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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles by Myung Sik Lee
Based on 17 articles published since 2008
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Between 2008 and 2019, Myung-Sik Lee wrote the following 17 articles about Parkinson Disease.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson's disease: Pathophysiological correlates and role in motor control deficits. 2018

Lee, Myung Sik / Lee, Myung Jun / Conte, Antonella / Berardelli, Alfredo. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslee@yuhs.ac. · Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslayer9@gmail.com. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: antonella.conte@uniroma1.it. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: alfredo.berardelli@uniroma1.it. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #29304419.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017. RESULTS: Abnormal STDT in PD correlates with disease duration, disease severity and degree of nigrostriatal dopamine loss, and responds to dopaminergic medication. In PD, a prolonged STDT does not correlate, or only marginally correlates, with clinically assessed bradykinesia of finger tapping. By contrast, a prolonged STDT correlates with the variability in amplitude and speed of finger tapping as assessed by means of neurophysiological techniques and may contribute to impaired finger dexterity in PD. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that abnormal temporal processing of sensory information in PD generates incorrect signals for the execution and control of voluntary movements. SIGNIFICANCE: This review sheds light on unsolved questions regarding the relationship between STDT alterations and motor disturbances in PD and proposes directions for future research on this topic.

2 Article Parkinsonian Patients with Striatal Cribriform State Present Rapidly Progressive Axial Parkinsonism. 2017

Lee, Seung Ha / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Cho, Hanna / Rinne, Juha O / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. ·Eur Neurol · Pubmed #28746923.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To define the significance of striatal cribriform state (SCS) observed in patients with primary progressive parkinsonism. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and brain magnetic resonance imaging studies of 1,260 patients with primary progressive parkinsonism. We identified 23 patients with SCS and analyzed their clinical features. RESULTS: All 23 patients had rapidly progressive parkinsonism predominated by postural instability and gait disturbance. Clinical features of 18 of the 23 patients were compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP); 2 patients were compatible with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy; 2 patients were compatible with mixed clinical features of both; and 1 patient had PSP-like clinical features. CONCLUSIONS: Most parkinsonian patients with SCS present rapidly progressive parkinsonism predominated by postural instability and gait disturbance. SCS observed in patients with parkinsonism does not seem to be a coincidental finding associated with the generalized cerebrovascular process.

3 Article Subcortical 2017

Cho, Hanna / Choi, Jae Yong / Hwang, Mi Song / Lee, Seung Ha / Ryu, Young Hoon / Lee, Myung Sik / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #27813160.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Accumulation of cortical and subcortical tau pathology is the primary pathological substrate for progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to investigate cortical and subcortical METHODS: We recruited 14 PSP patients and compared their cortical and subcortical binding patterns in RESULTS: In both the PD and PSP groups, subcortical CONCLUSIONS: The PSP and PD patients showed distinct subcortical

4 Article Feasibility of Computed Tomography-Guided Methods for Spatial Normalization of Dopamine Transporter Positron Emission Tomography Image. 2015

Kim, Jin Su / Cho, Hanna / Choi, Jae Yong / Lee, Seung Ha / Ryu, Young Hoon / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Molecular Imaging Research Center, Korea Institute Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #26147749.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Spatial normalization is a prerequisite step for analyzing positron emission tomography (PET) images both by using volume-of-interest (VOI) template and voxel-based analysis. Magnetic resonance (MR) or ligand-specific PET templates are currently used for spatial normalization of PET images. We used computed tomography (CT) images acquired with PET/CT scanner for the spatial normalization for [18F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-betacarboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) PET images and compared target-to-cerebellar standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) values with those obtained from MR- or PET-guided spatial normalization method in healthy controls and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We included 71 healthy controls and 56 patients with PD who underwent [18F]-FP-CIT PET scans with a PET/CT scanner and T1-weighted MR scans. Spatial normalization of MR images was done with a conventional spatial normalization tool (cvMR) and with DARTEL toolbox (dtMR) in statistical parametric mapping software. The CT images were modified in two ways, skull-stripping (ssCT) and intensity transformation (itCT). We normalized PET images with cvMR-, dtMR-, ssCT-, itCT-, and PET-guided methods by using specific templates for each modality and measured striatal SUVR with a VOI template. The SUVR values measured with FreeSurfer-generated VOIs (FSVOI) overlaid on original PET images were also used as a gold standard for comparison. RESULTS: The SUVR values derived from all four structure-guided spatial normalization methods were highly correlated with those measured with FSVOI (P < 0.0001). Putaminal SUVR values were highly effective for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, the PET-guided method excessively overestimated striatal SUVR values in the PD patients by more than 30% in caudate and putamen, and thereby spoiled the linearity between the striatal SUVR values in all subjects and showed lower disease discrimination ability. Two CT-guided methods showed comparable capability with the MR-guided methods in separating PD patients from controls and showed better correlation between putaminal SUVR values and the parkinsonian motor severity than the PET-guided method. CONCLUSION: CT-guided spatial normalization methods provided reliable striatal SUVR values comparable to those obtained with MR-guided methods. CT-guided methods can be useful for analyzing dopamine transporter PET images when MR images are unavailable.

