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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles by Stephen G. Reich
Based on 19 articles published since 2010
(Why 19 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, S. G. Reich wrote the following 19 articles about Parkinson Disease.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Editorial Group visits for Parkinson disease: "the doctor will see all of you now". 2011

Reich, Stephen G / Weiner, William J. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #21525428.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Review Does This Patient Have Parkinson Disease or Essential Tremor? 2020

Reich, Stephen G. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address: sreich@som.umaryland.edu. ·Clin Geriatr Med · Pubmed #31733699.

ABSTRACT: In the elderly patient with tremor, the differential diagnosis is usually between essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson disease (PD). A careful history and examination are the keys to the diagnosis. Essential tremor is a bilateral action tremor of the upper limbs whereas PD begins unilaterally and is a rest tremor. A handwriting sample can usually distinguish PD from ET as the former is small (micrographic) but atremulous whereas writing in ET is tremulous but normal sized. In ET, there are no signs aside from tremor but in PD, the tremor is accompanied by bradykinesia and rigidity.

3 Review Essential Tremor. 2019

Reich, Stephen G. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address: sreich@som.umaryland.edu. ·Med Clin North Am · Pubmed #30704686.

ABSTRACT: Essential tremor is one of the most common movement disorders. It is characterized by a bilateral action tremor of the upper limbs. It may be accompanied by tremor of the head, voice, or lower limbs. Essential tremor is often present for years or decades before presentation and it progresses insidiously. It is often familial and transiently responsive to alcohol. For patients requiring treatment, the two first-line medications are propranolol and primidone, which are synergistic. Patients with disabling essential tremor that cannot be managed medically are candidates for either deep brain stimulation or focused ultrasound.

4 Review Parkinson's Disease. 2019

Reich, Stephen G / Savitt, Joseph M. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Electronic address: sreich@som.umaryland.edu. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. ·Med Clin North Am · Pubmed #30704685.

ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) is based on the presence of bradykinesia and either resting tremor or rigidity and there should be no features from the history or examination to suggest an alternative cause of parkinsonism. In addition to the motor manifestations of PD, there is a long list of nonmotor symptoms, several of which occur before motor signs and are considered "prodromal" PD. These are classified as neuropsychiatric, autonomic, sleep, and sensory. There are many medical options for the treatment of PD but levodopa remains the mainstay. Deep brain stimulation and other advanced therapies are also available.

5 Review Co-existence of Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy: case report and a review of the literature. 2011

Abhinav, Kumar / Marsh, Laura / Crain, Barbara / Reich, Stephen G / Biglan, Kevin. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Frenchay Hospital, Bristol, UK. kumar.abhinav@doctors.org.uk ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #20737180.

ABSTRACT: Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) are distinct clinicopathological entities characterized by α-synuclein and tau pathology, respectively. They have occasionally been reported to co-exist in the same patient. We describe a rare case of a 73-year-old Caucasian woman diagnosed as idiopathic PD 5 years before her death yet at autopsy had not only PD, but also PSP. Although this patient fulfilled clinical criteria for idiopathic PD and did not have supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, she had several atypical features, including early postural instability with falls, early dysphagia, and a relatively rapid course. In conclusion, this case and a literature review highlight the co-existence of synuclein and tau pathology in the same patient and demonstrate that multiple diagnoses may exist in patients presenting with parkinsonism. The clinical heterogeneity seen in parkinsonism may reflect the occurrence of combined pathology.

6 Clinical Trial A randomized clinical trial of high-dosage coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: no evidence of benefit. 2014

