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Osteoporosis: HELP
Articles from Tokyo area
Based on 538 articles published since 2008

These are the 538 published articles about Osteoporosis that originated from Tokyo area during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases. 2015

Tarín, Juan J / García-Pérez, Miguel A / Hamatani, Toshio / Cano, Antonio. ·Department of Functional Biology and Physical Anthropology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, 46100, Spain. tarinjj@uv.es. · Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Valencia, Burjassot, Valencia, 46100, Spain. migarpe@uv.es. · Research Unit-INCLIVA, Hospital Clínico de Valencia, Valencia, 46010, Spain. migarpe@uv.es. · Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 160-8582, Japan. toshiohamatani@z3.keio.jp. · Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, 46010, Spain. Antonio.cano@uv.es. · Service of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Clinic Hospital, Valencia, 46010, Spain. Antonio.cano@uv.es. ·Reprod Biol Endocrinol · Pubmed #25880215.

ABSTRACT: The present review aims to ascertain whether different infertility etiologies share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies and are associated with distinct and particular risks of later-life morbidity and mortality. In order to reach this aim, we use two different sources of information: (1) a public web server named DiseaseConnect ( http://disease-connect.org ) focused on the analysis of common genes and molecular mechanisms shared by diseases by integrating comprehensive omics and literature data; and (2) a literature search directed to find clinical comorbid relationships of infertility etiologies with only those diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. This literature search is performed because DiseaseConnect web server does not discriminate between pathologies emerging before, concomitantly or after infertility is manifested. Data show that different infertility etiologies not only share particular genes and/or molecular pathways with other pathologies but they have distinct clinical relationships with other diseases appearing after infertility is manifested. In particular, (1) testicular and high-grade prostate cancer in male infertility; (2) non-fatal stroke and endometrial cancer, and likely non-fatal coronary heart disease and ovarian cancer in polycystic ovary syndrome; (3) osteoporosis, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders and dementia in premature ovarian failure; (4) breast and ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations in diminished ovarian reserve; (5) clear cell and endometrioid histologic subtypes of invasive ovarian cancer, and likely low-grade serous invasive ovarian cancer, melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in endometriosis; and (6) endometrial and ovarian cancer in idiopathic infertility. The present data endorse the principle that the occurrence of a disease (in our case infertility) is non-random in the population and suggest that different infertility etiologies are genetically and clinically linked with other diseases in single meta-diseases. This finding opens new insights for clinicians and reproductive biologists to treat infertility problems using a phenomic approach instead of considering infertility as an isolated and exclusive disease of the reproductive system/hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In agreement with a previous validation analysis of the utility of DiseaseConnect web server, the present study does not show a univocal correspondence between common gene expression and clinical comorbid relationship. Further work is needed to untangle the potential genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic relationships that may be present among different infertility etiologies, morbid conditions and physical/cognitive traits.

2 Review Management of the female athlete triad. 2018

Nose-Ogura, Sayaka / Harada, Miyuki / Hiraike, Osamu / Osuga, Yutaka / Fujii, Tomoyuki. ·Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. ·J Obstet Gynaecol Res · Pubmed #29607594.

ABSTRACT: The female athlete triad (FAT) is defined by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) as low energy availability (low EA), functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. In low EA, lutein dysfunction first develops, followed by anovulation and, subsequently, oligomenorrhea, leading to amenorrhea. Moreover, low estradiol concentrations due to amenorrhea decrease bone mineral density (BMD). In athletes with one of the factors of FAT, the risk of a stress fracture is 2.4-4.9 times higher and may increase the risk of fracture throughout the lifespan. Low EA is the starting point of FAT, and the FAT concept emphasizes the importance of energy intake that is commensurate with exercise energy expenditure in athletes. In amenorrheic athletes who undergo gynecological examination, it is important to appropriately evaluate whether the cause is low EA and to review exercise energy expenditure and energy intake. It remains difficult even for experts to calculate available energy using the ACSM definition formula when evaluating energy deficiency. Moreover, performing early FAT screening during teenage years and cooperation between the department of obstetrics and gynecology and sports dietitians are also issues. The aim of this paper is to review the management of FAT from the viewpoint of gynecologists.

3 Review [Homeostasis and Disorder of Musculoskeletal System.Pathogenesis of musculoskeletal diseases and strategies for their treatment.] 2018

Miyamoto, Takeshi. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #29512519.

