Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Osteoporosis: HELP
Articles from University of Queensland
Based on 57 articles published since 2010
||||

These are the 57 published articles about Osteoporosis that originated from University of Queensland during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3
1 Guideline Consensus guidelines on the use of bisphosphonate therapy in children and adolescents. 2018

Simm, Peter J / Biggin, Andrew / Zacharin, Margaret R / Rodda, Christine P / Tham, Elaine / Siafarikas, Aris / Jefferies, Craig / Hofman, Paul L / Jensen, Diane E / Woodhead, Helen / Brown, Justin / Wheeler, Benjamin J / Brookes, Denise / Lafferty, Antony / Munns, Craig F / Anonymous6630938. ·Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Discipline of Child and Adolescent Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Research, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Paediatrics, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Princess Margaret Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. · School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. · Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. · Institute for Health Research, University of Notre Dame, Fremantle, Western Australia, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Starship Children's Health, Auckland, New Zealand. · Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. · Children's Health Queensland, Hospital and Health Services District, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Centre for Children's Health Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sydney Children's Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, Monash Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Paediatrics, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Women's and Children's Health, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. · Department of Paediatrics, Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. · Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Australian National University Medical School, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ·J Paediatr Child Health · Pubmed #29504223.

ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonate therapy is the mainstay of pharmacological intervention in young people with skeletal fragility. The evidence of its use in a variety of conditions remains limited despite over three decades of clinical experience. On behalf of the Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group, this evidence-based consensus guideline presents recommendations and discusses the graded evidence (using the GRADE system) for these recommendations. Primary bone fragility disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta are considered separately from osteoporosis secondary to other clinical conditions (such as cerebral palsy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy). The use of bisphosphonates in non-fragility conditions, such as fibrous dysplasia, avascular necrosis, bone cysts and hypercalcaemia, is also discussed. While these guidelines provide an evidence-based approach where possible, further research is required in all clinical applications in order to strengthen the recommendations made.

2 Guideline Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise prescription for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. 2017

Beck, Belinda R / Daly, Robin M / Singh, Maria A Fiatarone / Taaffe, Dennis R. ·School of Allied Health Sciences, Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Australia. Electronic address: b.beck@griffith.edu.au. · Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Australia. · Exercise, Health and Performance Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences and Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Australia. · School of Medical and Health Sciences and the Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Australia; School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, University of Queensland, Australia. ·J Sci Med Sport · Pubmed #27840033.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although exercise has long been recommended for the prevention and management of osteoporosis, existing guidelines are often non-specific and do not account for individual differences in bone health, fracture risk and functional capacity. The aim of the current position statement is to provide health practitioners with specific, evidence-based guidelines for safe and effective exercise prescription for the prevention or management of osteoporosis, accommodating a range of potential comorbidities. DESIGN: Position statement. METHODS: Interpretation and application of research reports describing the effects of exercise interventions for the prevention and management of low bone mass, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. RESULTS: Evidence from animal and human trials indicates that bone responds positively to impact activities and high intensity progressive resistance training. Furthermore, the optimisation of muscle strength, balance and mobility minimises the risk of falls (and thereby fracture), which is particularly relevant for individuals with limited functional capacity and/or a very high risk of osteoporotic fracture. It is important that all exercise programs be accompanied by sufficient calcium and vitamin D, and address issues of comorbidity and safety. For example, loaded spine flexion is not recommended, and impact activities may require modification in the presence of osteoarthritis or frailty. CONCLUSIONS: Specific guidelines for safe and effective exercise for bone health are presented. Individual exercise prescription must take into account existing bone health status, co-morbidities, and functional or clinical risk factors for falls and fracture.

3 Review Osteomacs and Bone Regeneration. 2017

Batoon, Lena / Millard, Susan Marie / Raggatt, Liza Jane / Pettit, Allison Robyn. ·Bones and Immunology Laboratory, Cancer Biology and Care Program, Mater Research Institute - The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. · Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4092, Australia. · Bones and Immunology Laboratory, Cancer Biology and Care Program, Mater Research Institute - The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. allison.pettit@mater.uq.edu.au. · Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4092, Australia. allison.pettit@mater.uq.edu.au. ·Curr Osteoporos Rep · Pubmed #28647885.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mounting evidence supporting the critical contribution of macrophages, in particular osteal macrophages, to bone regeneration is reviewed. We specifically examine the potential role of macrophages in the basic multicellular units coordinating lifelong bone regeneration via remodelling and bone regeneration in response to injury. We review and discuss the distinctions between macrophage and osteoclast contributions to bone homeostasis, particularly the dichotomous role of the colony-stimulating factor 1-colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor axis. RECENT FINDINGS: The impact of inflammation associated with aging and other hallmarks of aging, including senescence, on macrophage function is addressed in the context of osteoporosis and delayed fracture repair. Resident macrophages versus recruited macrophage contributions to fracture healing are also discussed. We identify some of the remaining knowledge gaps that will need to be closed in order to maximise benefits from therapeutically modulating or mimicking the function of macrophages to improve bone health and regeneration over a lifetime.

4 Review Prevention of muscle wasting and osteoporosis: the value of examining novel animal models. 2016

Reilly, Beau D / Franklin, Craig E. ·School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia b.reilly@uq.edu.au. · School of Biological Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia. ·J Exp Biol · Pubmed #27582559.

ABSTRACT: Bone mass and skeletal muscle mass are controlled by factors such as genetics, diet and nutrition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. Whereas increased mechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system stimulates an increase in the mass and strength of skeletal muscle and bone, reduced mechanical loading and disuse rapidly promote a decrease in musculoskeletal mass, strength and ultimately performance (i.e. muscle atrophy and osteoporosis). In stark contrast to artificially immobilised laboratory mammals, animals that experience natural, prolonged bouts of disuse and reduced mechanical loading, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in musculoskeletal performance. What factors modulate skeletal muscle and bone mass, and what physiological and molecular mechanisms protect against losses of muscle and bone during dormancy and following arousal? Understanding the events that occur in different organisms that undergo natural periods of prolonged disuse and suffer negligible musculoskeletal deterioration could not only reveal novel regulatory factors but also might lead to new therapeutic options. Here, we review recent work from a diverse array of species that has revealed novel information regarding physiological and molecular mechanisms that dormant animals may use to conserve musculoskeletal mass despite prolonged inactivity. By highlighting some of the differences and similarities in musculoskeletal biology between vertebrates that experience disparate modes of dormancy, it is hoped that this Review will stimulate new insights and ideas for future studies regarding the regulation of atrophy and osteoporosis in both natural and clinical models of muscle and bone disuse.

5 Review Musculoskeletal Health Conditions Represent a Global Threat to Healthy Aging: A Report for the 2015 World Health Organization World Report on Ageing and Health. 2016

Briggs, Andrew M / Cross, Marita J / Hoy, Damian G / Sànchez-Riera, Lídia / Blyth, Fiona M / Woolf, Anthony D / March, Lyn. ·School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Arthritis and Osteoporosis Victoria, Caulfield South, Melbourne, Australia. A.Briggs@curtin.edu.au. · Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney, Royal North Shore Hospital Department of Rheumatology, St Leonards, New South Wales, Australia. · School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Herston, Brisbane, Australia. Secretariat of the Pacific Community, Public Health Division, Noumea, New Caledonia. · Institut d'Investigació, Biomèdica de Bellvitge, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department Reumatologia, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain. · Concord Clinical School, University of Sydney and Ageing and Alzheimer's Institute, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, New South Wales, Australia. · Bone and Joint Research Office, The Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, UK. ·Gerontologist · Pubmed #26994264.

ABSTRACT: Persistent pain, impaired mobility and function, and reduced quality of life and mental well-being are the most common experiences associated with musculoskeletal conditions, of which there are more than 150 types. The prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal conditions increase with aging. A profound burden of musculoskeletal disease exists in developed and developing nations. Notably, this burden far exceeds service capacity. Population growth, aging, and sedentary lifestyles, particularly in developing countries, will create a crisis for population health that requires a multisystem response with musculoskeletal health services as a critical component. Globally, there is an emphasis on maintaining an active lifestyle to reduce the impacts of obesity, cardiovascular conditions, cancer, osteoporosis, and diabetes in older people. Painful musculoskeletal conditions, however, profoundly limit the ability of people to make these lifestyle changes. A strong relationship exists between painful musculoskeletal conditions and a reduced capacity to engage in physical activity resulting in functional decline, frailty, reduced well-being, and loss of independence. Multilevel strategies and approaches to care that adopt a whole person approach are needed to address the impact of impaired musculoskeletal health and its sequelae. Effective strategies are available to address the impact of musculoskeletal conditions; some are of low cost (e.g., primary care-based interventions) but others are expensive and, as such, are usually only feasible for developed nations. In developing nations, it is crucial that any reform or development initiatives, including research, must adhere to the principles of development effectiveness to avoid doing harm to the health systems in these settings.

6 Review Prevalence of osteoporosis in prostate cancer survivors II: a meta-analysis of men not on androgen deprivation therapy. 2015

Lassemillante, Annie-Claude M / Doi, Suhail A R / Hooper, John D / Prins, John B / Wright, Olivia R L. ·Centre for Dietetics Research (C-DIET-R), School of Human Movement and Nutrition Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. a.lassemillante@uq.edu.au. · Mater Research Institute, University of Queensland, Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. a.lassemillante@uq.edu.au. · Clinical Epidemiology Unit, School of Population Health, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 4006, Australia. · Mater Research Institute, University of Queensland, Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. · The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, 4102, Australia. · Centre for Dietetics Research (C-DIET-R), School of Human Movement and Nutrition Science, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. ·Endocrine · Pubmed #25636442.

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer (PCa) on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is well documented, with up to 53% affected by this bone condition. However, there has been less emphasis on the burden of severe bone loss in men with PCa but not undergoing ADT. Therefore, the purpose of this meta-analysis is to compile evidence from the literature on the bone health of hormone-naïve PCa patients and to compare it to the bone health of men with PCa on ADT. Three databases were searched for the relevant literature published from 1990 until January 2014. The pooled prevalence of osteoporosis, low bone mass, and normal bone mass were estimated for this patient group and compared with similar subgroups from a previously published meta-analysis. The prevalence of osteoporosis varies from 4 to 38% in hormone-naïve PCa patients, and men with more advanced disease have a higher prevalence of osteoporosis. Men with PCa on ADT have poorer bone health than their hormone-naïve counterparts, but the trend toward poorer bone health with metastatic disease remains. In conclusion, it was found that men with PCa experience poor bone health prior to treatment with ADT. These results suggest that all men with PCa should have regular bone health monitoring, whether they commence ADT or not, in order to prevent or indeed minimize the morbidity that accompanies osteoporosis.

7 Review The genetics of osteoporosis. 2015

Clark, Graeme R / Duncan, Emma L. ·Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. · Human Genetics Group, The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Princess Alexandra Hospital, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba QLD 4102, Australia Mayne Medical School, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Queensland, 288 Herston Road, Herston, QLD, 4006, Australia Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Butterfield Road, Herston QLD 4029, Australia emma.duncan@uq.edu.au. ·Br Med Bull · Pubmed #25634850.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis is the commonest metabolic bone disease worldwide. The clinical hallmark of osteoporosis is low trauma fracture, with the most devastating being hip fracture, resulting in significant effects on both morbidity and mortality. SOURCES OF DATA: Data for this review have been gathered from the published literature and from a range of web resources. AREAS OF AGREEMENT: Genome-wide association studies in the field of osteoporosis have led to the identification of a number of loci associated with both bone mineral density and fracture risk and further increased our understanding of disease. AREAS OF CONTROVERSY: The early strategies for mapping osteoporosis disease genes reported only isolated associations, with replication in independent cohorts proving difficult. Neither candidate gene or linkage studies showed association at genome-wide level of significance. GROWING POINTS: The advent of massive parallel sequencing technologies has proved extremely successful in mapping monogenic diseases and thus leading to the utilization of this new technology in complex disease genetics. AREAS TIMELY FOR DEVELOPING RESEARCH: The identification of novel genes and pathways will potentially lead to the identification of novel therapeutic options for patients with osteoporosis.

8 Review The applications of binuclear metallohydrolases in medicine: recent advances in the design and development of novel drug leads for purple acid phosphatases, metallo-β-lactamases and arginases. 2014

McGeary, Ross P / Schenk, Gerhard / Guddat, Luke W. ·The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: r.mcgeary@uq.edu.au. · The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: schenk@uq.edu.au. · The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, St. Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia. Electronic address: luke.guddat@uq.edu.au. ·Eur J Med Chem · Pubmed #24583353.

ABSTRACT: Binuclear metallohydrolases are a family of proteins that can be targeted for drug discovery. The common feature of these enzymes is the presence of two closely spaced metal ions (i.e. less than 4 Å apart) that capture a water molecule that is used as a nucleophile in highly specific hydrolytic reactions. In this mini-review we describe what is known about the biological and catalytic activity, three-dimensional structure and inhibition for three prominent drug targets in this family of enzymes, (i) purple acid phosphatases, (ii) metallo-β-lactamases and (iii) arginases. These enzymes are targets for the development of chemotherapeutics to treat a range of disorders including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and erectile dysfunctions, but also to stem the spread of antibiotic resistance, a major threat to global health care.

9 Review Prevalence of osteoporosis in prostate cancer survivors: a meta-analysis. 2014

Lassemillante, Annie-Claude M / Doi, Suhail A R / Hooper, John D / Prins, John B / Wright, Olivia R L. ·Centre for Dietetics Research (C-DIET-R), School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia, a.lassemillante@uq.edu.au. ·Endocrine · Pubmed #24174178.

ABSTRACT: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which is used in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa), is associated with increased morbidity. Severe bone loss is a major consequence of androgen ablation and with an increasing number of patients undergoing this treatment, the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures can be expected to increase with a significant impact on healthcare. To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis, we conducted a review of the literature on bone health in men with PCa undergoing ADT. A meta-analysis was conducted using the quality effects model, and sources of heterogeneity were further explored by consideration of discordant effect sizes of included studies in the meta-analysis and examining reasons thereof. Our analyses indicate that the prevalence of osteoporosis varies between 9 and 53 % with this variation partially explained by treatment duration, disease stage, ethnicity and site of osteoporosis measurement. While it is well known that a rapid decline in bone health amongst men with PCa on ADT occurs, this meta-analysis documents the high prevalence of osteoporosis in this population and reinforces the need of preventative approaches as part of usual care of PCa patients.

10 Review Next-generation sequencing: a frameshift in skeletal dysplasia gene discovery. 2014

Lazarus, S / Zankl, A / Duncan, E L. ·University of Queensland, UQ Centre for Clinical Research, Herston, Brisbane, QLD, 4029, Australia. ·Osteoporos Int · Pubmed #23903953.

ABSTRACT: In the last decade, huge breakthroughs in genetics-driven by new technology and different statistical approaches-have resulted in a plethora of new disease genes identified for both common and rare diseases. Massive parallel sequencing, commonly known as next-generation sequencing, is the latest advance in genetics, and has already facilitated the discovery of the molecular cause of many monogenic disorders. This article describes this new technology and reviews how this approach has been used successfully in patients with skeletal dysplasias. Moreover, this article illustrates how the study of rare diseases can inform understanding and therapeutic developments for common diseases such as osteoporosis.

11 Review The effect of physical exercise on bone density in middle-aged and older men: a systematic review. 2013

Bolam, K A / van Uffelen, J G Z / Taaffe, D R. ·School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia, k.bolam@uq.edu.au. ·Osteoporos Int · Pubmed #23552825.

ABSTRACT: Although trials have shown that exercise has positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD), the majority of exercise trials have been conducted in older women. The aim of this study was to systematically review trials examining the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise modalities on the BMD of hip and lumbar spine of middle-aged and older men. Eight electronic databases were searched in August 2012. Randomised controlled or controlled trials that assessed the effect of weight-bearing and resistance-based exercise interventions on BMD measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and reported effects in middle-aged and older men were included. Eight trials detailed in nine papers were included. The interventions included walking (n = 2), resistance training (n = 3), walking + resistance training (n = 1), resistance training + impact-loading activities (n = 1) and resistance training + Tai Chi (n = 1). Five of the eight trials achieved a score of less than 50% on the modified Delphi quality rating scale. Further, there was heterogeneity in the type, intensity, frequency and duration of the exercise regimens. Effects of exercise varied greatly among studies, with six interventions having a positive effect on BMD and two interventions having no significant effect. It appears that resistance training alone or in combination with impact-loading activities are most osteogenic for this population, whereas the walking trials had limited effect on BMD. Therefore, regular resistance training and impact-loading activities should be considered as a strategy to prevent osteoporosis in middle-aged and older men. High quality randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the optimal exercise prescription.

12 Review AST-induced bone loss in men with prostate cancer: exercise as a potential countermeasure. 2012

Bolam, K A / Galvão, D A / Spry, N / Newton, R U / Taaffe, D R. ·Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Human Movement Studies, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. k.bolam@uq.edu.au ·Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis · Pubmed #22733158.

ABSTRACT: Androgen suppression treatment (AST) for men with prostate cancer is associated with a number of treatment-related side effects including an accelerated rate of bone loss. This loss of bone is greatest within the first year of AST and increases the risk for fracture. Pharmaceutical treatment in the form of bisphosphonates is currently used to counter the effects of hormone suppression on bone but is costly and associated with potential adverse effects. Recently, exercise has been shown to be an important adjuvant therapy to manage a range of treatment-related toxicities and enhance aspects of quality of life for men receiving AST. We propose that physical exercise may also have an important role in not only attenuating the bone loss associated with AST but in improving bone health and reducing fracture risk. In this review, the rationale underlying exercise as a countermeasure to AST-induced bone loss is provided.

13 Review Clinical review 2: Genetic determinants of bone density and fracture risk--state of the art and future directions. 2010

Duncan, Emma L / Brown, Matthew A. ·University of Queensland Diamantina Institute for Cancer, Immunology and Metabolic Medicine, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Queensland 4102, Australia. e.duncan@uq.edu.au ·J Clin Endocrinol Metab · Pubmed #20375209.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Osteoporosis is a common, highly heritable condition that causes substantial morbidity and mortality, the etiopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. Genetic studies are making increasingly rapid progress in identifying the genes involved. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION AND SYNTHESIS: In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the genetics of osteoporosis based on publications from PubMed from the year 1987 onward. CONCLUSIONS: Most genes involved in osteoporosis identified to date encode components of known pathways involved in bone synthesis or resorption, but as the field progresses, new pathways are being identified. Only a small proportion of the total genetic variation involved in osteoporosis has been identified, and new approaches will be required to identify most of the remaining genes.

14 Article Synthesis, evaluation and structural investigations of potent purple acid phosphatase inhibitors as drug leads for osteoporosis. 2019

Feder, Daniel / Kan, Meng-Wei / Hussein, Waleed M / Guddat, Luke W / Schenk, Gerhard / McGeary, Ross P. ·The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. · The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia; Helwan University, Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ein Helwan, Helwan, Egypt. · The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia; The University of Queensland, Sustainable Minerals Institute, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. Electronic address: schenk@uq.edu.au. · The University of Queensland, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. Electronic address: r.mcgeary@uq.edu.au. ·Eur J Med Chem · Pubmed #31445230.

ABSTRACT: Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are binuclear hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphorylated substrates under acidic to neutral conditions. Elevated serum concentrations of PAP are observed in patients suffering from osteoporosis, identifying this enzyme as a potential target for the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat this disease. α-Alkoxy-substituted naphthylmethylphosphonic acid derivatives have been identified previously as molecules that bind with high affinity to PAPs, and docking studies suggest that longer alkyl chains may increase the binding affinities of such compounds. Here, we synthesized several derivatives and tested their inhibitory effect against pig and red kidney bean PAPs. The most potent inhibitor within this series is the octadecyl derivative, which has a K

15 Article How well do the FRAX (Australia) and Garvan calculators predict incident fractures? Data from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. 2019

Holloway-Kew, K L / Zhang, Y / Betson, A G / Anderson, K B / Hans, D / Hyde, N K / Nicholson, G C / Pocock, N A / Kotowicz, M A / Pasco, J A. ·School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. khollo@barwonhealth.org.au. · Department of Medicine-Western Health, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, St Albans, Australia. · School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. · Center of Bone Diseases, Bone & Joint Department, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland. · Rural Clinical School, The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, QLD, Australia. · University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia. ·Osteoporos Int · Pubmed #31317250.

ABSTRACT: This study reports that both FRAX and Garvan calculators underestimated fractures in Australian men and women, particularly in those with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Major osteoporotic fractures were poorly predicted, while both calculators performed acceptably well for hip fractures. INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the ability of the FRAX (Australia) and Garvan calculators to predict fractures in Australian women and men. METHODS: Women (n = 809) and men (n = 821) aged 50-90 years, enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study, were included. Fracture risk was estimated using FRAX and Garvan calculators with and without femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) (FRAX RESULTS: In women, 115 MOF, 184 fragility, and 42 hip fractures occurred. For men, there were 73, 109, and 17 fractures, respectively. FRAX underestimated MOFs, regardless of sex or inclusion of BMD. FRAX accurately predicted hip fractures, except in women with BMD (20 predicted, p = 0.004). Garvan underestimated fragility fractures except in men using BMD (88 predicted, p = 0.109). Garvan accurately predicted hip fractures except for women without BMD (12 predicted, p < 0.001). Fractures were underestimated primarily in the osteopenia and osteoporosis groups; MOFs in the normal BMD group were only underestimated by FRAX CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the FRAX and Garvan calculators underestimated MOF and fragility fractures, particularly in individuals with osteopenia or osteoporosis. Hip fractures were predicted better by both calculators. AUROC analyses suggest that Garvan

16 Article Anti-osteoporosis Medication Use in a High Fracture-Risk Population: Contemporary Trends in Australian Residential Aged Care Facilities. 2019

Lind, Kimberly E / Jorgensen, Mikaela L / Gray, Leonard C / Georgiou, Andrew / Westbrook, Johanna I. ·Centre for Health Systems and Safety Research, Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · Centre for Health Services Research, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Woolloongabba, QLD, Australia. ·Health Serv Insights · Pubmed #31210731.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporotic fractures impose substantial morbidity and mortality among older adults. Undertreatment is an ongoing concern; treatment rates declined following reports of adverse effects of guideline-recommended bisphosphonates, but new antiresorptives have since become available. Our goal was to identify contemporary trends in osteoporosis treatment guideline adherence in a high fracture-risk population. We conducted a secondary data analysis using electronic health record data of adults aged ⩾65 years from 68 residential aged care facilities in Australia during 2014-2017 (n = 9094). Using medication administration data, we identified antiresorptive (bisphosphonates and denosumab) and vitamin D supplement use among residents with osteoporosis. Regression was used to evaluate temporal trends, and resident and facility characteristics associated with antiresorptive use and vitamin D use. In 2014, 34% of women and 42% of men with osteoporosis used antiresorptives; this decreased 8 percentage points by 2017. Antiresorptive use was higher among those with a history of fracture and lower in the last year of life. Denosumab use increased but did not substitute for the continued decline in bisphosphonate use. Vitamin D was consistently used by more than 60% of residents and was higher among those with fracture history. Greater attention to the treatment of osteoporosis treatment rates among this high fracture-risk population is warranted.

17 Article Evaluation of screening practices for low bone mass and prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures in people living with human immunodeficiency virus attending a sexual health clinic. 2019

Davidson, Natalie / Sowden, David. ·Infectious Diseases Department, Sunshine Coast University Hospital, Sunshine Coast Region, Queensland, Australia. · School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Microbiology Department, Pathology Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ·Intern Med J · Pubmed #31081166.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection commonly experience fractures and have a high prevalence of osteoporosis. The reasons for low bone mineral density (BMD) in HIV patients are multifactorial and there are now guidelines for screening. AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the screening practices for osteoporosis at this sexual health clinic, the prevalence of osteoporosis and to examine the risk factors for bone disease. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of all HIV patients attending the Sunshine Coast Health Service District Sexual Health Clinic. Through chart review we collected the following details: patient demographics, co-morbid conditions, HIV status and anti-retroviral therapy, BMD screening, fractures, screening for secondary causes of bone disease and treatment interventions for osteoporosis. RESULTS: A total of 243 patients with HIV attended the sexual health clinic. Of these, 149 met screening criteria for BMD assessment and 93 (61%) of those eligible underwent BMD examination. In those who had a BMD performed, 13 (19%) had sustained a previous fracture, 28 (30%) had osteoporosis and 42 (45%) had osteopenia. In the osteoporosis group, 21 (78%) were treated with vitamin D and calcium, 7 (26%) had a change in ART, 19 (68%) were treated with anti-resorptive therapy and 9 received testosterone replacement. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, there was a high prevalence of low bone mass and BMD screening rates of 60%. Our results highlight the importance of this condition and the need to improve screening and availability of BMD assessment.

18 Article Dysregulation of calcium metabolism in type 1 myotonic dystrophy. 2019

Hlaing, Phyu M / Scott, Ian A / Jackson, Richard V. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Redland Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · School of Clinical Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · Department of Internal Medicine, Logan Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. ·Intern Med J · Pubmed #30963668.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Patients with type 1 myotonic dystrophy (DM1) have a higher incidence of hypercalcaemia compared with the general population. The nature and effects of dysregulated calcium metabolism underpinning this phenomenon have not been fully characterised. AIMS: To determine the characteristics of dysregulated calcium metabolism in patients with DM1 and its association with bone mineral density. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of patients with DM1 attending a DM clinic at Logan Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, between 2005 and 2018 and who had concurrent serum assays performed of corrected serum calcium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and phosphate and for whom results were available for estimated glomerular filtration rate, bone mineral densitometry tests and urinary calcium clearance to creatinine clearance ratio (UCCR). RESULTS: Forty-four patients with DM1 (22 females, 22 males) were reviewed of whom 14 (32%) had elevated corrected serum calcium and inappropriate PTH. Another 10 patients (23%) had raised PTH with normocalcaemia. Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with hypercalcaemia or high PTH level completed 24-h urinary calcium. All had UCCR ≤0.02. Twelve patients had UCCR <0.01. Seven of 44 (16%) had low 25 hydroxy vitamin D. All patients had normal estimated glomerular filtration rate. None was osteoporotic. CONCLUSIONS: One in three patients with DM1 was hypercalcaemic with unsuppressed PTH. Their clinical features and biochemical pictures resemble those of familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH) and raises the possibility that impaired activity of calcium-sensing receptors, due to abnormal splicing of the calcium-sensing receptor messenger RNA in DM1, causes a FHH-like syndrome ('pseudo-FHH of DM1').

19 Article Both non-surgical dental treatment and extractions increase the risk of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: case-control study. 2019

McGowan, Kelly / Ware, Robert S / Acton, Caroline / Ivanovski, Saso / Johnson, Newell W. ·School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222, Australia. k.mcgowan@uq.edu.au. · School of Dentistry, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, 4029, Australia. k.mcgowan@uq.edu.au. · Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222, Australia. · Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, 4029, Australia. · School of Dentistry, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, 4029, Australia. · School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, 4222, Australia. · Dental Institute, King's College London, London, UK. ·Clin Oral Investig · Pubmed #30747305.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a serious condition whose risk factors remain unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of oral health and of dental treatment in the development of MRONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Hospital records were used to identify incident cases of MRONJ between January 2010 and March 2017. Cases were individually matched to up to 3 controls according to age, sex, primary disease, and type of antiresorptive therapy. Demographic data, medical histories and public dental records were collected. Associations between oral health, dental treatment, and MRONJ were investigated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 44 cases were identified and matched to 115 controls (total sample = 159). Only one-third of patients received a dental examination in the year prior to commencing antiresorptive therapy (27% of cases and 34% of controls). After adjusting for potentially confounding variables, non-surgical dental treatment (OR = 6.3; 95% CI = 2.1, 19.1; p < 0.001) and dental extractions (OR = 8.0; 95% CI = 3.0, 21.0, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with development of MRONJ. CONCLUSIONS: Current levels of preventative dental care are insufficient to eliminate the need for dental treatment and extractions during antiresorptive therapy, and the consequent increase in risk of MRONJ. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Optimizing the health of the oral cavity and ongoing preventative dental care must be a priority for patients prior to the initiation of antiresorptive medications.

20 Article The Binding Mode of an ADP Analogue to a Metallohydrolase Mimics the Likely Transition State. 2019

Feder, Daniel / Gahan, Lawrence R / McGeary, Ross P / Guddat, Luke W / Schenk, Gerhard. ·School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, QLD, 4072, Australia. ·Chembiochem · Pubmed #30719821.

ABSTRACT: Purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) are members of the large family of metallohydrolases, a group of enzymes that perform a wide range of biological functions, while employing a highly conserved catalytic mechanism. PAPs are found in plants, animals and fungi; in humans they play an important role in bone turnover and are thus of interest for developing treatments for osteoporosis. The majority of metallohydrolases use a metal-bound hydroxide to initiate catalysis, which leads to the formation of a proposed five-coordinate oxyphosphorane species in the transition state. In this work, we crystallized PAP from red kidney beans (rkbPAP) in the presence of both adenosine and vanadate. The in crystallo-formed vanadate analogue of ADP provides detailed insight into the binding mode of a PAP substrate, captured in a structure that mimics the putative fivecoordinate transition state. Our observations not only provide unprecedented insight into the mechanism of metallohydrolases, but might also guide the structure-based design of inhibitors for application in the treatment of several human illnesses.

21 Article Systemic comorbidities are associated with medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: Case-control study. 2019

McGowan, Kelly / Acton, Caroline / Ivanovski, Saso / Johnson, Newell W / Ware, Robert S. ·School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia. · School of Dentistry, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia. · Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery Department, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, Queensland, Australia. · Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland, Australia. · Dental Institute, King's College London, London, UK. ·Oral Dis · Pubmed #30674072.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is a serious condition developed in up to 15% of patients who take antiresorptive medications. Its underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. The association between systemic comorbidities and MRONJ was investigated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Hospital records were used to identify 68 cases of MRONJ between January 2003 and March 2017. Each case was individually matched to three controls (204 in total) according to sex, age, primary disease, and type and duration of antiresorptive therapy. Data on patient demographic, social and clinical characteristics were collected. Systemic comorbidities and medications were quantified as a comorbidity-polypharmacy score (CPS). Associations were investigated using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: The CPS calculated for patients who developed MRONJ (mean ± SD = 20.2 ± 5.1) was significantly higher than for controls (12.9 ± 4.6). Multivariable analysis determined a significant relationship between CPS and the presence of MRONJ (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.8, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with multiple systemic comorbidities and high levels of polypharmacy were more likely to develop MRONJ. The CPS is a simple and effective tool to quantify the risk of MRONJ attributed to a patient's systemic condition and should be considered in conjunction with the patient's oral health to assess the overall risk of MRONJ.

22 Article The Cost of Osteoporosis, Osteopenia, and Associated Fractures in Australia in 2017. 2019

Tatangelo, Gemma / Watts, Jennifer / Lim, Karen / Connaughton, Catherine / Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie / Borgström, Fredrik / Nicholson, Geoff C / Shore-Lorenti, Catherine / Stuart, Amanda L / Iuliano-Burns, Sandra / Seeman, Ego / Prince, Richard / March, Lyn / Cross, Marita / Winzenberg, Tania / Laslett, Laura L / Duque, Gustavo / Ebeling, Peter R / Sanders, Kerrie M. ·School of Psychology, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia. · Deakin Health Economics, Centre for Population Health Research, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. · Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, Australia. · LIME/MMC, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden. · Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne and Western Health, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. · Rural Clinical School, The University of Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia. · Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. · School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. · Department of Medicine, Austin Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. · School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Australia, Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia. · Institute of Bone and Joint Research, University of Sydney-Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, Australia. · Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, Australia. · Ageing Bone Research Program, Sydney Medical School, Nepean Hospital, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. ·J Bone Miner Res · Pubmed #30615801.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis and osteopenia are increasingly prevalent conditions among older adults. Not only do the fractures associated with poor bone health have significant health consequences for the individual, but also their economic impact is placing increasing financial burden on governments and society. This study aimed to determine the direct economic cost of osteoporosis, osteopenia, and fractures among Australians aged 50 years and older in 2017. This study uses previous Australian data on the incidence and prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia together with recent Australian data on health service utilization after fracture to provide an estimate of the economic burden of osteoporosis. A bottom-up costing approach was used to determine the average direct health care and non-health care total costs of a fracture, as well as the average community health service costs of managing individuals with osteoporosis or osteopenia. The total direct cost of osteoporosis in Australia in 2017 was estimated to be $3.44 billion (AUD 2017, USD 2.77 billion). Treatment of fractures accounted for 68% of total direct costs, and non-fracture management of osteoporosis accounted for 32%. Hip fractures accounted for the highest proportion (43%) of the total direct cost of fractures, although fractures at "other" sites accounted for 38.5%. Fractures among individuals aged 70 years and older accounted for 74% of the direct costs (55% and 19% in women and men, respectively). Fracture costs in those with osteopenia accounted for 50% of direct fracture treatment costs. This up-to-date cost analysis estimated that costs in 2017 were three times higher than in 2007. These estimates will aid clinicians, policy makers, researchers, and health care organizations to acknowledge the economic importance of reducing osteoporosis-related fractures and associated costs. This provides a strong public health case to promote bone health that will assist in reducing future fracture-related costs. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

23 Article An atlas of genetic influences on osteoporosis in humans and mice. 2019

Morris, John A / Kemp, John P / Youlten, Scott E / Laurent, Laetitia / Logan, John G / Chai, Ryan C / Vulpescu, Nicholas A / Forgetta, Vincenzo / Kleinman, Aaron / Mohanty, Sindhu T / Sergio, C Marcelo / Quinn, Julian / Nguyen-Yamamoto, Loan / Luco, Aimee-Lee / Vijay, Jinchu / Simon, Marie-Michelle / Pramatarova, Albena / Medina-Gomez, Carolina / Trajanoska, Katerina / Ghirardello, Elena J / Butterfield, Natalie C / Curry, Katharine F / Leitch, Victoria D / Sparkes, Penny C / Adoum, Anne-Tounsia / Mannan, Naila S / Komla-Ebri, Davide S K / Pollard, Andrea S / Dewhurst, Hannah F / Hassall, Thomas A D / Beltejar, Michael-John G / Anonymous2350974 / Adams, Douglas J / Vaillancourt, Suzanne M / Kaptoge, Stephen / Baldock, Paul / Cooper, Cyrus / Reeve, Jonathan / Ntzani, Evangelia E / Evangelou, Evangelos / Ohlsson, Claes / Karasik, David / Rivadeneira, Fernando / Kiel, Douglas P / Tobias, Jonathan H / Gregson, Celia L / Harvey, Nicholas C / Grundberg, Elin / Goltzman, David / Adams, David J / Lelliott, Christopher J / Hinds, David A / Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L / Hsu, Yi-Hsiang / Maurano, Matthew T / Croucher, Peter I / Williams, Graham R / Bassett, J H Duncan / Evans, David M / Richards, J Brent. ·Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. · Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Molecular Endocrinology Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Institute for Systems Genetics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Research, 23andMe, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA. · Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · McGill University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. · Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA. · Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. · MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. · NIHR Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK. · NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina, Greece. · Center for Evidence Synthesis in Health, Department of Health Services, Policy and Practice, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. · Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. · Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, USA. · Musculoskeletal Research Unit, Department of Translational Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. · Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA. · Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK. · Center for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA. · University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. d.evans1@uq.edu.au. · MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. d.evans1@uq.edu.au. · Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. brent.richards@mcgill.ca. · Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. brent.richards@mcgill.ca. · Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. brent.richards@mcgill.ca. · Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics & Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. brent.richards@mcgill.ca. · Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK. brent.richards@mcgill.ca. ·Nat Genet · Pubmed #30598549.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a common aging-related disease diagnosed primarily using bone mineral density (BMD). We assessed genetic determinants of BMD as estimated by heel quantitative ultrasound in 426,824 individuals, identifying 518 genome-wide significant loci (301 novel), explaining 20% of its variance. We identified 13 bone fracture loci, all associated with estimated BMD (eBMD), in ~1.2 million individuals. We then identified target genes enriched for genes known to influence bone density and strength (maximum odds ratio (OR) = 58, P = 1 × 10

24 Article Obesity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Gains in Adiposity despite High Prevalence of Myopenia and Osteopenia. 2018

Bryant, Robert Venning / Schultz, Christopher G / Ooi, Soong / Goess, Charlotte / Costello, Samuel Paul / Vincent, Andrew D / Schoeman, Scott N / Lim, Amanda / Bartholomeusz, Francis Dylan / Travis, Simon P L / Andrews, Jane Mary. ·IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville 5011, Australia. Robert.Bryant@sa.gov.au. · School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia. Robert.Bryant@sa.gov.au. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET and Bone Densitometry, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Port Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia. chris.schultz@sa.gov.au. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Port Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia. soongyuan.ooi@uq.edu.au. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Port Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia. charlotte.goess@sa.gov.au. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville 5011, Australia. sam.costello@sa.gov.au. · School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia. sam.costello@sa.gov.au. · Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide 5000, Australia. andrew.vincent@adelaide.edu.au. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville 5011, Australia. snschoeman@gmail.com. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 28 Woodville Road, Woodville 5011, Australia. Amanda.Lim@sa.gov.au. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET and Bone Densitometry, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Port Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia. Dylan.Bartholomeusz@sa.gov.au. · Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK. simon.travis@ndm.ox.ac.uk. · School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia. jane.andrews@sa.gov.au. · IBD Service, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Port Road, Adelaide 5000, Australia. jane.andrews@sa.gov.au. ·Nutrients · Pubmed #30200405.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rising rates of obesity have been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, prospective data is lacking. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate body composition in adults with IBD over 24 months. METHODS: Whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data was performed at 0 months, 12 months, and 24 months. Bone mineral density (BMD), fat mass index (FMI (kg)/height (m²)), appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI (kg)/height (m²)), visceral adipose tissue and the visceral adipose height index (VHI, VAT area (cm³)/height (m²)), and clinical and anthropometric assessments were performed at each time point. Multivariable linear mixed effects regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Initially, 154 participants were assessed at baseline (70% Crohn's disease, 55% male, median age 31 years), of whom 129 underwent repeated DXA at 12 months, and 110 underwent repeated DXA at 24 months. Amongst those undergoing repeated DXA, their body mass index (BMI) significantly increased over time, such that by 24 months, 62% of patients were overweight or obese (annual change BMI β = 0.43, 95%CI = [0.18, 0.67], CONCLUSION: Increasing rates of obesity in patients with IBD coincide with decreases in lean muscle mass over time, while high rates of osteopenia remain stable. These previously undocumented issues warrant attention in routine care to prevent avoidable morbidity.

25 Article Assessment of the genetic and clinical determinants of fracture risk: genome wide association and mendelian randomisation study. 2018

Trajanoska, Katerina / Morris, John A / Oei, Ling / Zheng, Hou-Feng / Evans, David M / Kiel, Douglas P / Ohlsson, Claes / Richards, J Brent / Rivadeneira, Fernando / Anonymous8610959. ·Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. · Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · Department of Human Genetics, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · DaP Lab, School of Life Sciences, Westlake University and Westlake Institute for Advanced Study, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. · Institute of Aging Research and the Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. · Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. · University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia. · Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Centre for Bone and Arthritis Research, Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska, Gothenburg, Sweden. · Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada f.rivadeneira@erasmusmc.nl brent.richards@mcgill.ca. · Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands f.rivadeneira@erasmusmc.nl brent.richards@mcgill.ca. ·BMJ · Pubmed #30158200.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify the genetic determinants of fracture risk and assess the role of 15 clinical risk factors on osteoporotic fracture risk. DESIGN: Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies (GWAS) and a two-sample mendelian randomisation approach. SETTING: 25 cohorts from Europe, United States, east Asia, and Australia with genome wide genotyping and fracture data. PARTICIPANTS: A discovery set of 37 857 fracture cases and 227 116 controls; with replication in up to 147 200 fracture cases and 150 085 controls. Fracture cases were defined as individuals (>18 years old) who had fractures at any skeletal site confirmed by medical, radiological, or questionnaire reports. Instrumental variable analyses were performed to estimate effects of 15 selected clinical risk factors for fracture in a two-sample mendelian randomisation framework, using the largest previously published GWAS meta-analysis of each risk factor. RESULTS: Of 15 fracture associated loci identified, all were also associated with bone mineral density and mapped to genes clustering in pathways known to be critical to bone biology (eg, CONCLUSIONS: This large scale GWAS meta-analysis for fracture identified 15 genetic determinants of fracture, all of which also influenced bone mineral density. Among the clinical risk factors for fracture assessed, only bone mineral density showed a major causal effect on fracture. Genetic predisposition to lower levels of vitamin D and estimated calcium intake from dairy sources were not associated with fracture risk.

Next