Anonymous1120789 / Beal, M Flint / Oakes, David / Shoulson, Ira / Henchcliffe, Claire / Galpern, Wendy R / Haas, Richard / Juncos, Jorge L / Nutt, John G / Voss, Tiffini Smith / Ravina, Bernard / Shults, Clifford M / Helles, Karen / Snively, Victoria / Lew, Mark F / Griebner, Brian / Watts, Arthur / Gao, Shan / Pourcher, Emmanuelle / Bond, Louisette / Kompoliti, Katie / Agarwal, Pinky / Sia, Cherissa / Jog, Mandar / Cole, Linda / Sultana, Munira / Kurlan, Roger / Richard, Irene / Deeley, Cheryl / Waters, Cheryl H / Figueroa, Angel / Arkun, Ani / Brodsky, Matthew / Ondo, William G / Hunter, Christine B / Jimenez-Shahed, Joohi / Palao, Alicia / Miyasaki, Janis M / So, Julie / Tetrud, James / Reys, Liza / Smith, Katharine / Singer, Carlos / Blenke, Anita / Russell, David S / Cotto, Candace / Friedman, Joseph H / Lannon, Margaret / Zhang, Lin / Drasby, Edward / Kumar, Rajeev / Subramanian, Thyagarajan / Ford, Donna Stuppy / Grimes, David A / Cote, Diane / Conway, Jennifer / Siderowf, Andrew D / Evatt, Marian Leslie / Sommerfeld, Barbara / Lieberman, Abraham N / Okun, Michael S / Rodriguez, Ramon L / Merritt, Stacy / Swartz, Camille Louise / Martin, W R Wayne / King, Pamela / Stover, Natividad / Guthrie, Stephanie / Watts, Ray L / Ahmed, Anwar / Fernandez, Hubert H / Winters, Adrienna / Mari, Zoltan / Dawson, Ted M / Dunlop, Becky / Feigin, Andrew S / Shannon, Barbara / Nirenberg, Melissa Jill / Ogg, Mattson / Ellias, Samuel A / Thomas, Cathi-Ann / Frei, Karen / Bodis-Wollner, Ivan / Glazman, Sofya / Mayer, Thomas / Hauser, Robert A / Pahwa, Rajesh / Langhammer, April / Ranawaya, Ranjit / Derwent, Lorelei / Sethi, Kapil D / Farrow, Buff / Prakash, Rajan / Litvan, Irene / Robinson, Annette / Sahay, Alok / Gartner, Maureen / Hinson, Vanessa K / Markind, Samuel / Pelikan, Melisa / Perlmutter, Joel S / Hartlein, Johanna / Molho, Eric / Evans, Sharon / Adler, Charles H / Duffy, Amy / Lind, Marlene / Elmer, Lawrence / Davis, Kathy / Spears, Julia / Wilson, Stephanie / Leehey, Maureen A / Hermanowicz, Neal / Niswonger, Shari / Shill, Holly A / Obradov, Sanja / Rajput, Alex / Cowper, Marilyn / Lessig, Stephanie / Song, David / Fontaine, Deborah / Zadikoff, Cindy / Williams, Karen / Blindauer, Karen A / Bergholte, Jo / Propsom, Clara Schindler / Stacy, Mark A / Field, Joanne / Mihaila, Dragos / Chilton, Mark / Uc, Ergun Y / Sieren, Jeri / Simon, David K / Kraics, Lauren / Silver, Althea / Boyd, James T / Hamill, Robert W / Ingvoldstad, Christopher / Young, Jennifer / Thomas, Karen / Kostyk, Sandra K / Wojcieszek, Joanne / Pfeiffer, Ronald F / Panisset, Michel / Beland, Monica / Reich, Stephen G / Cines, Michelle / Zappala, Nancy / Rivest, Jean / Zweig, Richard / Lumina, L Pepper / Hilliard, Colette Lynn / Grill, Stephen / Kellermann, Marye / Tuite, Paul / Rolandelli, Susan / Kang, Un Jung / Young, Joan / Rao, Jayaraman / Cook, Maureen M / Severt, Lawrence / Boyar, Karyn. ·Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York Hospital, New York. · Department of Biostatistics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York. · Department of Neurology, Georgetown University, Washington, DC. · National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. · Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. · Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Wesley Woods Center, Atlanta, Georgia. · Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland. · Merck, New Jersey. · Biogen Idec, Cambridge, Massachusetts. · Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla10VA Medical Center, San Diego, California. · Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. · Department of Biostatistics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York12Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. · Québec Memory and Motor Skills Disorders Research Center, Clinique Sainte-Anne, Québec, Canada. · Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. · Booth Gardner Parkinson's Care Center, EvergreenHealth, Kirkland, Washington. · London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada. · Overlook Medical Center, Atlantic Neuroscience Institute, Summit, New Jersey. · Department of Neurology, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York. · Columbia University Medical Center, Neurological Institute, New York, New York. · Department of Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. · Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · The Parkinson's Institute and Clinical Center, Sunnyvale, California. · Department of Neurology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida. · Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, Connecticut. · Department of Neurology, Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island26Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Department of Neurology, Butler Hospital, Providence, Rhode Island27Port City Neurology, Inc, Scarborough, Maine. · Department of Neurology, University of California, Davis, School of Medicine and Sacramento VA Medical Center, Sacramento. · Port City Neurology, Inc, Scarborough, Maine. · Colorado Neurological Institute, Englewood. · Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Pennsylvania State Hershey College of Medicine, Hershey. · Ottawa Hospital Civic Site, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. · Avid Radiopharmaceuticals, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Wesley Woods Center, Atlanta, Georgia33Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia. · Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona. · Department of Neurology, University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders and Neurorestoration, Gainesville. · Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham. · Center for Neurological Restoration, Department of Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio. · Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. · Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Center for Neurosciences, Manhasset, New