ABSTRACT: Decline of homeostasis in musculoskeletal locomotive organs such as bone and muscle with age leads to age-related diseases such as osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. To date, various findings underlying the pathogenesis of these tissues were accumulated. In this review, we discuss regarding the recent advances in the findings in the treatment for osteoporosis and the strategy for muscle atrophy, and our recent findings on the mechanisms underlying these diseases.

4 Review Attempt at standardization of bone quantitative ultrasound in Japan. 2018

Otani, Takahiko / Fukunaga, Masao / Yho, Kosei / Miki, Takami / Yamazaki, Kaoru / Kishimoto, Hideaki / Matsukawa, Mami / Endoh, Nobuyuki / Hachiya, Hiroyuki / Kanai, Hiroshi / Fujiwara, Saeko / Nagai, Yoshinori. ·Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394, Japan. totani@oyoe.jp. · Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama, Japan. · Aino Hospital, Osaka, Japan. · Izumiotsu Municipal Hospital, Osaka, Japan. · Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Iwata City Hospital, Shizuoka, Japan. · Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nojima Hospital, Tottori, Japan. · Faculty of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto, 610-0394, Japan. · Department of Electric, Electronics, and Information Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kanagawa University, Kanagawa, Japan. · School of Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan. · Graduate Schools of Engineering and Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, Miyagi, Japan. · Health Management and Promotion Center, Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council, Hiroshima, Japan. · TM Clinical Support Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. ·J Med Ultrason (2001) · Pubmed #28884290.

ABSTRACT: Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. On the other hand, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) is widely used to assess bone density as part of medical screening as it is relatively inexpensive and easy to perform. Current QUS devices do not share precise ultrasound-related parameters, such as frequency, waveform, beam pattern, transient response, definition of propagation time, definition of degree of attenuation, and precise measurement site, resulting in different measurements across models. The Japan Osteoporosis Society established a QUS Standardization Committee in 2007 to investigate standardization of speed of sound (SOS) and broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA) measurements to resolve this issue. The committee came up with a formula to convert SOS and BUA values yielded by each model available in Japan. This has made it possible to convert QUS measurements from different models into standardized values, greatly improving the effectiveness of QUS measurements.

5 Review Management of Osteoporosis in Chronic Kidney Disease. 2017

Nitta, Kosaku / Yajima, Aiji / Tsuchiya, Ken. ·Department of Medicine, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan. · Department of Blood Purification, Kidney Center, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Japan. ·Intern Med · Pubmed #29021477.

ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with coexisting osteoporosis are becoming common. Many of the therapeutic agents used to treat osteoporosis are known to be affected by the renal function. It is generally thought that osteoporosis in G1 to G3 CKD patients can be treated as in non-CKD patients with osteoporosis. In stage 4 or more advanced CKD patients and CKD patients on dialysis with osteoporosis, however, bisphosphonates must be used with caution, bearing in mind the potential development of such disorders as adynamic bone disease. The use of vitamin D preparations in low doses is relatively safe. In postmenopausal women, raloxifene must be administered with caution. When using denosumab, the serum calcium concentrations should be monitored carefully to prevent the development of hypocalcemia, and active vitamin D preparations should be administered concomitantly. The present article provides an overview of the management of osteoporosis in CKD patients.

6 Review The biological and clinical advances of androgen receptor function in age-related diseases and cancer [Review]. 2017

Takayama, Ken-Ichi. ·Department of Functional Biogerontology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan. · Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, Japan. ·Endocr J · Pubmed #28824023.

ABSTRACT: Hormonal alterations with aging contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases. Androgens mediate their effects predominantly through binding to the androgen receptor (AR), a member of the ligand-dependent nuclear receptor superfamily. By androgen treatment, AR is recruited to specific genomic loci dependent on tissue specific pioneer factors to regulate target gene expression. Recent studies have revealed the epigenetic modulation by AR-associated histone modifiers and the roles of non-coding RNAs in AR signaling. Androgens are male sex hormone to induce differentiation of the male reproductive system required for the establishment of adult sexual function. As shown by several reports using AR knockout mouse models, androgens also have anabolic functions in several tissues such as bone, muscle and central nervous systems. Notably, AR has a central role in prostate cancer progression. Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy for cancer patients and decline of serum androgen with aging promote several diseases associated with aging and quality of life of older men such as osteoporosis, sarcopenia and dementia. Thus, androgen replacement therapy for treating late onset hypogonadism (LOH) or new epigenetic regulators have the potential to overcome the symptoms caused by the low androgen, although adverse effects for cardiovascular diseases have been reported. Given the increasing longevity and consequent rise of age-related diseases and prostate cancer patients, a more understanding of the AR actions in male health remains a high research priority.