5 Article Impact of regional striatal dopaminergic function on kinematic parameters of Parkinson's disease. 2015

Lee, Myung Jun / Kim, Sha-Lom / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Rinne, J O / Lee, Myung-Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Busan, Republic of Korea. ·J Neural Transm (Vienna) · Pubmed #25145816.

ABSTRACT: Among the cardinal parkinsonian motor deficits, the severity of bradykinesia correlates with striatal dopamine loss. However, the impact of regional striatal dopamine loss on specific components of bradykinesia remains unknown. Using gyroscopes, we measured the amplitude, speed, and frequency of finger tapping in 24 untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 28 healthy controls. Using positron emission tomography (PET) studies and [(18)F]-N-3-fluoropropyl-2-beta-carboxymethoxy-3-beta-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT) in PD patients, we investigated the relationship between the mean values, variability and decrements of various kinematic parameters of finger tapping on one side (e.g. the mean, variability and decrement) and contralateral striatal FP-CIT binding. Compared with controls, PD patients had reduced amplitudes and speeds of tapping and showed greater decrement in those parameters. PD patients also exhibited greater irregularity in amplitude, speed, and frequency. Putaminal FP-CIT uptake levels correlated with the mean speed and amplitude, and caudate uptake levels correlated with mean amplitude. The variability of amplitude and speed correlated only with the caudate uptake levels. Neither caudate nor putaminal uptake correlated with frequency-related parameters or decrement in amplitude or speed. Reduced amplitude and speed of repetitive movement may be related to striatal dopaminergic deficit. Dopaminergic action in the caudate nucleus is required to maintain consistency of amplitude and speed. Although decrement of amplitude and speed is known to be specific for PD, we found that it did not mirror the degree of striatal dopamine depletion.

6 Article Kinematic analysis in patients with Parkinson's disease and SWEDD. 2014

Lee, Myung Jun / Kim, Sha Lom / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·J Parkinsons Dis · Pubmed #24625831.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The differential diagnosis between mild Parkinson's disease (PD) and Scan Without Evidence of Dopaminergic Deficit(SWEDD) is challenging. Progressive reduction in amplitude and speed of finger tapping (sequence effect) has been considered as the most useful sign for discriminating PD from SWEDD. However, a video analysis reported that sequence effect is a major confounding factor for the misdiagnosis of PD. Our objective was to perform a kinematic analysis of finger tapping to explore parameters for distinguishing between patients with PD and SWEDD. METHODS: We enrolled 14 patients with PD, 17 patients with SWEDD and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Amplitude, speed and frequency of finger tapping were measured using gyroscopes, and the means, decrement and variability in kinematic parameters for specific tapping duration were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to SWEDD group, PD group showed more decrement in amplitude and speed of the first 20 taps, more decrement in frequency after 20 taps and more variability in speed of 15 seconds of taps. However, none of parameters was a practically useful indicator distinguishing individual patients with PD from those with SWEDD. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of finger tapping, even using an apparatus, is not useful for distinguishing mild PD and SWEDD.

