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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Austria
Based on 301 articles published since 2008
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These are the 301 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Austria during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13
1 Guideline Collective physician perspectives on non-oral medication approaches for the management of clinically relevant unresolved issues in Parkinson's disease: Consensus from an international survey and discussion program. 2015

Odin, P / Ray Chaudhuri, K / Slevin, J T / Volkmann, J / Dietrichs, E / Martinez-Martin, P / Krauss, J K / Henriksen, T / Katzenschlager, R / Antonini, A / Rascol, O / Poewe, W / Anonymous2260838. ·Department of Neurology, Lund University Hospital, 221 85 Lund, Sweden; Klinikum-Bremerhaven, D-27574 Bremerhaven, Germany. Electronic address: per.odin@med.lu.se. · King's College London, and National Parkinson Foundation Centre of Excellence, Dept of Neurology, King's College Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Kentucky Clinic L-445, 740 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. · Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, N-0424 Oslo, Norway. · National Center for Epidemiology and CIBERNED, ISCIII, Avenida Monforte de Lemos 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain. · Department of Neurosurgery, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. · University Hospital of Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2400 København, NV, Denmark. · Department of Neurology and Karl Landsteiner Institute for Neuroimmunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost - Donauspital, 1220 Wien Langobardenstraße 122, Austria. · Parkinson and Movement Disorders Unit, IRCCS Hospital San Camillo, Venice, Italy. · Clinical Investigation Center 1436 and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, INSERM and University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse University, 37 alées Jules Giesde, 31000 Toulouse, France; Clinical Investigation Center 1436 and Department of Neurosciences, INSERM and University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse University, 37 alées Jules Giesde, 31000 Toulouse, France. · Innsbruck Medical University/University Hospital, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #26233582.

ABSTRACT: Navigate PD was an educational program established to supplement existing guidelines and provide recommendations on the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) refractory to oral/transdermal therapies. It involved 103 experts from 13 countries overseen by an International Steering Committee (ISC) of 13 movement disorder specialists. The ISC identified 71 clinical questions important for device-aided management of PD. Fifty-six experts responded to a web-based survey, rating 15 questions as 'critically important;' these were refined to 10 questions by the ISC to be addressed through available evidence and expert opinion. Draft guidance was presented at international/national meetings and revised based on feedback. Key take-home points are: • Patients requiring levodopa >5 times daily who have severe, troublesome 'off' periods (>1-2 h/day) despite optimal oral/transdermal levodopa or non-levodopa-based therapies should be referred for specialist assessment even if disease duration is <4 years. • Cognitive decline related to non-motor fluctuations is an indication for device-aided therapies. If cognitive impairment is mild, use deep brain stimulation (DBS) with caution. For patients who have cognitive impairment or dementia, intrajejunal levodopa infusion is considered as both therapeutic and palliative in some countries. Falls are linked to cognitive decline and are likely to become more frequent with device-aided therapies. • Insufficient control of motor complications (or drug-resistant tremor in the case of DBS) are indications for device-aided therapies. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusions or subcutaneous apomorphine pump may be considered for patients aged >70 years who have mild or moderate cognitive impairment, severe depression or other contraindications to DBS.

2 Editorial Diagnosis of PSP-P: Can a newly developed MRPI make the difference? 2018

Krismer, Florian / Seppi, Klaus. ·Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria; Neuroimaging Research Core Facility, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: klaus.seppi@tirol-kliniken.at. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #30236828.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Sudden unexpected death in Parkinson's disease (SUDPAR): a review of publications since the decade of the brain. 2017

Scorza, Fulvio A / do Carmo, Andrea C / Fiorini, Ana C / Nejm, Mariana B / Scorza, Carla A / Finsterer, Josef / Ferraz, Henrique B. ·Disciplina de Neurociencia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP, BR. · Biblioteca do Campus Sao Paulo, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, BR. · Programa de Estudos Pos-Graduados em Fonoaudiologia, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo (PUC-SP), Sao Paulo, SP, BR. · Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP, BR. · Department of Neurology, Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria. · Departamento de Neurologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP, Sao Paulo, SP, BR. ·Clinics (Sao Paulo) · Pubmed #29236909.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial In vivo evaluation of central cholinergic circuits in Parkinson's disease using transcranial magnetic stimulation. 2017

Nardone, Raffaele / Trinka, Eugen. ·Department of Neurology, Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Merano, Italy; Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. Electronic address: raffaele.nardone@asbmeran-o.it. · Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria; Centre for Cognitive Neurosciences Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria; University for Medical Informatics and Health Technology, UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #28427894.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on dopamine celebrating the 90th birthday of Oleh Hornykiewicz. 2017

Sitte, Harald / Willeit, Matthäus. ·Center for Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. · Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. ·Eur J Neurosci · Pubmed #28044407.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Eldad Melamed 1942-2015: Ave atque--A memorial. 2016

Olanow, C Warren / Poewe, Werner. ·Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. · Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #26685050.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Preface. 2015

Poewe, Werner / Goetz, Christopher G. ·Innsbruck Medical University, Austria. · Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #26301896.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial How close are we to revealing the etiology of Parkinson's disease? 2015

Jellinger, Kurt A. ·a Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Alberichgasse 5/13, A-1150 Vienna, Austria. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #26294223.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Review Peripheral and central autonomic nervous system: does the sympathetic or parasympathetic nervous system bear the brunt of the pathology during the course of sporadic PD? 2018

Orimo, Satoshi / Ghebremedhin, Estifanos / Gelpi, Ellen. ·Department of Neurology, Kanto Central Hospital, 6-25-1 Kami-Yoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 158-8531, Japan. orimo@kanto-ctr-hsp.com. · Institute of Clinical Neuroanatomy, J. W. Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. · Neurological Tissue Bank of the Biobank-Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. · Institute of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. ·Cell Tissue Res · Pubmed #29869180.

ABSTRACT: It is a well-established fact that the sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric nervous systems are affected at early stages in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is not yet clarified whether the earliest pathological events preferentially occur in any of these three divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Significant involvement of the peripheral autonomic nervous system of the heart and gastrointestinal tract has been documented in PD. Accumulating evidence suggests that the PD pathology spreads centripetally from the peripheral to central nervous system through autonomic nerve fibers, implicating the ANS as a major culprit in PD pathogenesis and a potential target for therapy. This study begins with a brief overview of the structures of the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system and then outlines the major clinicopathological manifestations of cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disturbances in PD.

10 Review Cardiac abnormalities in Parkinson's disease and Parkinsonism. 2018

Scorza, Fulvio A / Fiorini, Ana C / Scorza, Carla A / Finsterer, Josef. ·Disciplina de Neurociência, Escola Paulista de Medicina/Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: scorza@unifesp.br. · Programa de Estudos Pós-Graduado em Fonoaudiologia, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP), Brazil; Departamento de Fonoaudiologia, Escola Paulista de Medicina/Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: acfiorini@pucsp.br. · Disciplina de Neurociência, Escola Paulista de Medicina/Universidade Federal de São Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. · Krankenanstalt Rudolfstiftung, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: fifigs1@yahoo.de. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #29706419.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Though there is increasing evidence for primary cardiac disease in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Parkinsonism (PS), this evidence is hardly included in the general management of these patients. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: PD is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Epidemiological studies have shown that PD is accompanied by high rates of premature death compared with the general population. In general, death in PD/PS is usually caused by determinant factors such as pneumonia, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular disease. There is a significant body of literature demonstrating involvement of the heart in PD/PS. Cardiac involvement in PD/PS includes cardiac autonomic dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, conduction defects, and sudden cardiac death (SCD), and sudden unexpected death in Parkinson's disease (SUDPAR). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac abnormalities found in PD/PS are manifold but the most prominent is cardiac autonomic dysfunction. The frequency of coronary heart disease in PD is a matter of debate. Only rarely reported in PD/PS are cardiomyopathies, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death, and SUDPAR. It is particularly recommended that PD/PS patients are more intensively investigated cardiologically as soon as the diagnosis is established. Early recognition of cardiac involvement is important for preventing SCD and SUDPAR.

11 Review Lateralisation in Parkinson disease. 2018

Riederer, P / Jellinger, K A / Kolber, P / Hipp, G / Sian-Hülsmann, J / Krüger, R. ·Center of Mental Health, Clinic and Policlinic for Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Würzburg, Margarete-Höppel-Platz 1, 97080, Würzburg, Germany. peter.riederer@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de. · Psychiatry Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense University Hospital, J.B. Winsløws Vej 18, Indgang 220 A, DK-5000, Odense C, Denmark. peter.riederer@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de. · Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Alberichgasse 5/13, A-1150, Vienna, Austria. · Parkinson Research Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg. · Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, PO Box 30197, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya. ·Cell Tissue Res · Pubmed #29656343.

ABSTRACT: Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra. As a consequence, not only the obvious lateralisation of motor symptoms occurs but also patterns of associated non-motor signs are defined, which include cognitive functions, sleep behaviour or olfaction. Better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to lateralisation of neurodegeneration and the resulting patterns of clinical phenotypes based on bilateral post-mortem brain analyses and clinical studies focusing on right/left hemispheric symptom origin will help to develop more targeted therapeutic approaches, taking into account subtypes of PD as a heterogeneous disorder.

12 Review Diffusion-weighted MRI distinguishes Parkinson disease from the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Bajaj, Sweta / Krismer, Florian / Palma, Jose-Alberto / Wenning, Gregor K / Kaufmann, Horacio / Poewe, Werner / Seppi, Klaus. ·Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Dysautonomia Center, Department of Neurology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America. · Neuroimaging Research Core Facility, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #29287113.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Putaminal diffusivity in brain magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is increased in patients with the parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) compared to Parkinson disease (PD) patients. PURPOSE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DWI to distinguish MSA-P from PD. METHODS: Studies on DWI were identified through a systematic PubMed and Clarivate Analytics® Web of Science® Core Collection search. Papers were selected based on stringent inclusion criteria; minimum requirement was the inclusion of MSA-P and PD patients and documented true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative rates or overall sample size and reported sensitivity and specificity. Meta-analysis was performed using the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve approach. RESULTS: The database search yielded 1678 results of which 9 studies were deemed relevant. Diagnostic accuracy of putaminal diffusivity measurements were reported in all of these 9 studies, whereas results of other regions of interest were only reported irregularly. Therefore, a meta-analysis could only be performed for putaminal diffusivity measurements: 127 patients with MSA-P, 262 patients with PD and 70 healthy controls were included in the quantitative synthesis. The meta-analysis showed an overall sensitivity of 90% (95% confidence interval (CI): 76.7%-95.8%) and an overall specificity of 93% (95% CI: 80.0%-97.7%) to distinguish MSA-P from PD based on putaminal diffusivity. CONCLUSION: Putaminal diffusivity yields high sensitivity and specificity to distinguish clinically diagnosed patients with MSA-P from PD. The confidence intervals indicate substantial variability. Further multicenter studies with harmonized protocols are warranted particularly in early disease stages when clinical diagnosis is less certain.

13 Review Past, present, and future of Parkinson's disease: A special essay on the 200th Anniversary of the Shaking Palsy. 2017

Obeso, J A / Stamelou, M / Goetz, C G / Poewe, W / Lang, A E / Weintraub, D / Burn, D / Halliday, G M / Bezard, E / Przedborski, S / Lehericy, S / Brooks, D J / Rothwell, J C / Hallett, M / DeLong, M R / Marras, C / Tanner, C M / Ross, G W / Langston, J W / Klein, C / Bonifati, V / Jankovic, J / Lozano, A M / Deuschl, G / Bergman, H / Tolosa, E / Rodriguez-Violante, M / Fahn, S / Postuma, R B / Berg, D / Marek, K / Standaert, D G / Surmeier, D J / Olanow, C W / Kordower, J H / Calabresi, P / Schapira, A H V / Stoessl, A J. ·HM CINAC, Hospital Universitario HM Puerta del Sur, Mostoles, Madrid, Spain. · Universidad CEU San Pablo, Madrid, Spain. · CIBERNED, Madrid, Spain. · Department of Neurology, Philipps University, Marburg, Germany. · Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Department, HYGEIA Hospital and Attikon Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece. · Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA. · Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · Parkinson's Disease and Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Centers (PADRECC and MIRECC), Corporal Michael J. Crescenz Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK. · Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales and Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, Australia. · Université de Bordeaux, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Unité Mixte de Recherche 5293, Institut des Maladies Neurodégénératives, Bordeaux, France. · China Academy of Medical Sciences, Institute of Lab Animal Sciences, Beijing, China. · Departments of Neurology, Pathology, and Cell Biology, the Center for Motor Neuron Biology and Disease, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA. · Columbia Translational Neuroscience Initiative, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA. · Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière - ICM, Centre de NeuroImagerie de Recherche - CENIR, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Inserm U1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Paris, France. · Groupe Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France. · Clinical Sciences Department, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. · Human Neurophysiology, Sobell Department, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. · Human Motor Control Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson's disease, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation Center, Department of Neurology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. · Parkinson's Disease Research, Education and Clinical Center, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA. · Veterans Affairs Pacific Islands Health Care System, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. · Parkinson's Institute, Sunnyvale, California, USA. · Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany. · Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. · Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA. · Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Christian Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel, Germany. · Department of Medical Neurobiology, Institute of Medical Research Israel-Canada, Jerusalem, Israel. · Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. · Department of Neurosurgery, Hadassah University Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel. · Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Institut Clínic de Neurociències, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. · Department of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED) Barcelona, Spain. · Movement Disorders Clinic, Clinical Neurodegenerative Research Unit, Mexico City, Mexico. · Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Neurology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York, USA. · Department of Neurology, McGill University, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. · Klinik für Neurologie, UKSH, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, Germany. · Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. · Department of Neurology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. · Department of Physiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA. · Departments of Neurology and Neuroscience, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA. · Research Center for Brain Repair, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA. · Neuroscience Graduate Program, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA. · Neurological Clinic, Department of Medicine, Hospital Santa Maria della Misericordia, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. · Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Santa Lucia Foundation, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. · University Department of Clinical Neurosciences, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK. · Pacific Parkinson's Research Centre, Division of Neurology & Djavadf Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada. · Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28887905.

ABSTRACT: This article reviews and summarizes 200 years of Parkinson's disease. It comprises a relevant history of Dr. James Parkinson's himself and what he described accurately and what he missed from today's perspective. Parkinson's disease today is understood as a multietiological condition with uncertain etiopathogenesis. Many advances have occurred regarding pathophysiology and symptomatic treatments, but critically important issues are still pending resolution. Among the latter, the need to modify disease progression is undoubtedly a priority. In sum, this multiple-author article, prepared to commemorate the bicentenary of the shaking palsy, provides a historical state-of-the-art account of what has been achieved, the current situation, and how to progress toward resolving Parkinson's disease. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

14 Review Cortical afferent inhibition abnormalities reveal cholinergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease: a reappraisal. 2017

Nardone, Raffaele / Brigo, Francesco / Versace, Viviana / Höller, Yvonne / Tezzon, Frediano / Saltuari, Leopold / Trinka, Eugen / Sebastianelli, Luca. ·Department of Neurology, Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Via Rossini, 5, 39012, Merano, BZ, Italy. raffaele.nardone@asbmeran-o.it. · Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. raffaele.nardone@asbmeran-o.it. · Department of Neurology, Franz Tappeiner Hospital, Via Rossini, 5, 39012, Merano, BZ, Italy. · Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Neurorehabilitation, Hospital of Vipiteno, Vipiteno, Italy. · Research Unit for Neurorehabilitation of South Tyrol, Bolzano, Italy. · Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria. · Department of Neurology, Hochzirl Hospital, Zirl, Austria. · University for Medical Informatics and Health Technology, UMIT, Hall in Tirol, Austria. ·J Neural Transm (Vienna) · Pubmed #28803382.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder affecting, besides the dopaminergic function, multiple neurotransmission systems, including the cholinergic system. Central cholinergic circuits of human brain can be tested non-invasively by coupling peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of motor cortex; this test is named short latency afferent inhibition (SAI). SAI abnormalities have been reported in PD patients with gait disturbances and many non-motor symptoms, such as visual hallucinations (VHs), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), dysphagia, and olfactory impairment. The findings of these TMS studies strongly suggest that cholinergic degeneration is an important contributor to a number of clinical features of PD. TMS and neuropsychological raise the possibility that the presence of RBD, VHs and olfactory dysfunction indicate increased risk of cognitive impairment in patients with PD. Longitudinal studies of the patients are required to verify whether SAI abnormalities can predict a future severe cognitive decline. TMS can provide simple measures that may represent suitable biomarkers of cholinergic neurotransmission in PD. SAI studies enable an early recognition of PD patients with cholinergic system degeneration, and this might allow future targeted cholinergic treatment approaches, in addition to dopaminergic therapy, to ameliorate non-motor and motor clinical symptoms in PD patients.

15 Review Neuropathology of Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Jellinger, Kurt A. ·Institute of Clinical Neurobiology, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address: kurt.jellinger@univie.ac.at. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28802920.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD), a multiorgan neurodegenerative disorder associated with α-synuclein deposits throughout the nervous system and many organs, is clinically characterized by motor and nonmotor features, many of the latter antedating motor dysfunctions by 20 or more years. The causes of the nonmotor manifestations such as olfactory, autonomic, sensory, neuropsychiatric, visuospatial, sleep, and other disorders are unlikely to be related to single lesions. They are mediated by the involvement of both dopaminergic and nondopaminergic systems, and diverse structures outside the nigrostriatal system that is mainly responsible for the motor features of PD. The nonmotor alterations appear in early/prodromal stages of the disease and its further progression, suggesting a topographical and chronological spread of the lesions. This lends further support for the notion that PD is a multiorgan proteinopathy, although the exact relationship between presymptomatic and later developing nonmotor features of PD and neuropathology awaits further elucidation.

16 Review Nonmotor fluctuations: phenotypes, pathophysiology, management, and open issues. 2017

Classen, Joseph / Koschel, Jiri / Oehlwein, Christian / Seppi, Klaus / Urban, Peter / Winkler, Christian / Wüllner, Ullrich / Storch, Alexander. ·Department of Neurology, University of Leipzig, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. joseph.classen@medizin.uni-leipzig.de. · Parkinson-Klinik Ortenau, 77709, Wolfach, Germany. · , Lasurstr. 27, 07551, Gera, Germany. · Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck and Neuroimaging Research Core Facility, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. · Department of Neurology, Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, 22291, Hamburg, Germany. · Department of Neurology, Lindenbrunn Hospital, 31863, Coppenbrügge, Germany. · Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, 53127, Bonn, Germany. · German Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Rostock, 18147, Rostock, Germany. · Department of Neurology, University of Rostock, 18147, Rostock, Germany. ·J Neural Transm (Vienna) · Pubmed #28702850.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative multisystem disorder characterized by progressive motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, tremor and muscle rigidity. Over the course of the disease, numerous non-motor symptoms, sometimes preceding the onset of motor symptoms, significantly impair patients' quality of life. The significance of non-motor symptoms may outweigh the burden through progressive motor incapacity, especially in later stages of the disease. The advanced stage of the disease is characterized by motor complications such as fluctuations and dyskinesias induced by the long-term application of levodopa therapy. In recent years, it became evident that various non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric symptoms, fatigue and pain also show fluctuations after chronic levodopa therapy (named non-motor fluctuations or NMFs). Although NMFs have moved into the focus of interest, current national guidelines on the treatment of PD may refer to non-motor symptoms and their management, but do not mention NMF, and do not contain recommendations on their management. The present article summarizes major issues related to NMF including clinical phenomenology and pathophysiology, and outlines a number of open issues and topics for future research.

17 Review Recent Advances on the Role of Neurogenesis in the Adult Brain: Therapeutic Potential in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases. 2017

Radad, Khaled / Moldzio, Rudolf / Al-Shraim, Mubarak / Kranner, Barbara / Krewenka, Christopher / Rausch, Wolf-Dieter. ·Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut 71526. Egypt. · Institute of Medical Biochemistry, Department for Biomedical Sciences, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna. Austria. · Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha. Saudi Arabia. ·CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #28641510.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. METHOD: Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus. These discoveries question a long standing dogma on nervous system regeneration and provide medical science with potential new strategies to harness the process of neurogenesis for treating neurological disabilities and neurodegenerative diseases. CONCLUSION: In this current review, we address the most recent advances on the role of neurogenesis in the adult brain and therapeutic potential in the two most common neurodegenerative disorders, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.

18 Review Opicapone for the management of end-of-dose motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinson's disease treated with L-DOPA. 2017

Lees, Andrew J / Ferreira, Joaquim / Rascol, Olivier / Reichmann, Heinz / Stocchi, Fabrizio / Tolosa, Eduardo / Poewe, Werner. ·a Reta Lila Weston Institute for Neurological Studies, UCL , London , UK. · b Centro de Estudos Egas Moniz , Hospital de Santa Maria , Lisbon , Portugal. · c Departments of Clinical Pharmacology and Neurosciences, Clinical Investigation Center CIC 1436, NS-Park/FCRIN network and NeuroToul COEN Center , INSERM, Toulouse University Hospital and Toulouse3 University , Toulouse , France. · d Department of Neurology , Technische Universitaet Dresden , Dresden , Germany. · e Institute of Neurology , IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana , Rome , Italy. · f Neurology Service, Centro de Investigación Biomódica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS , Universitat de Barcelona , Barcelona , Spain ​​​​. · g Department of Neurology , Innsbruck Medical University , Innsbruck , Austria. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #28580819.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Opicapone is a third generation, highly potent and effective catechol O‑methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor that optimizes the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of L-DOPA therapy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the preclinical and clinical development of opicapone. In PD patients with motor fluctuations, once daily opicapone administration was well-tolerated and consistently reduced OFF-time and increased ON-time without increasing the frequency of troublesome dyskinesia, and these benefits were maintained over at least a year of continued open-label therapy. Expert commentary: With its convenient once-daily regimen, adjunct opicapone should be considered as an effective option for use in L-DOPA treated PD patients experiencing motor fluctuations.

19 Review Magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. 2017

Heim, Beatrice / Krismer, Florian / De Marzi, Roberto / Seppi, Klaus. ·Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. florian.krismer@i-med.ac.at. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Anichstraße 35, 6020, Innsbruck, Austria. Klaus.Seppi@tirol-kliniken.at. · Neuroimaging Research Core Facility, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Klaus.Seppi@tirol-kliniken.at. ·J Neural Transm (Vienna) · Pubmed #28378231.

ABSTRACT: The differential diagnosis of parkinsonian syndromes is considered one of the most challenging in neurology and error rates in the clinical diagnosis can be high even at specialized centres. Despite several limitations, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has undoubtedly enhanced the diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative parkinsonism over the last three decades. This review aims to summarize research findings regarding the value of the different MRI techniques, including advanced sequences at high- and ultra-high-field MRI and modern image analysis algorithms, in the diagnostic work-up of Parkinson's disease. This includes not only the exclusion of alternative diagnoses for Parkinson's disease such as symptomatic parkinsonism and atypical parkinsonism, but also the diagnosis of early, new onset, and even prodromal Parkinson's disease.

20 Review Parkinson disease. 2017

Poewe, Werner / Seppi, Klaus / Tanner, Caroline M / Halliday, Glenda M / Brundin, Patrik / Volkmann, Jens / Schrag, Anette-Eleonore / Lang, Anthony E. ·Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. · Parkinson's Disease Research Education and Clinical Center, San Francisco Veteran's Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA. · Department of Neurology, University of California - San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA. · Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales &Neuroscience Research Australia, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · Van Andel Research Institute, Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. · Department of Clinical Neuroscience, UCL Institute of Neurology, London, UK. · Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Nat Rev Dis Primers · Pubmed #28332488.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability. The underlying molecular pathogenesis involves multiple pathways and mechanisms: α-synuclein proteostasis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis, axonal transport and neuroinflammation. Recent research into diagnostic biomarkers has taken advantage of neuroimaging in which several modalities, including PET, single-photon emission CT (SPECT) and novel MRI techniques, have been shown to aid early and differential diagnosis. Treatment of Parkinson disease is anchored on pharmacological substitution of striatal dopamine, in addition to non-dopaminergic approaches to address both motor and non-motor symptoms and deep brain stimulation for those developing intractable L-DOPA-related motor complications. Experimental therapies have tried to restore striatal dopamine by gene-based and cell-based approaches, and most recently, aggregation and cellular transport of α-synuclein have become therapeutic targets. One of the greatest current challenges is to identify markers for prodromal disease stages, which would allow novel disease-modifying therapies to be started earlier.

21 Review [Helpful instrumental examinations in idiopathic Parkinson's disease]. 2017

Walter, U / Zach, H / Liepelt-Scarfone, I / Maetzler, W. ·Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock, Deutschland. · Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Österreich. · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Niederlande. · Hertie Institut für klinische Hirnforschung, Universität Tübingen und Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, Tübingen, Deutschland. · Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105, Kiel, Deutschland. w.maetzler@neurologie.uni-kiel.de. ·Nervenarzt · Pubmed #28289798.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD) can be challenging. In these cases, additional diagnostic methods are available that can help to improve diagnostic accuracy. OBJECTIVES, MATERIAL AND METHODS: This article provides an overview of currently available and promising novel ancillary methods for the early and differential diagnosis of iPD. RESULTS: Imaging tools, such as 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) are mainly used for the differentiation between iPD and symptomatic parkinsonian syndromes (PS). High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging and iron and neuromelanin-sensitive high-field MRI sequences can become important in the future, particularly for earlier diagnosis. Transcranial B‑mode sonography of the substantia nigra and basal ganglia is established for early and differential diagnostics, especially in the combination of diagnostic markers but necessitates an adequately trained investigator and the use of validated digital image analysis instruments. DATScan can discriminate iPD from essential tremor, medication-induced parkinsonism and psychogenic movement disorder but not iPD from atypical PS. For the latter differential diagnosis, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and myocardial metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy can be helpful. Olfactory testing should preferably be used in combination with other diagnostic tests. Genetic, biochemical and histopathological tests are currently not recommended for routine use. Novel sensor-based techniques have a high potential to support clinical diagnosis of iPD but have not yet reached a developmental stage that is sufficient for clinical use. Novel sensor-based techniques have high potential to support clinical diagnosis of iPD, but have not yet reached a development stage that is sufficient for clinical use. CONCLUSION: Ancillary diagnostic methods can support the early and differential diagnosis of iPD.

22 Review Ocular and visual disorders in Parkinson's disease: Common but frequently overlooked. 2017

Ekker, Merel S / Janssen, Sabine / Seppi, Klaus / Poewe, Werner / de Vries, Nienke M / Theelen, Thomas / Nonnekes, Jorik / Bloem, Bastiaan R. ·Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; University of Twente, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, Biomedical Signal and Systems Group, Enschede, The Netherlands. Electronic address: sabineneuro.janssen@radboudumc.nl. · Medizinische Universität Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck, Austria. · Radboud University Medical Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Radboud University Medical Centre, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Rehabilitation, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28284903.

ABSTRACT: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often compensate for their motor deficits by guiding their movements visually. A wide range of ocular and visual disorders threatens the patients' ability to benefit optimally from visual feedback. These disorders are common in patients with PD, yet they have received little attention in both research and clinical practice, leading to unnecessary - but possibly treatable - disability. Based on a literature search covering 50 years, we review the range of ocular and visual disorders in patients with PD, and classify these according to anatomical structures of the visual pathway. We discuss six common disorders in more detail: dry eyes; diplopia; glaucoma and glaucoma-like visual problems; impaired contrast and colour vision; visuospatial and visuoperceptual impairments; and visual hallucinations. In addition, we review the effects of PD-related pharmacological and surgical treatments on visual function, and we offer practical recommendations for clinical management. Greater awareness and early recognition of ocular and visual problems in PD might enable timely instalment of tailored treatments, leading to improved patient safety, greater independence, and better quality of life.

23 Review [Diagnostics of clinical and prodromal idiopathic Parkinson's disease : New criteria]. 2017

Zach, H / Walter, U / Liepelt-Scarfone, I / Maetzler, W. ·Universitätsklinik für Neurologie, Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Österreich. · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Department of Neurology, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, Niederlande. · Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, Rostock, Deutschland. · Hertie Institut für klinische Hirnforschung, Universität Tübingen und Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, Tübingen, Deutschland. · Klinik für Neurologie, Universitätsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Arnold-Heller-Straße 3, 24105, Kiel, Deutschland. w.maetzler@neurologie.uni-kiel.de. ·Nervenarzt · Pubmed #28213756.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recently, the Movement Disorder Society (MDS) published an adaptation of the previous United Kingdom Brain Bank Society (UKBBS) criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (iPD). OBJECTIVES: This article presents the changes in the current clinical diagnostic criteria for IPD. Furthermore, the new MDS criteria for prodromal iPD are discussed. RESULTS: The recently introduced MDS criteria for the clinical diagnosis of iPD include useful novel features (e.g. postural instability is no longer listed as a cardinal symptom, familiar history of iPD and intake of neuroleptics at the first visit no longer lead to exclusion of the diagnosis) and red flags do not lead to exclusion of the diagnosis; however, they must be counterbalanced by the presence of supportive criteria for iPD. The criteria for identification of persons in the prodromal stage are currently established only for scientific investigations. CONCLUSION: The new MDS criteria for the diagnostics of iPD should help to improve the sensitivity and specificity.

24 Review Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements in patients with movement disorders: Specific considerations. 2017

Högl, Birgit / Stefani, Ambra. ·Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28186669.

ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome is a frequent neurological disorder with potentially serious and highly distressing treatment complications. The role and potential implications of periodic leg movements during sleep range from being a genetic risk marker for restless legs syndrome to being a cardiovascular risk factor. The diagnosis of restless legs syndrome in patients with daytime movement disorders is challenging and restless legs syndrome needs to be differentiated from other sleep-related movement disorders. This article provides an update on the diagnosis of restless legs syndrome as an independent disorder and the role of periodic leg movements and reviews the association of restless legs syndrome with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

25 Review Phenomenology and epidemiology of impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease, atypical Parkinsonian disorders and non-Parkinsonian populations. 2017

Maloney, Eimer M / Djamshidian, Atbin / O'Sullivan, Sean S. ·Department of Neurology, Cork University Hospital, Ireland. Electronic address: eimer.maloney@hse.ie. · Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria. · Department of Neurology, Cork University Hospital, Ireland; University College Cork, Ireland. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #28108021.

ABSTRACT: Impulsive-compulsive behaviours are common, quality of life affecting consequences of dopamine replacement therapy which are well recognized in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Details of the occurrence and nature of these disorders in the atypical parkinsonian neurodegenerative disorders, and in non-Parkinson's patients prescribed dopaminergic stimulation for other disease processes, are slowly emerging. Here we review what is known about the phenomenology, epidemiology and risk factors for impulsive-compulsive behaviours in Parkinson's disease and in other, less well studied, patient groups. By analyzing the available published data, this review identifies potential clues as to the underlying neurobiological mechanism of these disorders, and further identifies critical gaps yet to be addressed.

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