7 Review [New methods for the evaluation of bone quality. How does decay bone quality?] 2017

Saito, Mitsuru / Marumo, Keishi. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #28743843.

ABSTRACT: The degree of mineralization and microstructure are regulated by bone turnover. Bone collagen enzymatic cross-links and advanced glycation end products(AGEs)are affected by various factors such as the levels of oxidative stress and glycation as well as tissue lifespan. Deterioration of bone material properties markedly advances due to increases in oxidative stress, glycation stress, reactive oxygen species, carbonyl stress associated with aging and reduced sex hormone levels, and glucocorticoid use. In this review, we described determinants of bone quality and strength.

8 Review [Aging and homeostasis. Aging of skeletal muscle.] 2017

Suzuki, Ruriko / Tamura, Yoshifumi. ·Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Metabolism & Endocrinology, Sportology Center, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine/Department of Global Health Service, Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #28649097.

ABSTRACT: With aging, insulin resistance and sarcopenia in skeletal muscle are induced, resulting in skeletal muscle aging. It is suggested that the former is one of the reasons that mitochondrial function decreases with aging, and the latter is due to endocrinologic dysfunction, neurological mechanism, nutritional deficiency and inactivity such as waste are complicatedly involved. Also, as sarcopenia progresses, the amount of physical activity further decreases, and it is also assumed that insulin resistance and sarcopenia progress synergistically. It is suggested that exercise enhances the activity and amount of mitochondria and works preventively against insulin resistance in skeletal muscle accompanying aging and it also works for prevention and amelioration of sarcopenia. On the other hand, as for nutritional supplementation, it has been reported that it works for improving sarcopenia by amino acid ingestion.

9 Review [Aging and homeostasis. Aging of bone.] 2017

Mori, Seijiro. ·Center for the Promotion of Clinical Investigation, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #28649096.

ABSTRACT: Quantitative as well as qualitative bone loss occurs with aging in both men and women, leading to alterations in skeletal microarchitecture and increased fracture incidence. Sex steroids, primarily estrogen and testosterone, have been shown to play a central role in the aging process of bone. The relationship between diminishing estrogen levels in women caused by ovarian failure and the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis is widely recognized. Unexpectedly, bone mineral density at various skeletal sites in men is also better correlated with circulating levels of bioavailable estrogen than with testosterone. Recently, it is also suggested that senescent osteocytes and their senescence-associated secretory phenotype may contribute to age-related bone loss. Osteoporosis should be considered as a disease developing on the basis of the natural aging process which is modified to some degree by various genetic and environmental factors.

10 Review Hydroxyapatite as a Nanomaterial for Advanced Tissue Engineering and Drug Therapy. 2017

Tuukkanen, Juha / Nakamura, Miho. ·Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Institute of Cancer and Translational Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, P.O. Box: 90014, Oulu. Finland. · Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo. Japan. ·Curr Pharm Des · Pubmed #28619003.

ABSTRACT: Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a complicated ceramic material that varies between the way it appears in biological systems and how it is synthesized as various calcium phosphates. HAp varies in chemical composition of substituting atoms, crystallinity, grain size and electrical polarization. HAp can form solid to macro-, micro- and nanoporous structures. Also, particulate HAp can have highly porous structure. HAp can be used as coatings for metal implants in thicknesses from hundreds of microns down to hundreds of nanometers. Cotton wool-like HAp fibers can be electrospun compounded with polymers (or without) for tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds. This review describes the features of HAp that may be utilized further in developing novel applications. As a nanomaterial HAp has been applied for drug delivery. The adsorption of proteins and other compounds can be adjusted by modifying HAp composition, electrical polarization and wettability. Of special interest are the bisphosphonates that bind to HAp and thereby can be used to treat bone loss and also couple other drugs to the mineral. A new area for HAp constructs may appear in treating metallosis. HAp coating may function as a scavenger for the ions release from metal implants and thereby inhibit the adverse effects of the ion burden for the body. So far HAp is considered as safe biomaterial but nano HAp may insidiously possess adverse effects especially when ingested by cells and eliciting excess intracellular calcium. Thereby critical approach also for HAp biomaterials is of utmost importance.

