dept of Paediatric Respiratory Medicine, Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK. · Paediatric Sleep Centre, Robert Debré University Hospital, EA 7334 REMES Paris-Diderot University, Paris, France. · Paediatric Pulmonology Unit, First Dept of Paediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine and Aghia Sophia Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece. · Sleep Medicine Centre, Kempenhaeghe Foundation, Heeze, The Netherlands. · Paediatric Sleep Disease Centre, Child Neurology, NESMOS Dept, School of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, S. Andrea Hospital, Rome, Italy. · Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Dept of Paediatrics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands. · Dept of Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil. · Dept of Paediatrics, Antwerp University Hospital, Edegem, Belgium. ·Eur Respir J · Pubmed #29217599.

ABSTRACT: The present statement was produced by a European Respiratory Society Task Force to summarise the evidence and current practice on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children aged 1-23 months. A systematic literature search was completed and 159 articles were summarised to answer clinically relevant questions. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are identified. Morbidity (pulmonary hypertension, growth delay, behavioural problems) and coexisting conditions (feeding difficulties, recurrent otitis media) may be present. SDB severity is measured objectively, preferably by polysomnography, or alternatively polygraphy or nocturnal oximetry. Children with apparent upper airway obstruction during wakefulness, those with abnormal sleep study in combination with SDB symptoms (

18 Review Ghrelin and Obesity: Identifying Gaps and Dispelling Myths. A Reappraisal. 2017

Makris, Marinos C / Alexandrou, Andreas / Papatsoutsos, Efstathios G / Malietzis, George / Tsilimigras, Diamantis I / Guerron, Alfredo D / Moris, Demetrios. ·First Surgical Department, G. Gennimatas General Hospital of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Alpha Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Marousi, Athens, Greece. · First Department of Surgery, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece. · Department of General Surgery, St Marien Hospital, Buer, Germany. · Department of Colorectal Surgery, St. Mark's Hospital, London, U.K. · Division of Metabolic and Weight Loss Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, U.S.A. · Division of Metabolic and Weight Loss Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, U.S.A. dimmoris@yahoo.com. ·In Vivo · Pubmed #29102924.

ABSTRACT: The etiology of obesity is complex. Environmental and genetic causes have been implicated in the development of this disease. Ghrelin is a hormone known to stimulate appetite. There are numerous possible actions through which ghrelin exerts its effect in the body: a) Overproduction of ghrelin, b) reduced ghrelin following meals, and c) increased receptor sensitivity to ghrelin action. Sleeve gastrectomy, a bariatric procedure, leads to reduction of ghrelin levels and subsequently to weight loss. However, there are many limitations to measurement of the fasting plasma level of the active form of ghrelin. The establishment of the exact correlation between ghrelin, appetite and obesity could be vital for the fight against obesity.

19 Review The role of bariatric surgery to treat diabetes: current challenges and perspectives. 2017

Koliaki, Chrysi / Liatis, Stavros / le Roux, Carel W / Kokkinos, Alexander. ·First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Diabetes Centre, Laiko General Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. sliatis@med.uoa.gr. · Diabetes Complications Research Centre, Conway Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. · Investigative Science, Imperial College London, London, UK. ·BMC Endocr Disord · Pubmed #28797248.

ABSTRACT: Bariatric surgery is emerging as a powerful weapon against severe obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Given its role in metabolic regulation, the gastrointestinal tract constitutes a meaningful target to treat T2DM, especially in light of accumulating evidence that surgery with gastrointestinal manipulations may result in T2DM remission (metabolic surgery). The major mechanisms mediating the weight loss-independent effects of bariatric surgery comprise effects on tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, β-cell function and incretin responses, changes in bile acid composition and flow, modifications of gut microbiota, intestinal glucose metabolism and increased brown adipose tissue metabolic activity. Shorter T2DM duration, better preoperative glycemic control and profound weight loss, have been associated with higher rates of T2DM remission and lower risk of relapse. In the short and medium term, a significant amount of weight is lost, T2DM may completely regress, and cardiometabolic risk factors are dramatically improved. In the long term, metabolic surgery may achieve durable weight loss, prevent T2DM and cancer, improve overall glycemic control while leading to significant rates of T2DM remission, and reduce total and cause-specific mortality. The gradient of efficacy for weight loss and T2DM remission comparing the four established surgical procedures is biliopancreatic diversion >Roux-en-Y gastric bypass >sleeve gastrectomy >laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. According to recently released guidelines, bariatric surgery should be recommended in diabetic patients with class III obesity, regardless of their level of glycemic control, and patients with class II obesity with inadequately controlled T2DM despite lifestyle and optimal medical therapy. Surgery should also be considered in patients with class I obesity and inadequately controlled hyperglycemia despite optimal medical treatment.