7 Article Association of mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene with Parkinson disease in a Korean population. 2012

Choi, Jung Mi / Kim, Won Chan / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Kang, Suk Yun / Lee, Phil Hyu / Baik, Jong Sam / Koh, Seong-Beom / Ma, Hyeo-Il / Sohn, Young Ho / Lee, Myung Sik / Kim, Yun Joong. ·Ilsong Institute of Life Science, Hallym University, Anyang, Republic of Korea. ·Neurosci Lett · Pubmed #22387070.

ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown an association between Parkinson disease (PD) and mutations in the gene encoding the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA), which is deficient in patients with Gaucher disease. In Asian populations, 2 mutational analysis studies have been performed in all exons of GBA; one study in a Japanese population showed the highest odds ratio among all ethnic groups, whereas the other study in ethnic Chinese observed a trend of a higher frequency of GBA mutation in PD patients without statistical significance. To investigate whether there is an association between PD and mutations of GBA in a Korean population, we analyzed mutations of GBA and compared mutation frequencies between Korean PD patients and a control population. We analyzed mutations in GBA by sequencing exons of GBA in 277 Korean PD patients and 291 control subjects. All exons of GBA were sequenced in all PD cases and 100 control subjects. Exon 2 and exons 5-11, where mutations of GBA were found in our PD patients, were analyzed in an additional 191 control subjects. Five different pathogenic heterozygous GBA mutations, including N188S, P201H, R257Q, S271G, and L444P, were identified in 9 PD cases (3.2%), whereas there were no GBA mutations found in control subjects (p<0.01, OR 20.6, 95% CI 1.2-356.4). The mean age-at-onset of heterozygous GBA variants carriers was younger than that of non-carriers (48.6±11.9 versus 57.9±13.5, p<0.05, Mann-Whitney test). Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations of GBA represent a risk factor for PD in Koreans.

8 Article Mesencephalic midline change on transcranial sonography in early Parkinson's disease patients with depression. 2011

Cho, Jung Woo / Baik, Jong Sam / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #21862038.

ABSTRACT: Recently, several studies using transcranial sonography (TCS) have resulted in the alteration of the mesencephalic midline in patients with depression. We aimed to investigate and compare sonographic abnormalities in the brainstem raphe (BR) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls, according to presence of depression. Study participants totaled 61 patients with PD (29 PD without depression, 32 PD with depression) and 41 controls. Results indicated that decreased BR echogenicity was much higher in PD patients with depression (PD+D) than in those without depression (PD-D). Of the 61 PD patients, 32 (52.4%) had depression as diagnosed by psychiatric assessment, and 13 (17.6%) were excluded, due to insufficient temporal windows. Based on these results, the use of TCS with respect to the mesencephalic midline may be useful in detecting depression, a risk factor for the development of PD.

9 Article Cerebral cortical areas in which thickness correlates with severity of motor deficits of Parkinson's disease. 2011

Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Ryu, Young Hoon / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 712 Eonjuro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, South Korea. lyoochel@yuhs.ac ·J Neurol · Pubmed #21512741.

ABSTRACT: The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, but also involves widespread cerebral cortical areas. Such non-nigrostriatal lesions may contribute to disabling dopa-resistant parkinsonian motor deficits. We performed cortical thickness analysis to identify cerebral cortical brain areas in which thickness correlates with the severity of parkinsonian motor deficits. We performed T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging studies in 142 PD patients. Motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were measured, and subscores were calculated for bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and axial motor deficits. Using FreeSurfer software, we studied cortical areas in which thickness correlates with disease duration or the severity of parkinsonian motor deficits. The cortical thickness of the parieto-temporal association cortex, including the inferior parietal and posterior parietal cortices, showed a negative correlation with disease duration, total UPDRS motor score, and UPDRS subscores for bradykinesia and axial motor deficits. We found no cortical areas in which thickness correlated with subscores for tremor and rigidity. In addition to nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit, progressive thinning of the parieto-temporal sensory association cortices related to disease duration seems to be related in part to the exacerbation of bradykinesia and the axial motor symptoms of PD.