11 Review Netrins as prophylactic targets in skeletal diseases: A double-edged sword? 2017

Maruyama, Kenta / Takemura, Naoki / Martino, Mikaël M / Kondo, Takeshi / Akira, Shizuo. ·Laboratory of Host Defense Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan, Japan; WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan; Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. Electronic address: maruyama@biken.osaka-u.ac.jp. · Department of Mucosal Immunology, School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan; Division of Innate Immune Regulation, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 108-8639, Japan. · European Molecular Biology Laboratory Australia, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University, Victoria, 3800, Australia. · Laboratory of Host Defense Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan, Japan; WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. · Laboratory of Host Defense Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan, Japan; WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center (IFReC), 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan; Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan. ·Pharmacol Res · Pubmed #28576474.

ABSTRACT: The netrin family of proteins are involved in axon guidance during central nervous system development. In vertebrates, two membrane bound forms and five secreted forms of netrin have been reported. In addition to their critical role in neural morphogenesis, a growing number of reports suggest that netrin family proteins also play a role in inflammatory conditions, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. In these processes, Unc5 and DCC family proteins serve as receptors of netrin proteins. Recently, it was reported that some netrin family proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of skeletal diseases including osteoporosis and arthritis. For example, administration of secreted netrin family proteins such as netrin 1 and netrin 4 has prophylactic potential in pathogenic bone degradation in mice. However, netrin 1 blocking antibody also protects mice from inflammatory bone destruction. Therefore, netrin family proteins are involved in the regulation of bone homeostasis, but their bona fide roles in the skeletal system remain controversial. In this review, we discuss the osteo-innate-immune functions of the netrin family of proteins, and summarize their therapeutic potential.

12 Review Growth Hormone Treatment and Adverse Events. 2017

Nishi, Yoshikazu / Tanaka, Toshiaki. ·Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital. · Tanaka Growth Clinic, Tokyo, Japan. ·Pediatr Endocrinol Rev · Pubmed #28516752.

ABSTRACT: We compiled the major adverse events included in the Annual Research Reports of the Foundation for Growth Research published in and after 2000. We conducted a review of approximately 32,000 patients treated with growth hormone (GH) who subsequently developed leukemia and who were registered with the Foundation for Growth Research (from 1975 to December 31 1997). We performed a literature review and found that GH therapy was not associated with leukemia onset in patients with no risk factors for leukemia. We also reported the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM), scoliosis, and respiratory problems in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome who were treated with GH. Osteoporosis, Hashimoto thyroiditis, and hyperlipemia were relatively frequent complications of Turner syndrome (TS).

13 Review On the Emerging Role of the Taste Receptor Type 1 (T1R) Family of Nutrient-Sensors in the Musculoskeletal System. 2017

Kokabu, Shoichiro / Lowery, Jonathan W / Toyono, Takashi / Sato, Tsuyoshi / Yoda, Tetsuya. ·Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan. r14kokabu@kyu-dent.ac.jp. · Division of Molecular Signaling and Biochemistry, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan. r14kokabu@kyu-dent.ac.jp. · Division of Biomedical Science, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 3200 Cold Spring Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46222, USA. jlowery@marian.edu. · Bone & Mineral Research Group, Marian University College of Osteopathic Medicine, 3200 Cold Spring Rd., Indianapolis, IN 46222, USA. jlowery@marian.edu. · Division of Anatomy, Department of Health Promotion, Kyushu Dental University, Kokurakita-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 803-8580, Japan. toyono@kyu-dent.ac.jp. · Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan. tsato@saitama-med.ac.jp. · Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan. yoda@saitama-med.ac.jp. ·Molecules · Pubmed #28294983.

ABSTRACT: The special sense of taste guides and guards food intake and is essential for body maintenance. Salty and sour tastes are sensed via ion channels or gated ion channels while G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the taste receptor type 1 (T1R) family sense sweet and umami tastes and GPCRs of the taste receptor type 2 (T2R) family sense bitter tastes. T1R and T2R receptors share similar downstream signaling pathways that result in the stimulation of phospholipase-C-β2. The T1R family includes three members that form heterodimeric complexes to recognize either amino acids or sweet molecules such as glucose. Although these functions were originally described in gustatory tissue, T1R family members are expressed in numerous non-gustatory tissues and are now viewed as nutrient sensors that play important roles in monitoring global glucose and amino acid status. Here, we highlight emerging evidence detailing the function of T1R family members in the musculoskeletal system and review these findings in the context of the musculoskeletal diseases sarcopenia and osteoporosis, which are major public health problems among the elderly that affect locomotion, activities of daily living, and quality of life. These studies raise the possibility that T1R family member function may be modulated for therapeutic benefit.

14 Review [Innovation of bisphosphonates for improvement of adherence.] 2017

Takeuchi, Yasuhiro. ·Endocrine Center, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #28123121.

ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are standard medicine for treatment of osteoporosis, and have been inovated to overcome complicated rules for their appropriate administration or their poor intestinal absorption. Not only weekly but also monthly oral bisphosphonates have been available. Furthermore, we are now allowed to choose intravenous administration of bisphosphonates for osteorporosis. Good persistance and adherence is another critical and essential issue to be solved to achive the aim of osteoprosis treatment with bisphosphonates. Variable formulations of bisphosphonate are now able to bring patients closer to a goal of reduction in fragile fracture due to osteoporosis.

15 Review [A role of exercise and sports in the prevention of osteoporosis.] 2017

Iwamoto, Jun. ·Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #28017941.

ABSTRACT: Physical activity plays an important role in maintaining or enhancing bone health. Jumping exercise increases bone mineral content(BMC)in prepubescent children(premenarcheal girls). Bone mineral density(BMD)is higher in adolescent athletes who are engaged in weight-bearing activities. Jumping exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises increase BMD in young adults and premenopausal women. Walking, aerobic weight-bearing exercise, muscle strengthening exercise, and weight-bearing plus muscle strengthening exercises maintain or increase BMD in postmenopausal women. Proper exercise and sports activity at each life stage are important strategies for preventing osteoporosis.

16 Review [Steroids-induced osteoporosis due to the treatment for Pulmonary diseases.] 2016

Horita, Nobuyuki / Kaneko, Takeshi. ·Department of Pulmonology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666694.

ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids are key medications to treat pulmonary diseases. A variety of medications, doses, administration route, and duration of corticosteroids were chosen for each of pulmonary diseases. Although corticosteroids are potent medications, they often cause serious adverse effects such as osteoporosis, diabetes, and immunosuppression. Thus, physicians have to properly assess the risk of adverse effects to prevent them. In this review, we discuss the risk of osteoporosis by corticosteroids that are prescribed for pulmonary diseases. Inhaled corticosteroids are not serious risk factors of osteoporosis. If systemic corticosteroids are planned to be administrated in the prednisolone equivalent dosage of 5 mg/day or more for three months or longer, risk of bone fracture have to be assessed regardless of the primary pulmonary disease. If necessary, prophylactic agent such as bisphosphonates should be prescript.

17 Review [Bone quality in COPD.] 2016

Saito, Mitsuru / Marumo, Keishi. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666691.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with an increase of fracture risk. Bone strength is determined by bone mass and quality.Bone quality is thought to encompass the structural and material properties of bone. Bone collagen crosslinking plays important roles in bone strength. The quantitative and qualitative deterioration of lysyl oxidase control and non enzymatic cross-links(advanced glycation end products, AGEs, pentosidine)of collagen in patients with osteoporotic femoral neck fracture and diabetes, and COPD might be affected by increased oxidative stress and glycation.

18 Review [Hypoxemia and Osteoporosis-Possible roles of HIF1α on Respiratory disease-related Osteoporosis-.] 2016

Miyamoto, Takeshi. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgey, Keio University School of Medice, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666690.

ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by increased risks for bone fragility fractures, and is caused by various factors such as aging and menopause. Increase in the number of osteoporosis patients becomes a big concern in the developed countries. Recently, the mechanisms underlying postmenopausal osteoporosis development were being clarified, and several diseases such as respiratory diseases and diabetes were reportedly caused secondary osteoporosis. HIF1α was demonstrated required for osteoclast activation and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis women. However, the roles of HIF1α on respiratory disease-related osteoporosis development remained to be elucidated.

19 Review [Semaphorin and osteoporosis.] 2016

Hayashi, Mikihito / Nakashima, Tomoki. ·Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Japan. · Department of Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University,AMED-CREST, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology(PRESTO), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666689.

ABSTRACT: Although Semaphorins were originally identified as neuronal axon guidance molecules, recent research has revealed the functions of Semaphorins in many organs, tissues and cells. Among Semaphorin family members, Semaphorin 3A(Sema3A)and Sema4D are highly expressed in bone cells and play critical roles in the regulation of bone homeostasis. Other semaphorins and their receptors are also shown to be involved in bone metabolism. In contrast, the function of Semaphorins expressed in lung is not well understood althogh many of Semaphorins are highly expressed in lung among various tissues examined. As growing evidence reveals that the link between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and osteoporosis, the crosstalk between bone and lung through Semaphorin signaling should be investigated.

20 Review [Bone turnover and bone structure in clinical animal models of COPD.] 2016

Sasaki, Mamoru / Chubachi, Shotaro. ·Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University, School of Medicine, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666688.

ABSTRACT: The features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)are chronic inflammatory and emphysema changes in the lungs by long-term cigarette smoke(CS)exposure. Osteoporosis is an important systemic comorbidity of COPD. Severe emphysema and low body mass index(BMI)are independent risk factors for low bone mineral density in COPD patients. However the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying emphysema and osteoporosis have not been fully elucidated. An established mouse model of CS-induced emphysema with decrease body weight and bone mineral density is important for investigating the cause of osteoporosis in COPD patients.

21 Review [Sarcopenia and osteoporosis in pulmonary disease.] 2016

Ogawa, Sumito. ·Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666687.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)is a progressive lung disease and its prevalence increases with age. Elderly patients with COPD are known to be at increased risk of sarcopenia and osteoporosis, and this multimorbidity adversely affects progression and prognosis of COPD in parallel. Systemic inflammatory processes and serum biomarkers including cytokines and C-reactive protein might be involved in the underlying pathphyisoplogy for systemic manifestations and multimorbidity of respiratory diseases. In this review, recent insights in the association between respiratory diseases and sarcopenia are introduced, based on the pathophysiology and therapeutic implication of systemic inflammation and age-related muscle wasting.

22 Review [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS)and bone.] 2016

Inoue, Daisuke. ·Third Department of Medicine, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27666686.

ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS)is a sleep disorder characterized by repetitive upper airway collapse during sleep, causing frequent hypoxia and sleep disturbance. Known risk factors of OSAS include obesity, male sex and smoking. OSAS has been linked to various comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Recent evidence also indicates that OSAS is associated with vitamin D insufficiency, increased bone resorption and bone loss. Thus, although increased fracture rate has not been demonstrated, OSAS is now recognized as a risk factor of osteoporosis. This review will summarize the recent reports about bone metabolic abnormalities in OSAS.

23 Review [Age-related changes in androgen and bone metabolism]. 2016

Ogawa, Sumito / Akishita, Masahiro. ·Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27346308.

ABSTRACT: Decline of androgen level is involved in symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism in aging male, and recent findings suggest that it is also associated with osteoporosis, sarcopenia. Diagnosis and therapeutic intervention against osteoporosis in men is important for preventing from subsequent disability and frailty in elderly population.

24 Review [Mechanism of bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis and perspectives of the treatment]. 2016

Koyama, Takuma / Tanaka, Sakae. ·Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Japan. ·Clin Calcium · Pubmed #27117620.

ABSTRACT: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune diseases characterized by inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. Osteoclastogenesis induced by inflammatory cytokines contributes to focal and systemic bone and cartilage destruction including secondary osteoporosis. Recent progress in treatment enables us to prevent disease activity. Not only anti-inflammatory management but also therapies directly targeting bone metabolism can further prevent bone destruction in RA.

25 Review COPD and osteoporosis: links, risks, and treatment challenges. 2016

Inoue, Daisuke / Watanabe, Reiko / Okazaki, Ryo. ·Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Third Department of Medicine, Teikyo University Chiba Medical Center, Ichihara, Chiba, Japan. ·Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis · Pubmed #27099481.

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and its related fractures are common and have significant impacts on quality of life and even respiratory function in patients with COPD. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality contribute to bone fragility, causing fractures in COPD patients. Various clinical risk factors of osteoporosis in COPD patients, including older age, emaciation, physical inactivity, and vitamin D deficiency, have also been described. It is critically important for pulmonologists to be aware of the high prevalence of osteoporosis in COPD patients and evaluate them for such fracture risks. Routine screening for osteoporosis will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage and give them appropriate treatment to prevent fracture, which may lead to improved quality of life as well as better long-term prognosis.