20 Review The intriguing connections of leptin to hyperparathyroidism. 2017

Polyzos, Stergios A / Duntas, Leonidas / Bollerslev, Jens. ·First Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece. stergios@endo.gr. · Endocrine Unit, Evgenidion Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Section of Specialized Endocrinology, Medical Clinic B, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. · Faculty of Medicine, University in Oslo, Oslo, Norway. ·Endocrine · Pubmed #28730419.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Leptin has been implicated in bone metabolism, but the association with parathyroid gland function has not been fully clarified. This review aimed to summarize evidence of the association between leptin and hyperparathyroidism, both primary and secondary, elucidating the potential pathophysiologic and therapeutic consequences between leptin and parathyroid hormone, hopefully prompting the design of new studies. RESULTS: Experimental studies indicate a positive loop between leptin and parathyroid hormone in primary hyperparathyroidism. Dissimilar, parathyroid hormone seems to inhibit leptin expression in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data from clinical studies indicate higher leptin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism than controls, but no association between parathyroid hormone and leptin levels, as well as a minimal or neutral effect of parathyroidectomy on leptin levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Clinical data on secondary hyperparathyroidism, mainly derived from patients with chronic kidney disease, indicate a potential inverse association between leptin and parathyroid hormone in some, but not all studies. This relationship may be affected by the diversity of morbidity among these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Data from experimental studies suggest a different association between leptin and parathyroid hormone in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data from clinical studies are conflicting and potentially affected by confounders. More focused, well-designed studies are warranted to elucidate a potential association between leptin and parathyroid hormone, which may have specific clinical implications, i.e., targeting obesity and hyperleptinemia in patients with hyperparathyroidism.

21 Review Obesity and metabolic stone disease. 2017

Wollin, Daniel A / Skolarikos, Andreas / Preminger, Glenn M. ·aDivision of Urologic Surgery, Duke Comprehensive Kidney Stone Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA bDepartment of Urology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. ·Curr Opin Urol · Pubmed #28650866.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we aim to review the data regarding associations between obesity and nephrolithiasis to assist with workup and treatment of these intersecting disorders. As obesity has a multifactorial influence on the risk for urinary stone disease, the complicated mechanisms will be discussed to improve diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome interact with nephrolithiasis risk factors to produce a myriad of bodily responses that induce stone formation. For this reason, many societies recommend prompt metabolic workup to evaluate the precise causes of stone formation. Data have shown that dietary and directed medical therapies can produce an excellent therapeutic response in this patient population, although the response may be blunted compared with nonobese patients. SUMMARY: Given the increasing number of obese and overweight patients, the urologist should be familiar with the pathophysiology, workup, and treatment of metabolic stone disease in this population, which are outlined here.

22 Review The molecular mechanisms of obesity paradox. 2017

Antonopoulos, Alexios S / Tousoulis, Dimitris. ·1 Cardiology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece. · RDM Cardiovascular Medicine Division, University of Oxford, OX3 9DU Oxford, UK. · 1st Cardiology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Athens Medical School, Athens, Greece. ·Cardiovasc Res · Pubmed #28549096.

ABSTRACT: Clinical observations suggest a complex relationship between human obesity and cardiovascular disease. Whilst abdominal (visceral) adiposity leads to deleterious metabolic disturbances, subcutaneous fat accumulation has a benign effect on cardiometabolic risk. Notably, an accumulating body of evidence paradoxically links increased body mass index with a better prognosis in patients with established cardiovascular disease, a finding that has been termed the 'obesity paradox'. Whilst this is now acknowledged to be an epidemiological finding, a metabolically healthy obese group associated with low cardiovascular risk has also been identified. The current concept of adipose tissue (AT) biology suggests that AT expansion is feasible without accompanying adipocyte dysfunction. A metabolically healthy obese phenotype can be promoted by exercise, but is also linked with intrinsic AT molecular characteristics such as efficient fat storage and lipid droplet formation, high adipogenesis capacity, low extracellular matrix fibrosis, angiogenesis potential, adipocyte browning and low macrophages infiltration/activation. Such features are associated with a secretomic profile of human AT which is protective for the cardiovascular system. In the present review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the 'obesity paradox' and whether fatness can be healthy too.

23 Review Hepatocellular carcinoma development in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Is it going to be the "Plague" of the 21st century? A literature review focusing on pathogenesis, prevention and treatment. 2017

Argyrou, Chrysoula / Moris, Demetrios / Vernadakis, Spiridon. ·Transplantation Unit, "Laikon" General Hospital, Athens, Greece. ·J BUON · Pubmed #28365930.

ABSTRACT: Liver carcinogenesis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a subject of intense research nowadays, since NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease, affecting a great percentage of the population worldwide, while hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which represents the most common primary liver malignancy, is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality. The underlying pathogenic pathways of both NAFLD and HCC are not completely understood, but there is growing evidence that they share many common pathophysiologic mechanisms and risk factors. Due to lack of solid evidence, though, the ultimate goal of designing effective diagnostic tools, treatment options and screening policies remain unmet for the time being. This review article aims to present recent data available regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of HCC and NAFLD, as well as to highlight the importance of the development of HCC in the setting of NAFLD and NASH.

24 Review Socioeconomic status and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: Impact of dietary mediators. 2017

Psaltopoulou, Theodora / Hatzis, George / Papageorgiou, Nikolaos / Androulakis, Emmanuel / Briasoulis, Alexandros / Tousoulis, Dimitris. ·1st Cardiology Department, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Greece. · 1st Cardiology Department, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Greece; Cardiology Department of Marburg, Marburg und Giessen Medical School, Germany. · 1st Cardiology Department, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Greece; The Heart Hospital, University College London, United Kingdom. · Wayne State University, Cardiovascular Institute, Detroit, USA. · 1st Cardiology Department, Athens University Medical School, Hippokration Hospital, Greece. Electronic address: drtousoulis@hotmail.com. ·Hellenic J Cardiol · Pubmed #28161284.

ABSTRACT: It is well known that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the western societies. A number of risk factors such as family history, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity are responsible for a significant proportion of the overall cardiovascular risk. Interestingly, recent data suggest there is a gradient in the incidence, morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease across the spectrum of socioeconomic status, as this is defined by educational level, occupation or income. Additionally, dietary mediators seem to play significant role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, mediating some of the discrepancies in atherosclerosis among different socioeconomic layers. Therefore, in the present article, we aim to review the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and the role of different dietary mediators.

25 Review Single-Incision Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Review and a Critical Appraisal. 2017

Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos / Alexandrou, Andreas / Schizas, Dimitrios / Angelou, Anastasios / Pikoulis, Emmanouil / Liakakos, Theodoros. ·1st Department of Surgery, National Kapodistrian University of Athens, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece . ·J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A · Pubmed #28146416.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has attracted a great deal of interest in the surgical community in recent years, including bariatric surgery. Single-incision laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SILSG) has been proposed as an alternative to the multiport laparoscopic procedure; however, it has yet to meet wide acceptance and application. OBJECTIVE: We aim to summarize existing data on SILSG and check the procedure's feasibility, technical details, safety, and, if possible, outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We checked the most important databases for studies concerning SILSG and included all these that summarized the criteria placed and contained the data needed for this review. We excluded case reports. RESULTS: Nineteen studies complied with the criteria of our review, containing a total of 1679 patients. Their mean age has been 38.91 years and the mean preoperative body mass index has been 41.8 kg/m CONCLUSIONS: SILSG is safe and feasible. However, there is insufficient evidence to recommend it as the new gold standard for sleeve gastrectomy in the place of conventional laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Randomized controlled trials are needed to analyze the results and the possible benefits of this technique.

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