10 Article Sonographic abnormalities in idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and RLS in Parkinson's disease. 2011

Ryu, Jung Ho / Lee, Myung Sik / Baik, Jong Sam. ·Department of Neurology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, 761-1, Sanggye 7 dong, No won gu, Seoul 139-707, Republic of Korea. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #21183393.

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate and compare sonographic abnormalities in the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (iRLS), those with RLS and Parkinson's disease (RLS-PD), those with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD), and healthy controls. Study participants totaled 60 patients with RLS (41 iRLS, 19 RLS-PD), 25 iPD patients, and 35 age-matched healthy controls. Comparing all groups, the SN region's echogenicity area in the iRLS patients was significantly decreased compared with that in the PD-RLS, iPD, and control groups (p < 0.0001), and the PD-RLS group demonstrated a significantly increased echogenicity area compared with the control group (p < 0.05) and iRLS group (p < 0.0001). We found that the RLS-PD group's sonological results and clinical findings were different from those of the iRLS group.

11 Article Impaired finger dexterity in patients with parkinson's disease correlates with discriminative cutaneous sensory dysfunction. 2010

Lee, Myung Sik / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Lee, Myung Jun / Sim, Jaeeun / Cho, Hanna / Choi, Yun Ho. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. mslee@yuhs.ac ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #20721911.

ABSTRACT: To study the influence of discriminative cutaneous sensory dysfunction on impaired finger dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD), we evaluated 48 right-handed PD patients during a practically defined off-medication period and 24 healthy age-matched controls. With visual deprivation, a finger tapping task (FTT) was performed to assess the speed of simple repetitive finger movements and a coin rotation task (CRT) was used to assess finger dexterity. The tasks were performed with the right hand. We measured the somesthetic temporal discrimination threshold (sTDT) in the right index finger. The mean ± SD FTT score of the patient group was lower than that of the control group (24.0 ± 8.0 vs. 29.8 ± 7.8; P < 0.01). The patient group performed worse on the CRT than the control group (8.5 ± 3.5 vs. 12.6 ± 1.7; P < 0.001). The mean sTDT value of the patient group was longer than that of the control group (124.0 ± 44.8 vs. 78.1 ± 26.2 ms; P < 0.001). The CRT scores correlated with the sTDT values (Pearson's correlation coefficient = -0.43; P < 0.01), but not with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) finger bradykinesia scores or FTT scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that the sTDT values (parameter estimate = -0.03, SE = 0.01; P < 0.01), but not patient age, UPDRS finger bradykinesia score, or FTT score, affected the CRT score. Slowness of simple repetitive finger movements did not have a strong impact on the impaired manual dexterity of PD. Discriminative sensory dysfunction and consequent abnormal sensorimotor integration seem to be involved in the impaired finger dexterity of PD.

12 Article Cerebral glucose metabolism of Parkinson's disease patients with mild cognitive impairment. 2010

Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Jeong, Yong / Ryu, Young Hoon / Rinne, Juha O / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·Eur Neurol · Pubmed #20606450.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Half of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) develop dementia. We studied topographic distribution of cerebral hypometabolism in PD with different types of MCI. METHODS: This study included 61 nondemented PD patients and 14 age-matched controls. PD patients were grouped into normal cognition (PD-NC, n = 20), single amnestic (PD-SA, n = 12), single nonamnestic (PD-SN, n = 11), and multidomain MCI (PD-MD, n = 18). Using [(18)F]-fluorodeoxy-glucose PET, cerebral glucose metabolism of MCI groups was compared with that of controls and the PD-NC group. RESULTS: In comparison with controls, PD-NC and PD-SA groups showed no hypometabolic brain areas. However, the PD-SN group showed hypometabolism in parieto-temporo-occipital cortices. The PD-MD group showed widespread hypometabolism that predominantly involved parieto-occipital cortices. In comparison with the PD-NC group, only the PD-MD group showed hypometabolism in lateral frontal, cingulate, and parieto-temporo-occipital cortices. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of hypometabolic brain areas of the PD-MD group suggests that PD-MD seems to be caused by a common pathology with PD dementia. PD-SA and PD-SN seem to be caused by very mild or topographically heterogeneous cerebral dysfunction. Longitudinal clinical and neuroimaging studies are needed to define whether PD patients with single domain MCI progress to PD-MD and finally to dementia.

13 Article Topographical distribution of cerebral cortical thinning in patients with mild Parkinson's disease without dementia. 2010

Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Ryu, Young Hoon / Lee, Myung Sik. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #20108369.

ABSTRACT: The pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is not confined to the brainstem regions, but spreads to involve the neocortical areas. Using surface-based cortical thickness analysis, we studied the topographical distribution of cortical thinning in nondemented patients with mild PD. The high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies were performed in 48 patients with PD without dementia and 56 age-matched healthy controls. Using the Freesurfer software, surface-based analysis was done to find changes in cerebral cortical thickness in patients with PD. Compared to the controls, patients with PD showed significant cortical thinning in the temporal, inferior parietal, rostral frontal, and orbitofrontal cortical areas. Thinning of the cerebral cortex occurs even in nondemented patients with mild PD, and its topographical distribution was similar to that of the neocortical Lewy bodies. Further studies are needed to find pathological and clinical correlates of thinned cerebral cortex found in nondemented patients with mild PD.

14 Article Analysis of PARK genes in a Korean cohort of early-onset Parkinson disease. 2008

Choi, Jung Mi / Woo, Myoung Soo / Ma, Hyeo-Il / Kang, Suk Yun / Sung, Young-Hee / Yong, Seok Woo / Chung, Sun Ju / Kim, Joong-Seok / Shin, Hae-won / Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Lee, Phil Hyu / Baik, Jong Sam / Kim, Sang-Jin / Park, Mee Young / Sohn, Young Ho / Kim, Jin-Ho / Kim, Jae Woo / Lee, Myung Sik / Lee, Myoung Chong / Kim, Dong-Hyun / Kim, Yun Joong. ·Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, ILSONG Institute of Life Science, Hallym University, Dongan-gu, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Korea. ·Neurogenetics · Pubmed #18704525.

ABSTRACT: Mutations in five PARK genes (SNCA, PARKIN, DJ-1, PINK1, and LRRK2) are well-established genetic causes of Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, G2385R substitution in LRRK2 has been determined as a susceptibility allele in Asian PD. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of mutations in these PARK genes in a Korean early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) cohort. The authors sequenced 35 exons in SNCA, PARKIN, DJ-1, PINK1, and LRRK2 in 72 unrelated EOPD (age-at-onset We identified genetic variants in PARKIN, PINK1, LRRK2, and SNCA as a cause or genetic risk factors for PD in 25% of Korean EOPD, and mutation of PARKIN was the most common genetic cause.

15 Article Loss of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus in Parkinson's disease is related to disability of the patients. 2008

Rinne, Juha O / Ma, Shuang Yong / Lee, Myung Sik / Collan, Yrjö / Röyttä, Matias. ·Department of Neurology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland.Turku, Finland. juha.rinne@tyks.fi ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #18329941.

ABSTRACT: We investigated neuronal number and size in the pars compacta of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) in Parkinson's disease (PD). In PD, the number of Luxol fast blue (LFB) neurons was reduced by 27% from the mean control value (p=0.04) and the cholinergic (choline acetyltransferase, ChAT-positive) neuron number was reduced by 36% (p=0.03). In addition to neuronal loss, the remaining neurons in the PPN in PD were smaller than in controls. The profile area of LFB neurons was reduced by 14% (p=0.009) and that of ChAT-positive neurons by 26% (p=0.001). There was more severe loss of ChAT-positive neurons with a more severe stage of the disease, evaluated by the modified Hoehn and Yahr scale (r=-0.66, p=0.03). The neuron number decreased much more than could be expected on the basis of decrease in cell size alone.

16 Minor Rhabdomyolysis induced by severe levodopa induced dyskinesia in a patient with Parkinson's disease. 2011

Lyoo, Chul Hyoung / Lee, Myung Sik. · ·J Neurol · Pubmed #21499722.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

17 Minor Functional peak dose dyskinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease. 2009

Baik, Jong Sam / Lyoo, Chul H / Lee, Jae H / Chung, Sun J / Lee, Myung Sik. · ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #19084463.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --