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Osteoporosis: HELP
Articles from Texas
Based on 219 articles published since 2008
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These are the 219 published articles about Osteoporosis that originated from Texas during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9
1 Guideline Screening for Osteoporosis to Prevent Fractures: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. 2018

Anonymous2470953 / Curry, Susan J / Krist, Alex H / Owens, Douglas K / Barry, Michael J / Caughey, Aaron B / Davidson, Karina W / Doubeni, Chyke A / Epling, John W / Kemper, Alex R / Kubik, Martha / Landefeld, C Seth / Mangione, Carol M / Phipps, Maureen G / Pignone, Michael / Silverstein, Michael / Simon, Melissa A / Tseng, Chien-Wen / Wong, John B. ·University of Iowa, Iowa City. · Fairfax Family Practice Residency, Fairfax, Virginia. · Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. · Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California. · Stanford University, Stanford, California. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Oregon Health and Science University, Portland. · Columbia University, New York, New York. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke. · Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio. · Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · University of Alabama at Birmingham. · University of California, Los Angeles. · Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Medicine, Dell Medical School, University of Texas, Austin. · University of Texas, Austin. · Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. · Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. · University of Hawaii, Honolulu. · Pacific Health Research and Education Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii. · Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts. ·JAMA · Pubmed #29946735.

ABSTRACT: Importance: By 2020, approximately 12.3 million individuals in the United States older than 50 years are expected to have osteoporosis. Osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures, are associated with limitations in ambulation, chronic pain and disability, loss of independence, and decreased quality of life, and 21% to 30% of patients who experience a hip fracture die within 1 year. The prevalence of primary osteoporosis (ie, osteoporosis without underlying disease) increases with age and differs by race/ethnicity. With the aging of the US population, the potential preventable burden is likely to increase in future years. Objective: To update the 2011 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for osteoporosis. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on screening for and treatment of osteoporotic fractures in men and women, as well as risk assessment tools, screening intervals, and efficacy of screening and treatment in subgroups. The screening population was postmenopausal women and older men with no known previous osteoporotic fractures and no known comorbid conditions or medication use associated with secondary osteoporosis. Findings: The USPSTF found convincing evidence that bone measurement tests are accurate for detecting osteoporosis and predicting osteoporotic fractures in women and men. The USPSTF found adequate evidence that clinical risk assessment tools are moderately accurate in identifying risk of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. The USPSTF found convincing evidence that drug therapies reduce subsequent fracture rates in postmenopausal women. The USPSTF found that the evidence is inadequate to assess the effectiveness of drug therapies in reducing subsequent fracture rates in men without previous fractures. Conclusions and Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in women 65 years and older. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends screening for osteoporosis with bone measurement testing to prevent osteoporotic fractures in postmenopausal women younger than 65 years at increased risk of osteoporosis, as determined by a formal clinical risk assessment tool. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for osteoporosis to prevent osteoporotic fractures in men. (I statement).

2 Editorial Two good choices to prevent breast cancer: great taste, less filling. 2010

Hortobagyi, Gabriel N / Brown, Powel H. ·Department of Breast Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA. ghortoba@mdanderson.org ·Cancer Prev Res (Phila) · Pubmed #20522797.

ABSTRACT: An important report in this issue of the journal by Vogel et al. (beginning on p. 696) discloses long-term follow-up data of the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showing persisting strong effects of both drugs in preventing invasive and noninvasive breast cancer after drugs were stopped in 2006. In addition, safety improved with longer follow-up (median of 81 months versus 47 months for the initial report). For 12 years, the public has avoided Food and Drug Administration-approved tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast cancer risk reduction; it is time to reemphasize the great preventive benefit of these agents to the public.

3 Review Injuries of the adolescent girl athlete: a review of imaging findings. 2019

Shampain, Kimberly / Gaetke-Udager, Kara / Leschied, Jessica R / Meyer, Nathaniel B / Hammer, Matthew R / Denay, Keri L / Yablon, Corrie M. ·Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, B1 D502, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. · Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, 1500 E Medical Center Drive, B1 D502, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA. kgaetke@umich.edu. · Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. · Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. ·Skeletal Radiol · Pubmed #30123946.

ABSTRACT: With the rising participation of girls in sports at both the recreational and elite levels, there has also been increased awareness of injuries common in this athlete population. Anatomic differences between boys and girls cause girl athletes to be predisposed to certain injuries. Certain behavioral patterns, such as eating disorders, also cause problems specific to girl athletes that may result in injury. Imaging plays a large role in diagnosis and ongoing management, but there has been only scant literature dedicated to the specific topic of imaging in girl athletes. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging findings and recommendations for injuries and other conditions affecting the adolescent girl athlete. This article first provides an overview of the key anatomic differences between boys and girls, including both static and dynamic factors, as well as non-anatomic differences, such as hormonal factors, and discusses how these differences contribute to the injury patterns that are seen more typically in girls. The article then reviews the imaging findings in injuries that are commonly seen in girl athletes. There is also a discussion of the "female athlete triad," which consists of osteoporosis, disordered eating, and amenorrhea, and the role of imaging in this condition.

4 Review Molecular Modulation of Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts in Type 2 Diabetes. 2018

Rathinavelu, Selvalakshmi / Guidry-Elizondo, Crissy / Banu, Jameela. ·Department of Health and Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Affairs, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1201, W University Dr, Edinburg, TX 78539, USA. · Department of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, 1201, W University Dr, Edinburg, TX 78539, USA. ·J Diabetes Res · Pubmed #30525054.

ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a common disease affecting majority of populations worldwide. Since 1980, there has been an increase in the number of people diagnosed as prediabetic and diabetic. Diabetes is characterized by high levels of circulating glucose and leads to most microvascular and macrovascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Bone marrow vascular disruption and increased adiposity are also linked to various complications in type II diabetes mellitus. In addition to these complications, type 2 diabetic patients also have fragile bones caused by faulty mineralization mainly due to increased adiposity among diabetic patients that affects both osteoblast and osteoclast functions. Other factors that increase fracture risk in diabetic patients are increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and drugs administered to diabetic patients. This review reports the modulation of different pathways that affect bone metabolism in diabetic conditions.

5 Review Sex-based Differences in Common Sports Injuries. 2018

Carter, Cordelia W / Ireland, Mary Lloyd / Johnson, Anthony E / Levine, William N / Martin, Scott / Bedi, Asheesh / Matzkin, Elizabeth G. ·From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Yale University, New Haven, CT (Dr. Carter), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (Dr. Ireland), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, TX (Dr. Johnson), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York, NY (Dr. Levine), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (Dr. Martin), the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (Dr. Bedi), and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (Dr. Matzkin). ·J Am Acad Orthop Surg · Pubmed #29847420.

ABSTRACT: The patient's sex plays an important role in mediating the risk for, and experience of, disease. Injuries of the musculoskeletal system are no exception to this phenomenon. Increasing evidence shows that the incidence, clinical presentation, and treatment outcomes for male and female patients with common sports injuries may vary widely. Stress fracture, which is associated with the female athlete triad, is a sports injury with known sex-based differences. Other common sports-related injuries may also have distinct sex-based differences. Understanding these differences is important to optimize each patient's musculoskeletal care.

6 Review Mini-Review: The Contribution of Intermediate Phenotypes to GxE Effects on Disorders of Body Composition in the New OMICS Era. 2017

Nava-Gonzalez, Edna J / Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther C / Leal-Berumen, Irene / Bastarrachea, Raul A. ·Facultad de Salud Pública y Nutrición (FASPyN), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey 64290, Mexico. ednajnava@hotmail.com. · Facultad de Enfermería, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey 64290, Mexico. esther.gallegosc@gmail.com. · Facultad de Medicina y Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, México 31110, Mexico. ilealb62@yahoo.com.mx. · Department of Genetics and Southwest National Primate Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78227, USA. raul@TxBiomed.org. ·Int J Environ Res Public Health · Pubmed #28926971.

ABSTRACT: Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP). These pathologies are examples of how a GxE interaction contributes to their development. IPs as surrogates for inherited genotypes play a key role in models of genetic and environmental interactions in health outcomes. Such predictive models may unravel relevant genomic and molecular pathways for preventive and therapeutic interventions for OB, T2D, and OSTP. Annotation strategies for genomes, in contrast to phenomes, are well advanced. They generally do not measure specific aspects of the environment. Therefore, the concepts of deep phenotyping and the exposome generate new avenues to exploit with high-resolution technologies for analyzing this sophisticated phenome. With the successful characterization of phenomes, exposomes, and genomes, environmental and genetic determinants of chronic diseases can be united with multi-OMICS studies that better examine GxE interactions.

7 Review Tocotrienols for bone health: a translational approach. 2017

Shen, Chwan-Li / Klein, Annika / Chin, Kok-Yong / Mo, Huanbiao / Tsai, Peihsuan / Yang, Rong-Sen / Chyu, Ming-Chien / Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman. ·Department of Pathology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas. · Department of Kinesiology and Sport Management, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. · Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangasaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Nutrition, Byrdine F. Lewis School of Nursing and Health Professions, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia. · School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas. · Department of Orthopedics, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei City, Taiwan. · Graduate Healthcare Engineering, Whitacre College of Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas. ·Ann N Y Acad Sci · Pubmed #28891093.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis, a degenerative bone disease, is characterized by low bone mass and microstructural deterioration of bone tissue resulting in aggravated bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures. The trend of extended life expectancy is accompanied by a rise in the prevalence of osteoporosis and concomitant complications in the elderly population. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between vitamin E consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Animal studies show that ingestion of vitamin E, especially tocotrienols, may benefit bone health in terms of maintaining higher bone mineral density and improving bone microstructure and quality. The beneficial effects of tocotrienols on bone health appear to be mediated via antioxidant/anti-inflammatory pathways and/or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A mechanisms. We discuss (1) an overview of the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (2) types of vitamin E (tocopherols versus tocotrienols), (3) findings of tocotrienols and bone health from published in vitro and animal studies, (4) possible mechanisms involved in bone protection, and (5) challenges and future direction for research.

8 Review Nutrition Implications for Long-Term Survivors of Pancreatic Cancer Surgery [Formula: see text]. 2017

Petzel, Maria Q B / Hoffman, Leah. ·1 Department of Clinical Nutrition and Department of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. · 2 Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. ·Nutr Clin Pract · Pubmed #28817367.

ABSTRACT: With slowly increasing survival rates in pancreatic cancer and international consensus guidelines recommending surgical resection of premalignant lesions, survival post-pancreatic resection is increasing. With longer survival time, the significant comorbidities of such major surgery have far-reaching effects on the nutrition status of the survivor of pancreatic cancer. This review describes the many nutrition-related side effects of pancreatic surgery, including the development of pancreatic enzyme insufficiency, micronutrient deficiencies, diabetes, fatty liver, and metabolic bone disease. Beyond causing additional medical problems, each of these can have significant effects on quality of life and functional status. The potential mechanisms, diagnosis criteria, and potential treatments of these conditions are described. Overall, little literature exists to fully describe the effects of these comorbidities, and even less is able to guide effective treatments for this population. Clinicians caring for these patients should begin incorporating goals for promotion of long-term health and reduction of these known and reported comorbidities in patients who have undergone pancreatic surgery. Treatment plans in this population remain understudied, and clinicians may need to consider recommendations for similar disease states when developing interventions for these patients.

9 Review Osteoporosis Risk Calculators. 2017

Edwards, Beatrice J. ·Geriatric Medicine, Department of General Internal Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston TX, USA. Electronic address: bedwards@mdanderson.org. ·J Clin Densitom · Pubmed #28739082.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a silent disease until fractures occur, patient recognition is the greatest clinical challenge. Although more than 20 million women in the US are estimated to have established osteoporosis the majority are not appropriately identified. Bone densitometry is the current gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis; but may not be feasible or cost-effective to recommend for all postmenopausal women. Therefore, questionnaires incorporating risk factors have been developed to aid the clinician in identifying women with osteoporosis. We will review Qfracture, CAnadian Risk for Osteoporosis Calculator (CAROC), the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Index (SCORE), the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Index (ORAI), the Osteoporotic Self-assessment Tool (OST), ABONE, and the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommendations.

10 Review A theory of eu-estrogenemia: a unifying concept. 2017

Turner, Ralph J / Kerber, Irwin J. ·1Department of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX. ·Menopause · Pubmed #28562489.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to propose a unifying theory for the role of estrogen in postmenopausal women through examples in basic science, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and clinical practice. METHODS: Review and evaluation of the literature relating to estrogen. DISCUSSION: The role of hormone therapy and ubiquitous estrogen receptors after reproductive senescence gains insight from basic science models. Observational studies and individualized patient care in clinical practice may show outcomes that are not reproduced in randomized clinical trials. The understanding gained from the timing hypothesis for atherosclerosis, the critical window theory in neurosciences, randomized controlled trials, and numerous genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogen discovered in basic science provides new explanations to clinical challenges that practitioners face. Consequences of a hypo-estrogenemic duration in women's lives are poorly understood. The Study of Women Across the Nation suggests its magnitude is greater than was previously acknowledged. We propose that the healthy user bias was the result of surgical treatment (hysterectomy with oophorectomy) for many gynecological maladies followed by pharmacological and physiological doses of estrogen to optimize patient quality of life. The past decade of research has begun to demonstrate the role of estrogen in homeostasis. CONCLUSIONS: The theory of eu-estrogenemia provides a robust framework to unify the timing hypothesis, critical window theory, randomized controlled trials, the basic science of estrogen receptors, and clinical observations of patients over the past five decades.

11 Review Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis: A review of traditional Chinese medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology. 2017

Liu, Chenyue / Ma, Rufeng / Wang, Lili / Zhu, Ruyuan / Liu, Haixia / Guo, Yubo / Zhao, Baosheng / Zhao, Shangang / Tang, Jinfa / Li, Yu / Niu, Jianzhao / Fu, Min / Zhang, Dongwei / Gao, Sihua. ·Chinese Material Medica School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China. · Preclinical Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. · Beijing Research Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. · Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-8549, USA. · The First Affiliated Hospital of He'nan TCM College, Zhengzhou 45000, China. · The Research Institute of McGill University Health Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4A 3J1. · Diabetes Research Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address: dongwei1006@gmail.com. · Diabetes Research Center, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China. Electronic address: gaosihua1216@163.com. ·J Ethnopharmacol · Pubmed #28111216.

ABSTRACT: ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Several databases included PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, National Science and Technology Library and the Web of Science Database were consulted to locate the publications pertaining to Rehmanniae Radix. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following terms combinations in the abstracts: Rehmanniae Radix, Dihuang, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast. About 330 research papers and reviews were consulted. RESULTS: In TCM, Rehmanniae Radix exerts the anti-osteoporotic effect via regulating the functions of kidney and liver as well as improving blood circulation. 107 clinical trials are identified that used Rehmanniae Radix in combination with other herbs to treat post-menopausal, senile and secondary osteoporosis. Most of the clinical trials are characterized by high efficacy and no obvious adverse effects. However, the efficacies of these clinical trials are limited because of small patient sample size, short treatment duration and poor clinical design. In addition, TCM herbs under the clinical study are not clear because of a lack of standardization and authentication. The pharmacokinetics data demonstrate that the ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix are widely distributed after administration, and that catalpol and ajugol as well as acetoside are supposed to be the active constituents. More than 140 individual compounds have been currently isolated from this plant and reported to show pleiotropic effects on various diseases. Rehmanniae Radix displays bone protecting features in the osteoporosis models via the delicate balance between osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis through single herb extracts and its isolated compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The successful inclusion of Rehmanniae Radix in clinical trials and preclinical studies for the management of osteoporosis has attracted rising attentions for identifying potential anti-osteoporotic candidates from this plant and clinical existing TCM formulas, which will further speed up anti-osteoporosis drug discovery processes. Properly designed and well controlled prospective studies are still needed to further demonstrate bone protective actions and safe use of this herb and its ingredients.

12 Review Bone effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2017

Blevins, Thomas C / Farooki, Azeez. ·a Texas Diabetes and Endocrinology , Austin , TX , USA. · b Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , New York , NY , USA. ·Postgrad Med · Pubmed #27894216.

ABSTRACT: Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone. Minimal increases in serum phosphate and magnesium that were within normal limits were seen with canagliflozin versus placebo. Canagliflozin was associated with increases in serum collagen type 1 beta-carboxy telopeptide (beta-CTX), a bone resorption marker, and osteocalcin, a bone formation marker. Decreases in total hip BMD were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo after 2 years (-1.7%, -2.1%, -0.8%; differences of -0.9% and -1.2%), but not at other skeletal sites (normal age-related bone loss, ~0.5-1.0%/year). Changes in beta-CTX and total hip BMD were significantly associated with weight loss, which is known to increase bone resorption markers and decrease BMD. Canagliflozin was associated with a higher fracture incidence in an interim analysis of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) in patients with a history or high risk of cardiovascular disease (incidence per 100 patient-years of 1.6, 1.6, and 1.1 with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo), but not in other clinical studies of patients with T2DM. Fractures tended to occur as early as 12 weeks after initiating treatment and were primarily located in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremities. The reason for increased fracture risk with canagliflozin treatment is unknown, but is likely not related to a direct effect of canagliflozin on bone-related biomarkers. Data from ongoing canagliflozin studies, including CANVAS, will provide additional information on fracture risk in patients with T2DM.

13 Review Hyponatremia and bone disease. 2017

Negri, Armando Luis / Ayus, Juan Carlos. ·Instituto de Investigaciones Metabólicas, Universidad del Salvador, Buenos Aires, Argentina. · Renal Consultants of Houston, 2412 Westgate Street, Houston, TX, 77019, USA. carlosayus@yahoo.com. · Hospital Italiano, Buenos Aires, Argentina. carlosayus@yahoo.com. · Hospital Universitario Austral, Buenos Aires, Argentina. carlosayus@yahoo.com. ·Rev Endocr Metab Disord · Pubmed #27664044.

ABSTRACT: Hip fractures represent a serious health risk in the elderly, causing substantial morbidity and mortality. There is now a considerable volume of literature suggesting that chronic hyponatremia increases the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for both falls and fractures in the elderly. Hyponatremia appears to contribute to falls and fractures by two mechanisms. First, it produces mild cognitive impairment, resulting in unsteady gait and falls; this is probably due to the loss of glutamate (a neurotransmitter involved in gait function) as an osmolyte during brain adaptation to chronic hyponatremia. Second, hyponatremia directly contributes to osteoporosis and increased bone fragility by inducing increased bone resorption to mobilize sodium stores in bone. Low extracellular sodium directly stimulates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorptive activity through decreased cellular uptake of ascorbic acid and the induction of oxidative stress; these effects occur in a sodium level-dependent manner. Hyponatremic patients have elevated circulating arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels, and AVP acting on two receptors expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts, Avpr1α and Avpr2, can increase bone resorption and decrease osteoblastogenesis. Should we be screening for low serum sodium in patients with osteoporosis or assessing bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with hyponatremia? The answers to these questions have not been established. Definitive answers will require randomized controlled studies that allocate elderly individuals with mild hyponatremia to receive either active treatment or no treatment for hyponatremia, to determine whether correction of hyponatremia prevents gait disturbances and changes in BMD, thereby reducing the risk of fractures. Until such studies are conducted, physicians caring for elderly patients must be aware of the association between hyponatremia and bone disorders. As serum sodium is a readily available, simple, and affordable biochemical measurement, clinicians should look for hyponatremia in elderly patients, especially in those receiving medications that can cause hyponatremia. Furthermore, elderly patients with an unsteady gait and/or confusion should be evaluated for the presence of mild hyponatremia, and if present, treatment should be initiated. Finally, elderly patients presenting with an orthopedic injury should have serum sodium checked and hyponatremia corrected, if present.

14 Review Drug Therapy for Gender Transitions and Health Screenings in Transgender Older Adults. 2016

Mahan, Rebecca J / Bailey, Trista Askins / Bibb, Teryn J / Fenney, Megan / Williams, Tara. ·Division of Geriatrics, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Abilene, Texas. · School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Abilene, Texas. ·J Am Geriatr Soc · Pubmed #27996106.

ABSTRACT: Transgender medicine is a relatively new field in health care, with only a small amount of evidence-based literature available for reference. This is especially true for the older adult population, for whom most information must be extrapolated from younger adults. Be it a newly transitioned older adult or a transgendered individual who has been undergoing hormonal therapy for many years, it is important that healthcare professionals be aware of the significant effects that transgender pharmacotherapy can have on older adults. Healthcare providers must also recommend appropriate preventative screenings to transgendered persons.

15 Review Melatonin as a Potential Agent in the Treatment of Sarcopenia. 2016

Coto-Montes, Ana / Boga, Jose A / Tan, Dun X / Reiter, Russel J. ·Department of Morphology and Cellular Biology, Medicine Faculty, University of Oviedo, Julian Claveria, s/n, Oviedo 33006, Spain. acoto@uniovi.es. · Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. acoto@uniovi.es. · Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. joseantonio.boga@sespa.es. · Service of Microbiology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Avenida de Roma, s/n, Oviedo 33011, Spain. joseantonio.boga@sespa.es. · Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. tan@uthscsa.edu. · Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UTHSCSA, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. reiter@uthscsa.edu. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #27783055.

ABSTRACT: Considering the increased speed at which the world population is aging, sarcopenia could become an epidemic in this century. This condition currently has no means of prevention or treatment. Melatonin is a highly effective and ubiquitously acting antioxidant and free radical scavenger that is normally produced in all organisms. This molecule has been implicated in a huge number of biological processes, from anticonvulsant properties in children to protective effects on the lung in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this review, we summarize the data which suggest that melatonin may be beneficial in attenuating, reducing or preventing each of the symptoms that characterize sarcopenia. The findings are not limited to sarcopenia, but also apply to osteoporosis-related sarcopenia and to age-related neuromuscular junction dysfunction. Since melatonin has a high safety profile and is drastically reduced in advanced age, its potential utility in the treatment of sarcopenic patients and related dysfunctions should be considered.

16 Review Caring for Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. 2016

Feagins, Linda A / Kane, Sunanda V. ·Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VA North Texas Healthcare System, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 4500 S. Lancaster Rd (111B1), Dallas, TX 75216, USA. · Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Electronic address: kane.sunanda@mayo.edu. ·Gastroenterol Clin North Am · Pubmed #27261900.

ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease are chronic inflammatory diseases with typical onset in early adulthood. These diseases, therefore, can affect a woman throughout the many stages of her life, including menstruation, sexuality, pregnancy, and menopause. Unique health issues face women during these stages and can affect the course of their inflammatory bowel disease as well as treatment strategies and health maintenance. This article covers the non-pregnancy-related issues that are important in caring for women with inflammatory bowel disease. The topics of pregnancy and fertility are covered in a separate review.

17 Review Nutrition in Cardioskeletal Health. 2016

Hill Gallant, Kathleen M / Weaver, Connie M / Towler, Dwight A / Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V / Bailey, Regan L. ·Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; hillgallant@purdue.edu. · Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; · Internal Medicine/Endocrine Division, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; and. · Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN; Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. ·Adv Nutr · Pubmed #27184281.

ABSTRACT: Bone and heart health are linked through a variety of cellular, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms, including the bidirectional effects of mineral-regulating hormones parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23. Nutrition plays an important role in the development of both cardiovascular and bone disease. This review describes current knowledge on the relations between the cardiovascular system and bone and the influence of key nutrients involved in mineral metabolism-calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus-on heart and bone health, as well as the racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and the influence that nutrition has on these disparities.

18 Review Advances in Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Osteoporosis. 2016

Barry, Mikayla / Pearce, Hannah / Cross, Lauren / Tatullo, Marco / Gaharwar, Akhilesh K. ·Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77841, USA. · Maxillofacial Unit, Calabrodental Clinic, Crotone, 88900, Italy. · Regenerative Medicine Section, Tecnologica Research Institute, Crotone, 88900, Italy. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77841, USA. gaharwar@tamu.edu. · Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77841, USA. gaharwar@tamu.edu. · Center for Remote Health Technologies and Systems, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA. gaharwar@tamu.edu. ·Curr Osteoporos Rep · Pubmed #27048473.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease commonly related to aging. With an increase in life expectancies worldwide, the prevalence of the disease is expected to rise. Current clinical therapeutic treatments are not able to offer long-term solutions to counter the bone mass loss and the increased risk of fractures, which are the primary characteristics of the disease. However, the combination of bioactive nanomaterials within a biomaterial scaffold shows promise for the development of a localized, long-term treatment for those affected by osteoporosis. This review summarizes the unique characteristics of engineered nanoparticles that render them applicable for bone regeneration and recaps the current body of knowledge on nanomaterials with potential for osteoporosis treatment and bone regeneration. Specifically, we highlight new developments that are shaping this emerging field and evaluate applications of recently developed nanomaterials for osteoporosis treatment. Finally, we will identify promising new research directions in nanotechnology for bone regeneration.

19 Review Hepatitis C virus coinfection as a risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture. 2016

Bedimo, Roger / Maalouf, Naim M / Lo Re, Vincent. ·aInfectious Diseases Section, Medical Service, Veterans Affairs North Texas Healthcare System bDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center cEndocrine Section, Medical Service, Veterans Affairs North Texas Healthcare System dDivision of Mineral Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, and the Charles and Jane Pak Center for Mineral Metabolism and Clinical Research, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas eDivision of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine fDepartment of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. ·Curr Opin HIV AIDS · Pubmed #26890206.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With increased survival of HIV-infected patients, osteoporotic fractures have developed as a major cause of morbidity in these patients, and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection has emerged as a significant contributor to this increased fracture risk. The present article reviews the epidemiologic and clinical evidence for osteoporosis and increased fracture risk among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, and potential mechanisms for these outcomes with HCV coinfection. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiologic studies suggest that HIV/HCV coinfected patients exhibit a three-fold increased fracture incidence compared with uninfected controls, and 1.2-2.4-fold increased fracture risk compared with HIV monoinfected patients. Recent reports suggest that chronic HCV coinfection is independently associated with reduced bone mineral density in HIV, but that it is not associated with significantly increased bone turnover. The deleterious impact of chronic HCV on BMD and fracture risk occurs even in the absence of advanced liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. New tools to assess bone quality, including the trabecular bone score, high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and in-vivo microindentation, may help improve understanding of the mechanisms of HCV-associated skeletal fragility. The impact of approved antiosteoporosis medications and direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of chronic HCV infection on patients' bone health remain to be studied. SUMMARY: Chronic HCV infection is an independent risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures among HIV-infected patients, even before the development of cirrhosis. The underlying mechanisms are being unraveled, but major questions persist regarding the optimal evaluation and management of bone health in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

20 Review Use of teriparatide in osteoporotic fracture patients. 2016

Collinge, Cory / Favela, Juan. ·Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University, Medical Center East, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address: cory.a.collinge@vanderbilt.edu. · University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA. ·Injury · Pubmed #26768289.

ABSTRACT: Teriparatide [PTH (1-34)] is a genetically engineered analog of human parathyroid hormone that acts as an anabolic drug by increasing activity in both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Intermittent (once-daily) doses of teriparatide seem to stimulate osteoblast activity and therefore result in a net increase of bone formation. It is recommended for use in post-menopausal women (PMW), men with hypogonadal osteoporosis, as well as men and women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. In vivo studies have generated important findings regarding teriparatide's role in the enhancement of fracture healing. The intention of this article is to review the clinical findings of teriparatide to stimulate fracture healing. The drug was shown in a prospective randomized, double blind study to achieve earlier radiographic cortical bridging of three of four cortices (7.4 weeks) compared to patients who were assigned to the placebo group (9.1 weeks). Another study compared mean time for healing and functional outcome in two groups of elderly women who had suffered osteoporotic pelvic fractures: one group received daily 100 μg parathyroid hormone (1-84) injections, while the other group received no treatment. Patients who received the PTH (1-84) injections accelerated radiographic and clinical fracture healing (7.8 weeks) when compared to patients who received no treatment (12.6 weeks, p<0.001). Numerous case series state the safety and potential benefits of teriparatide use in patients recovering from fractures. In the following scenarios, teriparatide might be considered in patients with osteoporosis and a fracture: (1) patients with severe osteoporosis with use of bisphosphonates for a number of years with a fracture not expected to predictably unite, e.g. atypical femur fracture or open tibia fracture, (2) in cases where an osteoporotic patient has failed fracture healing and is considering surgical treatment e.g. non-union surgery. It seems prudent to reevaluate these patients frequently and reconsider which drug class of osteoporotic drug is best for the patient. Finally, it must be stressed that we do not recommend teriparatide in osteoporotic patients that may be well treated with bisphosphonates and a fracture is expected to heal uneventfully, nor when patients with metabolically normal bone have a fracture.

21 Review Managing Osteoporosis in Patients on Long-Term Bisphosphonate Treatment: Report of a Task Force of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. 2016

Adler, Robert A / El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada / Bauer, Douglas C / Camacho, Pauline M / Clarke, Bart L / Clines, Gregory A / Compston, Juliet E / Drake, Matthew T / Edwards, Beatrice J / Favus, Murray J / Greenspan, Susan L / McKinney, Ross / Pignolo, Robert J / Sellmeyer, Deborah E. ·McGuire Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA. · American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon. · University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. · Loyola University of Chicago, Maywood, IL, USA. · Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA. · University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK. · MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. · University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. · University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. · Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · The Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·J Bone Miner Res · Pubmed #26350171.

ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most commonly used medications for osteoporosis. This ASBMR report provides guidance on BP therapy duration with a risk-benefit perspective. Two trials provided evidence for long-term BP use. In the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX), postmenopausal women receiving alendronate for 10 years had fewer clinical vertebral fractures than those switched to placebo after 5 years. In the HORIZON extension, women who received 6 annual infusions of zoledronic acid had fewer morphometric vertebral fractures compared with those switched to placebo after 3 years. Low hip T-score, between -2 and -2.5 in FLEX and below -2.5 in HORIZON extension, predicted a beneficial response to continued therapy. Hence, the Task Force suggests that after 5 years of oral BP or 3 years of intravenous BP, reassessment of risk should be considered. In women at high risk, for example, older women, those with a low hip T-score or high fracture risk score, those with previous major osteoporotic fracture, or who fracture on therapy, continuation of treatment for up to 10 years (oral) or 6 years (intravenous), with periodic evaluation, should be considered. The risk of atypical femoral fracture, but not osteonecrosis of the jaw, clearly increases with BP therapy duration, but such rare events are outweighed by vertebral fracture risk reduction in high-risk patients. For women not at high fracture risk after 3 to 5 years of BP treatment, a drug holiday of 2 to 3 years can be considered. The suggested approach for long-term BP use is based on limited evidence, only for vertebral fracture reduction, in mostly white postmenopausal women, and does not replace the need for clinical judgment. It may be applicable to men and patients with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, with some adaptations. It is unlikely that future trials will provide data for formulating definitive recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

22 Review Prebiotic and Probiotic Regulation of Bone Health: Role of the Intestine and its Microbiome. 2015

McCabe, Laura / Britton, Robert A / Parameswaran, Narayanan. ·Department of Physiology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Michigan State University, Biomedical Physical Science Building, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA. mccabel@msu.edu. · Department of Radiology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Michigan State University, Biomedical Physical Science Building, 846 Service Road, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA. mccabel@msu.edu. · Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Molecular Virology and Microbiology, Alkek Center for Metagenomics and Microbiome Research, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX, 77030, USA. Rob.Britton@bcm.edu. · Department of Physiology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Michigan State University, Biomedical Physical Science Building, 567 Wilson Road, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA. paramesw@msu.edu. ·Curr Osteoporos Rep · Pubmed #26419466.

ABSTRACT: Recent advances in our understanding of how the intestinal microbiome contributes to health and disease have generated great interest in developing strategies for modulating the abundance of microbes and/or their activity to improve overall human health and prevent pathologies such as osteoporosis. Bone is an organ that the gut has long been known to regulate through absorption of calcium, the key bone mineral. However, it is clear that modulation of the gut and its microbiome can affect bone density and strength in a variety of animal models (zebrafish, rodents, chicken) and humans. This is demonstrated in studies ablating the microbiome through antibiotic treatment or using germ-free mouse conditions as well as in studies modulating the microbiome activity and composition through prebiotic and/or probiotic treatment. This review will discuss recent developments in this new and exciting area.

23 Review The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in age-related diseases. 2015

Lane, Rebecca K / Hilsabeck, Tyler / Rea, Shane L. ·The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA. · The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA; The University of Texas, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA. · The Barshop Institute for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA; Department of Physiology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA. Electronic address: reas3@uthscsa.edu. ·Biochim Biophys Acta · Pubmed #26050974.

ABSTRACT: The aging process is accompanied by the onset of disease and a general decline in wellness. Insights into the aging process have revealed a number of cellular hallmarks of aging, among these epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, and stem cell exhaustion. Mitochondrial dysfunction increasingly appears to be a common factor connecting several of these hallmarks, driving the aging process and afflicting tissues throughout the body. Recent research has uncovered a much more complex involvement of mitochondria in the cell than has previously been appreciated and revealed novel ways in which mitochondrial defects feed into disease pathology. In this review we evaluate ways in which problems in mitochondria contribute to disease beyond the well-known mechanisms of oxidative stress and bioenergetic deficits, and we predict the direction that mitochondrial disease research will take in years to come.

24 Review Genetic Approaches To Identifying Novel Osteoporosis Drug Targets. 2015

Brommage, Robert. ·Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, The Woodlands, Texas. ·J Cell Biochem · Pubmed #25833316.

ABSTRACT: During the past two decades effective drugs for treating osteoporosis have been developed, including anti-resorptives inhibiting bone resorption (estrogens, the SERM raloxifene, four bisphosphonates, RANKL inhibitor denosumab) and the anabolic bone forming daily injectable peptide teriparatide. Two potential drugs (odanacatib and romosozumab) are in late stage clinical development. The most pressing unmet need is for orally active anabolic drugs. This review describes the basic biological studies involved in developing these drugs, including the animal models employed for osteoporosis drug development. The genomics revolution continues to identify potential novel osteoporosis drug targets. Studies include human GWAS studies and identification of mutant genes in subjects having abnormal bone mass, mouse QTL and gene knockouts, and gene expression studies. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that Wnt signaling plays a major role in regulating bone formation and continued study of this complex pathway is likely to lead to key discoveries. In addition to the classic Wnt signaling targets DKK1 and sclerostin, LRP4, LRP5/LRP6, SFRP4, WNT16, and NOTUM can potentially be targeted to modulate Wnt signaling. Next-generation whole genome and exome sequencing, RNA-sequencing and CRISPR/CAS9 gene editing are new experimental techniques contributing to understanding the genome. The International Knockout Mouse Consortium efforts to knockout and phenotype all mouse genes are poised to accelerate. Accumulating knowledge will focus attention on readily accessible databases (Big Data). Efforts are underway by the International Bone and Mineral Society to develop an annotated Skeletome database providing information on all genes directly influencing bone mass, architecture, mineralization or strength.

25 Review Premature ovarian failure: clinical presentation and treatment. 2015

Kovanci, Ertug / Schutt, Amy K. ·Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6651 Main Street, Suite E350, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: ekovanci@bcm.edu. · Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, 6651 Main Street, Suite E350, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ·Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am · Pubmed #25681846.

ABSTRACT: Premature ovarian failure is a devastating diagnosis for reproductive-aged women. The diagnosis is relatively easy. However, it has serious health consequences, including psychological distress, infertility, osteoporosis, autoimmune disorders, ischemic heart disease, and increased risk for mortality. Management should be initiated immediately to prevent long-term consequences. Estrogen therapy is the mainstay of management. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy studies should not be used to determine the risks of treatment in these young women.

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