York. · Department of Neurology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York. · Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · The Parkinson's and Movement Disorder Institute, Fountain Valley, California. · State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York. · Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, Tampa. · Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City. · Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Georgia Health Science University, Augusta. · Department of Neurology, University of Louisville, Kentucky. · University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. · Associated Neurologists, PC, Danbury, Connecticut. · Department of Neurology, Washington University in St Louis, Missouri. · Movement Disorders Center, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York. · Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona. · Center for Neurological Health, University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of Ohio at Toledo. · Department of Neurology, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver. · Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine Medical Center, Irvine. · Banner Sun Health Research Institute, Sun City, Arizona. · Department of Neurology, University of Saskatchewan, Royal University Hospital, Saskatchewan, Canada. · Department of Neurology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla. · Department of Neurology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. · Department of Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. · Department of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. · State University of New York Upstate Medical Center and Syracuse VA Medical Center, Syracuse. · Department of Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City. · Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Neurology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington. · Department of Neurology, Ohio State University, Columbus. · Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis. · Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis. · Department of Neurology, CHUM-Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montréal, Québec, Canada. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Science, Baltimore. · Department of Neurology, University of Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Science Center, Shreveport. · Lewis Hall Singletary Oncology Center, Thomasville, Georgia. · Parkinson and Movement Disorders Center of Maryland, Elkridge. · Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. · Department of Neurology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. · Department of Neurology, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, Louisiana. · Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York. ·JAMA Neurol · Pubmed #24664227.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), an antioxidant that supports mitochondrial function, has been shown in preclinical Parkinson disease (PD) models to reduce the loss of dopamine neurons, and was safe and well tolerated in early-phase human studies. A previous phase II study suggested possible clinical benefit. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether CoQ10 could slow disease progression in early PD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial at 67 North American sites consisting of participants 30 years of age or older who received a diagnosis of PD within 5 years and who had the following inclusion criteria: the presence of a rest tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity; a modified Hoehn and Yahr stage of 2.5 or less; and no anticipated need for dopaminergic therapy within 3 months. Exclusion criteria included the use of any PD medication within 60 days, the use of any symptomatic PD medication for more than 90 days, atypical or drug-induced parkinsonism, a Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) rest tremor score of 3 or greater for any limb, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 or less, a history of stroke, the use of certain supplements, and substantial recent exposure to CoQ10. Of 696 participants screened, 78 were found to be ineligible, and 18 declined participation. INTERVENTIONS: The remaining 600 participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, or 2400 mg/d of CoQ10; all participants received 1200 IU/d of vitamin E. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Participants were observed for 16 months or until a disability requiring dopaminergic treatment. The prospectively defined primary outcome measure was the change in total UPDRS score (Parts I-III) from baseline to final visit. The study was powered to detect a 3-point difference between an active treatment and placebo. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the participants were well balanced, the mean age was 62.5 years, 66% of participants were male, and the mean baseline total UPDRS score was 22.7. A total of 267 participants required treatment (94 received placebo, 87 received 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, and 86 received 2400 mg/d of CoQ10), and 65 participants (29 who received placebo, 19 who received 1200 mg/d of CoQ10, and 17 who received 2400 mg/d of CoQ10) withdrew prematurely. Treatments were well tolerated with no safety concerns. The study was terminated after a prespecified futility criterion was reached. At study termination, both active treatment groups showed slight adverse trends relative to placebo. Adjusted mean changes (worsening) in total UPDRS scores from baseline to final visit were 6.9 points (placebo), 7.5 points (1200 mg/d of CoQ10; P = .49 relative to placebo), and 8.0 points (2400 mg/d of CoQ10; P = .21 relative to placebo). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Coenzyme Q10 was safe and well tolerated in this population, but showed no evidence of clinical benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00740714.

7 Article Red flags phenotyping: A systematic review on clinical features in atypical parkinsonian disorders. 2019

Bhidayasiri, Roongroj / Sringean, Jirada / Reich, Stephen G / Colosimo, Carlo. ·Chulalongkorn Center of Excellence for Parkinson's Disease & Related Disorders, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand; Department of Neurology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: rbh@chulapd.org. · Chulalongkorn Center of Excellence for Parkinson's Disease & Related Disorders, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA. · Department of Neurology, Santa Maria University Hospital, Terni, Italy. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #30409560.

ABSTRACT: To establish a clinical diagnosis of a parkinsonian disorder, physicians rely on their ability to identify relevant red flags, in addition to cardinal features, to support or refute their working diagnosis in an individual patient. The term 'red flag', was originally coined in 1989 to define the presence of non-cardinal features that may raise a suspicion of multiple system atrophy (MSA), or at least suggest alternative diagnosis to Parkinson's disease (PD). Since then, the term 'red flag', has been consistently used in the literature to denote the clinical history or signs that may signal to physicians the possibility of an atypical parkinsonian disorder (APD). While most red flags were originally based on expert opinion, many have gained acceptance and are now included in validated clinical diagnostic criteria of PD and APDs. The clinical appreciation of red flags, in conjunction with standard criteria, may result in a more accurate and earlier diagnosis compared to standard criteria alone. However, red flags can be clinical signs that are non-neurological, making the systematic assessment for them a real challenge in clinical practice. Here, we have conducted a systematic review to identify red flags and their clinical evidence in the differential diagnosis of common degenerative parkinsonism, including PD, MSA, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and dementia with Lewy body (DLB). Increasing awareness and appropriate use of red flags in clinical practice may benefit physicians in the diagnosis and management of their patients with parkinsonism.

8 Article Discordance Between Physician Assessment and Patient-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Parkinson Disease. 2017

Lachner, Christian / Armstrong, Melissa J / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Rezvani, Zahra / Reich, Stephen G / Fishman, Paul S / Salazar, Richard / Shulman, Lisa M. ·1 Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · 2 Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · 3 Division of Psychiatry, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. · 4 Department of Neurology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. · 5 Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · 6 Jackson Hospital, Montgomery, AL, USA. ·J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol · Pubmed #28535723.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess concordance between physician assessment and patient-reported symptoms when screening for depression in Parkinson disease (dPD). BACKGROUND: Depression in Parkinson disease is highly prevalent (∼40%) and has a significant impact on quality of life and disability, yet physician recognition and treatment remain inadequate. METHODS: One thousand seventy-six patients with PD completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), a screening questionnaire for psychiatric symptoms, which was compared to item #3 (depression) on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). RESULTS: The mean BSI-18 depression score was 51.4 (9.7). Of the 170 (16%) patients screening positive for dPD on the BSI-18, 104 (61%) were not recognized as depressed by neurologists on the UPDRS. Factors associated with lower neurologist recognition included male gender, better mental health quality of life, and lack of antidepressant use. CONCLUSION: More than 60% of patients screening positive for depression on self-report were not recognized by neurologists on the UPDRS. A patient-reported screening tool for depression may improve recognition and management of dPD.

9 Article Response shift - The experience of disease progression in Parkinson disease. 2017

Yang, Jessica / Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Barr, Erik / von Coelln, Rainer / Armstrong, Melissa J / Reich, Stephen G / Shulman, Lisa M. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States. · Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 660 West Redwood Street, Howard Hall Suite 200, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 110 South Paca Street, 3rd Floor, Baltimore, MD 21201, United States. Electronic address: shulman@som.umaryland.edu. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28082015.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate response shift, the recalibration of perceived quality of life (QoL) relative to symptomatic changes in Parkinson disease (PD). BACKGROUND: Health-related QoL in PD is influenced by improvement vs. decline in disease severity. However, it is unclear how disease course changes internal standards of QoL over time. METHODS: 124 PD patients were subdivided based on Total UPDRS change over 1 year (stable, improved, declined). The EuroQol Visual Analog Scale assessed QoL at baseline (T1) and 1 year later (T2). At T2, patients rated current QoL (T2-current) and reappraised their T1 QoL (T2-retrospective). Recalibration response shifts were represented by the difference between T1 and T2-retrospective QoL ratings. RESULTS: At follow-up (T2), the total patient sample reported no difference between current (T2 current mean (M) = 76.3) and retrospective (T2-R M = 77.8) QoL ratings. While there was no significant difference between T1 (M = 79.2) and T2-R ratings 1 year later (M = 77.8) for the total sample, there was a change by group interaction (p < 0.005) which showed that retrospectively, decliners reduced ratings (M Δ = -9.0) and improvers increased ratings (M Δ = +6.4) while stable patients did not change. CONCLUSIONS: When PD patients consider their health status one year ago, decliners recalibrate and downgrade last year's health assessment, while improvers upgrade last year's assessment. Changes in internal calibrations cushion periods of decline or improvement in PD such that patients tend to "stabilize" their general disease course when recalling symptom trajectory, providing insight into the process of adaptation to the effects of disease progression and treatment over time.

10 Article Asymmetric responsiveness of disability and health-related quality of life to improvement versus decline in Parkinson's disease. 2016

Lamichhane, Dronacharya / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Reich, Stephen G / Shulman, Lisa M. ·Illinois Neurological Institute, University of Illinois College of Medicine-Peoria, 100 NE Randolph Avenue, Peoria, IL, 61606, USA. dlamich@uicomp.uic.edu. · Division of Gerontology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · University of Maryland PD and Movement Disorders Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·Qual Life Res · Pubmed #27363693.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Clinical trials in Parkinson's disease commonly employ outcome measures of disability and quality of life. Responsiveness of these outcomes measures to symptomatic decline versus improvement has not been studied. We wanted to study the responsiveness of Schwab & England Activities of Daily Living Scale (SE) and Short Form-12 (SF-12) to symptomatic decline versus improvement in Parkinson's disease over a 4-year period among a naturalistic cohort of patients. METHODS: Parkinson's disease patients (N = 228, disease duration 6.1 years) were followed for 4 years with assessments of disease severity, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), health-related quality of life (SF-12 physical/mental health), and disability (SE). The sample was subdivided into those who declined (N = 118) or improved (N = 102) on total-UPDRS. Responsiveness was assessed with Cohen's effect size and standardized response mean. RESULTS: At baseline, patients who improved over 4 years had greater disease severity and worse quality of life than decliners (p < .05). Decliners had a 13.5-point worsening on total-UPDRS, 26.3-39.8; p < .001) associated with concomitant decline on the SF-12 (physical health 42.9-39.2, mental health 50.0-46.6; both p < .001) and the SE (85-74 %; p < .001). Improvers had a 13.0-point improvement on total-UPDRS (39.8-26.8; p < .001) associated with minimal change on the SF-12 (physical health 40.8-39.5, mental health 47.1-46.3) and SE (79-79 %). Based on effect size, the rank order of responsiveness of measures for decliners from high to low was SE (-0.78), Short Form-12 mental health (-0.45), and SF-12 physical health (-0.34). Rank order of responsiveness for improvers was Short Form-12 physical health (-0.11), SF-12 mental health (-0.10), and SE (-0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Among decliners, measures of disability and quality of life were moderate to highly responsive to change in disease severity. Among improvers, both disability and quality of life were poorly responsive despite UPDRS improvement of comparable magnitude.

11 Article Does spouse participation influence quality of life reporting in patients with Parkinson's disease? 2015

Morrow, Chelsea D / Smentkowski, Katherine / Schwartz, Stacy / Armstrong, Melissa J / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Anderson, Karen E / Reich, Stephen G / Weiner, William J / Shulman, Lisa M. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA, chelseadmorrow@gmail.com. ·Qual Life Res · Pubmed #24972974.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To investigate whether patient-spouse co-reporting (patient reporting with assistance from their spouse) results in the same ratings of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as patient ratings without co-reporting, and to assess whether mutuality of the marital relationship is a determinant of co-reported ratings. Patients are the best source of HRQoL; however, co-reporting is common in clinical settings, but has not been compared to independent patient reporting of HRQoL. METHODS: Fifty-nine Parkinson's disease (PD) patient-spouse pairs completed the Short Form Health Status Survey (SF-12), measuring mental and physical HRQoL. Initially, the patient and spouse completed the SF-12 independently (about the patient). Then, patient-spouse pairs completed the SF-12 together assessing the patient's HRQoL. Patients and spouses independently completed the Mutuality Scale rating the intimacy of their relationship. RESULTS: Patients rated physical HRQoL higher (M = 46.6) than spouses alone (M = 43.4, p < 0.01) and co-reporting (M = 44.8, p < 0.05). Co-reporting rated physical HRQoL in between that of patients and spouses, (p < 0.05). Spouses who reported greater mutuality showed greater concordance with the patient regarding the patient's mental HRQoL (B = -0.43, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Consistency of the mode of completion of HRQoL instruments is important since co-reporting may alter HRQoL ratings in PD and lead to inaccurate conclusions. Mutuality is a mediator of mental HRQoL.

12 Article Which features of Parkinson's disease predict earlier exit from the workforce? 2014

Armstrong, Melissa J / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Reich, Stephen G / Fishman, Paul S / Lachner, Christian / Shulman, Lisa M. ·Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: marmstrong@som.umaryland.edu. · Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #25179494.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Few objective data exist regarding predictors of leaving the workforce (LWF) in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Employed PD patients were followed prospectively. Baseline demographics, disease duration, and measures of disease severity, cognition, disability, and mental health were compared between patients working at last follow-up versus those who left the workforce using student's t-tests and multivariate analyses controlling for age, gender, and PD duration. RESULTS: Of 419 employed patients, 224 had left the workforce by last follow-up. Patients who left the workforce were more likely to be older, female, have lower-income, and have longer PD duration. LWF patients had greater baseline depression, anxiety, and overall psychiatric distress. PD severity did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Demographics, disease duration, and mental health contribute to LWF, but not motor severity. Age, gender and income contributions are difficult to modify but important to recognize. Worse baseline mental health is associated with LWF, suggesting a potential target for intervention.

13 Article Comparison of caregiver strain in Parkinson's disease between Yamagata, Japan, and Maryland, The United States. 2013

Tanji, Haruko / Koyama, Shingo / Wada, Manabu / Kawanami, Toru / Kurita, Keiji / Tamiya, Gen / Saito, Naohiro / Suzuki, Kyoko / Kato, Takeo / Anderson, Karen E / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Fishman, Paul S / Reich, Stephen G / Weiner, William J / Shulman, Lisa M. ·Department of Neurology, Hematology, Metabolism, Endocrinology and Diabetology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, 2-2-2 Iida-Nishi, Yamagata, Japan. t.haruko@med.id.yamagata-u.ac.jp ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #23514630.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Japan and the United States (US) have different cultures of caregiving including differences in family structure and social programs that may influence caregiver strain. Differences in caregiver strain between regions in Japan and in the US have not been investigated in patient-spouse dyads in PD. OBJECTIVES: To compare caregiver strain in spouses of PD patients between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US. Correlations between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables are also examined. METHODS: In Yamagata and Maryland, spouses of patients with PD completed questionnaires assessing caregiver strain. Patients and spouses completed scales assessing mental health, and medical co-morbidity. PD severity and disability were assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale. Results in the two regions were compared with Chi-square and Student's t-tests. Relationships between caregiver strain and patient/spousal variables were analyzed with univariate correlations and multivariate regression. RESULTS: 178 Spouse-patient pairs were assessed. The level of caregiver strain in PD did not differ between Yamagata, Japan and Maryland, US despite differences in demographics and social support programs in the two regions. Yamagata spouses reported physical, time and financial constraints, while Maryland spouses reported more emotional distress. In both regions, spousal depression was a significant contributor to caregiver strain. CONCLUSION: Different approaches to reduce caregiver strain will likely be necessary in Yamagata and Maryland since the contributing factors to caregiver strain are influenced by differences in culture and social supports in each country.

14 Article Randomized clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise for patients with Parkinson disease. 2013

Shulman, Lisa M / Katzel, Leslie I / Ivey, Frederick M / Sorkin, John D / Favors, Knachelle / Anderson, Karen E / Smith, Barbara A / Reich, Stephen G / Weiner, William J / Macko, Richard F. ·University of Maryland School of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Baltimore,MD21201, USA. lshulman@som.umaryland.edu ·JAMA Neurol · Pubmed #23128427.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of treadmill exercises and stretching and resistance exercises in improving gait speed, strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease. DESIGN: A comparative, prospective, randomized, single-blinded clinical trial of 3 types of physical exercise. SETTING: The Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center at the University of Maryland and the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center. PATIENTS: A total of 67 patients with Parkinson disease who had gait impairment were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 arms of the trial. INTERVENTIONS; (1) A higher-intensity treadmill exercise (30 minutes at 70%-80% of heart rate reserve), (2) a lower-intensity treadmill exercise (50 minutes at 40%-50% of heart rate reserve), and (3) stretching and resistance exercises (2 sets of 10 repetitions on each leg on 3 resistance machines [leg press, leg extension, and curl]). These exercises were performed 3 times a week for 3 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were gait speed (6-minute walk), cardiovascular fitness (peak oxygen consumption per unit time [$$ VO2], and muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength). RESULTS: All 3 types of physical exercise improved distance on the 6-minute walk: lower-intensity treadmill exercise (12% increase; P=.001), stretching and resistance exercises (9% increase; P<.02), and higher-intensity treadmill exercise (6% increase; P=.07), with no between-group differences. Both treadmill exercises improved peak $$ VO2 (7%-8% increase; P<.05) more than did the stretching and resistance exercises. Only stretching and resistance improved muscle strength (16% increase; P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The effects of exercise were seen across all 3 exercise groups. The lower-intensity treadmill exercise resulted in the greatest improvement in gait speed. Both the higher- and lower-intensity treadmill exercises improved cardiovascular fitness. Only the stretching and resistance exercises improved muscle strength. Therefore, exercise can improve gait speed, muscle strength, and fitness for patients with Parkinson disease. The combination of treadmill and resistance exercises may result in greater benefit and requires further investigation.

15 Article The effects of gait impairment with and without freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease. 2012

Josiah, Anne F / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Anderson, Karen E / Fishman, Paul S / Weiner, William J / Reich, Stephen G / Shulman, Lisa M. ·University of Maryland School of Medicine, MD, USA. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #22079524.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of gait impairment without freezing of gait (FOG) versus FOG without gait impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) on disability and quality of life. BACKGROUND: FOG is frequently characterized as the major cause of gait-related disability in PD. However, gait impairment may also result from other PD symptoms including slowing, motor asymmetry, gait variability, dystonia or stooped posture. METHODS: The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Older Americans Resources and Services Disability Scale (OARS) and the SF-12 Health Status Survey were used to evaluate patients with PD. Responses to UPDRS Items #14 (Freezing) and # 29 (Gait) were used to create 4 subgroups: 1) No FOG or gait impairment, 2) FOG, no gait impairment, 3) Gait impairment, no FOG, and 4) Both FOG and gait impairment. Disease severity, disability, and quality of life were compared across the subgroups with ANOVAs, and between subgroups with t-tests. RESULTS: 916 PD patients were divided into 4 subgroups based on their gait and freezing score (#1: n = 213, #2: n = 41, #3: n = 323 and #4: n = 339). Total UPDRS progressively increased from Group 1 through Group 4 (1 = 25.2, 2 = 33.7, 3 = 39.2, 4 = 59.2; p < 0.001). Motor UPDRS also progressively increased (1 = 17.4, 2 = 19.7, 3 = 26.9, 4 = 36.5; p < 0.0001). Similarly, disability and health-related quality of life progressively increased from Group 1 through Group 4 (Total OARS: 1 = 15.3, 2 = 17.2, 3 = 18.9, 4 = 28.4; p < 0.001). Group 3 (Gait impairment, no FOG) showed greater disease severity than Group 2 (FOG, no gait impairment; Total and Motor UPDRS; p < 0.05), but the difference did not reach significance for disability or quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Gait impairment without FOG was associated with greater disease severity than FOG without gait impairment. The combination of gait impairment and FOG was associated with the greatest disease severity and disability. These results show differential effects of diverse features of gait impairment in PD and demonstrate the importance of gait features unrelated to freezing.

16 Article What determines resilience in patients with Parkinson's disease? 2012

Robottom, B J / Gruber-Baldini, A L / Anderson, K E / Reich, S G / Fishman, P S / Weiner, W J / Shulman, L M. ·Raleigh Neurology Associates, Raleigh, NC, USA. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #21975263.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship of resilience to disease severity, disability, quality of life (QoL) and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). A secondary objective was to investigate whether resilience is distinct from other personality domains in PD. BACKGROUND: Resilience is the ability to reestablish emotional equilibrium in the face of adversity. It may play a pivotal role in disability and quality of life and has not been studied in PD. METHODS: 83 PD patients (Age 66.3 ± 10.6, Total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (T-UPDRS) 36.9 ± 17.8) completed the Resilience Scale 15 (RS-15). Scales measuring disability, mental and physical health-related QoL, non-motor symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatization, apathy, fatigue), and personality domains were completed. Pearson's correlations were analyzed between these scales and the RS-15. RESULTS: Greater resilience correlated with less disability (r = -.30, p = .01), and better physical and mental QoL (r = .31, p < .01; r = .29, p = .01), but not with PD severity (T-UPDRS, r = -.17, p > .05). Among non-motor symptoms and personality domains, resilience strongly correlated with less apathy (r = -.66), less depression (r = -.49), and more optimism (r = .54, all p < .001). Moderate correlations were seen between more resilience, reduced fatigue (r = -.40) and anxiety (r = -.34; both p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Resilience correlated with less disability and better QoL but not with PD severity. Resilience was also highly associated with both non-motor symptoms (less apathy, depression, fatigue) and a personality domain (more optimism). The role of resilience in helping patients adapt to living with symptoms of chronic disease may explain its lack of correlation with PD severity.

17 Article Another trial, another hour. 2011

Weiner, William J / Reich, Stephen G. ·Department of Neurology,University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. ·Lancet Neurol · Pubmed #21315655.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Article The clinically important difference on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale. 2010

Shulman, Lisa M / Gruber-Baldini, Ann L / Anderson, Karen E / Fishman, Paul S / Reich, Stephen G / Weiner, William J. ·Departments of Neurology, University of Maryland Schoolof Medicine, Baltimore., MD 21201, USA. lshulman@som.umaryland.edu ·Arch Neurol · Pubmed #20065131.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the estimates of minimal, moderate, and large clinically important differences (CIDs) for the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the CIDs for UPDRS total and motor scores was performed on patients with Parkinson disease (PD) using distribution- and anchor-based approaches based on the following 3 external standards: disability (10% on the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale), disease stage (1 stage on the Hoehn and Yahr Scale), and quality of life (1 SD on the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey). SETTING: University of Maryland Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders Center, Patients Six hundred fifty-three patients with PD. RESULTS: A minimal CID was 2.3 to 2.7 points on the UPDRS motor score and 4.1 to 4.5 on the UPDRS total score. A moderate CID was 4.5 to 6.7 points on the UPDRS motor score and 8.5 to 10.3 on the UPDRS total score. A large CID was 10.7 to 10.8 points on the UPDRS motor score and 16.4 to 17.8 on the UPDRS total score. CONCLUSIONS: Concordance among multiple approaches of analysis based on subjective and objective data show that reasonable estimates for the CID on the UPDRS motor score are 2.5 points for minimal, 5.2 for moderate, and 10.8 for large CIDs. Estimates for the UPDRS total score are 4.3 points for minimal, 9.1 for moderate, and 17.1 for large CIDs. These estimates will assist in determining clinically meaningful changes in PD progression and response to therapeutic interventions.

19 Minor Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures. 2011

Reich, Stephen G. · ·Neurology · Pubmed #21788621.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --