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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from China
Based on 2,302 articles published since 2008
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These are the 2302 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from China during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Sleep Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Present Status and Future Prospects. 2018

Shen, Yun / Liu, Chun-Feng. ·Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215004, China. · Department of Neurology and Suzhou Clinical Research Center of Neurological Disease, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215004; Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Neuropsychiatric Diseases and Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123, China. ·Chin Med J (Engl) · Pubmed #29664045.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Biomarker Discovery in Parkinson's Disease: Present Challenges and Future Opportunities. 2017

Li, Song / Le, Weidong. ·Clinical Research Center on Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116011, China. · Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory for Research on the Pathogenic Mechanisms of Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116011, China. · Clinical Research Center on Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116011, China. wdle@sibs.ac.cn. · Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory for Research on the Pathogenic Mechanisms of Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116011, China. wdle@sibs.ac.cn. · Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116011, China. wdle@sibs.ac.cn. ·Neurosci Bull · Pubmed #28936754.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial [Pay attention to researches on pain related to Parkinson's disease]. 2015

Liu, Chunfeng / Mao, Chengjie. ·Email: liucf@suda.edu.cn. ·Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi · Pubmed #25916919.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Neural computation for rehabilitation. 2014

Hu, Xiaoling / Wang, Yiwen / Zhao, Ting / Gunduz, Aysegul. ·Interdisciplinary Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong. · Qiushi Academy for Advanced Studies, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027, China. · Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Janelia Farm Research Campus, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. · J. Crayton Pruitt Family Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #25610868.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Multidisciplinary care with deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease patients. 2014

Cheung, Y F. ·Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong; Hong Kong Movement Disorder Society. ·Hong Kong Med J · Pubmed #25488032.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Chronic stress and Parkinson's disease. 2014

Hou, Gonglin / Tian, Rui / Li, Jiang / Yuan, Ti-Fei. ·Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, China. ·CNS Neurosci Ther · Pubmed #24341934.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Non-glaucomatous peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer defect. 2013

Wei, Wen-bin / Pan, Cheng / Zhou, Jin-qiong. ·Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University; Beijing Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing 100730, China (Email: trweiwenbin@yahoo.com.cn). ·Chin Med J (Engl) · Pubmed #23595367.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Review Benefits of Vitamins in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease. 2019

Zhao, Xiuzhen / Zhang, Ming / Li, Chunxiao / Jiang, Xue / Su, Yana / Zhang, Ying. ·Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, First Hospital of Jilin University, Xinmin Street No. 71, Changchun 130000, China. · Department of Pharmacology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, 126 Xin Min Street, Changchun, Jilin 130021, China. · Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong 266000, China. ·Oxid Med Cell Longev · Pubmed #30915197.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, which is clinically characterized by bradykinesia, resting tremor, abnormal posture balance, and hypermyotonia. Currently, the pathogenic mechanism of PD remains unclear. Numerous clinical studies as well as animal and cell experiments have found a certain relationship between the vitamin family and PD. The antioxidant properties of vitamins and their biological functions of regulating gene expression may be beneficial for the treatment of PD. Current clinical evidence indicates that proper supplementation of various vitamins can reduce the incidence of PD in the general population and improve the clinical symptoms of patients with PD; nevertheless, the safety of regular vitamin supplements still needs to be highlighted. Vitamin supplementation may be an effective adjuvant treatment for PD. In this review, we summarized the biological correlations between vitamins and PD as well as the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, we elaborated the therapeutic potentials of vitamins for PD.

9 Review Balancing mTOR Signaling and Autophagy in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease. 2019

Zhu, Zhou / Yang, Chuanbin / Iyaswamy, Ashok / Krishnamoorthi, Senthilkumar / Sreenivasmurthy, Sravan Gopalkrishnashetty / Liu, Jia / Wang, Ziying / Tong, Benjamin Chun-Kit / Song, Juxian / Lu, Jiahong / Cheung, King-Ho / Li, Min. ·Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. zzhou1022@gmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. nkyangchb@gmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. ashokenviro@gmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. senthilnslab@gmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. sravangs@gmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. liujiatheone@hotmail.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. wangziying.12@163.com. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. benjamintck@gmail.com. · Medical College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Rehabilitation, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China. juxian.song@gmail.com. · State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR 999078, China. jiahonglu@um.edu.mo. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. kingho@hkbu.edu.hk. · Mr. and Mrs. Ko Chi Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR 999077, China. limin@hkbu.edu.hk. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #30744070.

ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays a critical role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, and life span. mTOR signaling is a central regulator of autophagy by modulating multiple aspects of the autophagy process, such as initiation, process, and termination through controlling the activity of the unc51-like kinase 1 (ULK1) complex and vacuolar protein sorting 34 (VPS34) complex, and the intracellular distribution of TFEB/TFE3 and proto-lysosome tubule reformation. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a serious, common neurodegenerative disease characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the accumulation of Lewy bodies. An increasing amount of evidence indicates that mTOR and autophagy are critical for the pathogenesis of PD. In this review, we will summarize recent advances regarding the roles of mTOR and autophagy in PD pathogenesis and treatment. Further characterizing the dysregulation of mTOR pathway and the clinical translation of mTOR modulators in PD may offer exciting new avenues for future drug development.

10 Review The Association Between Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Supplementation, Sunlight Exposure, and Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2019

Zhou, Zonglei / Zhou, Ruzhen / Zhang, Zengqiao / Li, Kunpeng. ·Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Sichuan University West China School of Public Health, Chengdu, Sichuan, China (mainland). · Department of Anorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai, China (mainland). · School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland). · Department of Neurorehabilitation, Shanghai Second Rehabilitation Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland). ·Med Sci Monit · Pubmed #30672512.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND This literature review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the association between deficiency of vitamin D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and Parkinson's disease, and whether vitamin D from supplements and sunlight improves the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Systematic literature review was performed using databases that included the Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase. The Jadad scale (the Oxford quality scoring system) and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. RESULTS Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29-2.43; P<0.001) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.98-3.27; P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease when compared with normal controls Sunlight exposure (³15 min/week) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (OR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.10; P<0.001). The use of vitamin D supplements was effective in increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (SMD, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.40-2.18; P<0.001), but had no significant effect on motor function (MD, -1.82; 95% CI, -5.10-1.45; P=0.275) in patients with Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS Insufficiency and deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced exposure to sunlight were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. However, vitamin D supplements resulted in no significant benefits in improving motor function for patients with Parkinson's disease.

11 Review Research and development of anti-Parkinson's drugs: an analysis from the perspective of technology flows measured by patent citations. 2019

Qu, Jingwen / Lu, Jiahong / Hu, Yuanjia. ·a State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine , Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau , Taipa , China. ·Expert Opin Ther Pat · Pubmed #30632414.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: By 2020, nearly one million people will live with Parkinson's disease (PD) in the U.S. This disorder has a significant impact on patients' quality of life and is a burden on families and society. Protracted efforts have been made to treat the disease. Cumulative technological innovations are encapsulated by patents, and patent citations have been used to analyze technology diffusion processes in R&D, which is essential to identifying technology evolution trends and providing a review of PD treatment from the perspective of technology flows. AREAS COVERED: A patent citation network was utilized to analyze technology flows. Patents related to anti-PD drugs were collected from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (U.S. PTO) database. A total of 1,231 patents and 2,995 internal citations granted between 1988 and 2017 were included and analyzed. EXPERT OPINION: To launch drugs with greater efficiency and safety, approaches such as long-acting sustained release, controlled osmotic release, and other novel drug delivery systems should be emphasized. Multi-target agents could effectively reduce side effects in mono-drug therapy and are worth further exploration. Investors should keep an eye on alpha-synuclein-related therapy, gene therapy, and other experimental therapies that might trigger a historic revolution in the treatment domain.

12 Review The mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome/pyroptosis activation and their role in Parkinson's disease. 2019

Wang, Shuo / Yuan, Yu-He / Chen, Nai-Hong / Wang, Hong-Bo. ·State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. · State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address: yuanyuhe@imm.ac.cn. · State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Functions of Natural Medicines, Institute of Materia Medica, Neuroscience Center, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China; College of Pharmacy, Hunan University of Chinese Medicine, Changsha, Hunan 410208, China. Electronic address: chennh@imm.ac.cn. · Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation (Yantai University), Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China. ·Int Immunopharmacol · Pubmed #30594776.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a typical neurodegenerative disease and the pathological feature of which is the death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. At present, neuronal death caused by inflammatory cytokine-mediated neuroinflammation is being extensively studied. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an inflammatory complex existing in microglia. Its activation promotes the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β/18 (IL-1β/18) and induces pyroptosis, a type of cell death that possesses the potential for inflammation, to rupture microglia to further release IL-1β. In this review we focus on the mechanisms of activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and pyroptosis and their inflammatory effects on the development of PD. In addition, we focus on some inhibitors of NLRP3 inflammatory pathways to alleviate the progression of PD by inhibiting central inflammation and provide new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PD.

13 Review Microbial treatment: the potential application for Parkinson's disease. 2019

Fang, Xin. ·Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China. fangx2011@163.com. ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #30415447.

ABSTRACT: Alterations in the composition of the intestinal flora are associated with the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). More importantly, the possible cause-effect links between gut flora and PD pathogenesis have been identified using PD animal models. Recent studies have found that probiotics improve the symptoms associated with constipation in PD patients. In addition, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was recently shown to provide a protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Effective microbial therapy for PD includes probiotics and FMT. Therefore, microbial therapy may be a useful and novel approach for treatment of PD. In this review, I discuss the use of microbial treatment in PD.

14 Review Serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis. 2019

Jiang, Lina / Zhang, Hainan / Wang, Chunyu / Ming, Fengyu / Shi, Xiaoliu / Yang, Mei. ·Department of Neurology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. · Department of Medical Genetics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. · Department of Medical Genetics, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, 139 Middle Renmin Road, Changsha 410011, Hunan, China. Electronic address: yangmei23@csu.edu.cn. ·Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry · Pubmed #30017781.

ABSTRACT: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a critical modulator in the neurodevelopment and maintenance of both central and peripheral nervous systems, is regarded as a potential therapeutic target of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its association with PD remains unclear and the data are inconsistent. To explore the correlation, studies reporting BDNF levels in PD patients and healthy controls are searched and a sample of 1496 participants are pooled in the meta-analysis, demonstrating significantly decreased serum levels of BDNF in PD patients when compared with the healthy controls (SMD = -1.03; 95% CI [-1.83, -0.23]; P = .012). Meta-regression analysis indicates gender is an important confounding factor (Adj R

15 Review Awareness and current knowledge of Parkinson's disease: a neurodegenerative disorder. 2019

Khan, Asmat Ullah / Akram, Muhammad / Daniyal, Muhammad / Zainab, Rida. ·a Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Neuroanatomy and Neuropsychobiology , Ribeirão Preto Medical School of the University of São Paulo (FMRP-USP) , São Paulo , Brazil. · b Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, School of Medical and Health Sciences , The University of Poonch Rawalakot , Rawalakot, Pakistan. · c Department of Eastern Medicine and Surgery, Directorate of Medical Sciences , Old Campus, Allama Iqbal Road, Government College University, Faisalabad , Pakistan. · d TCM and Ethnomedicine Innovation and Development Laboratory, School of Pharmacy , Hunan University of Chinese Medicine , Changsha , China. · e College of Biology, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Plant Functional Genomics and Developmental Regulation , State Key Laboratory of Hunan University , Changsha , China. ·Int J Neurosci · Pubmed #29883227.

ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second common progressive neurodegenerative disease, distressing older men and is prevalent Worldwide. OBJECTIVES: This article is aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of PD. METHODS: A google search was performed to recognise studies that review the characteristics of PD. Search terms included 'Parkinson's disease', 'epidemiology', 'etiology', 'pathogenesis', 'clinical manifestations', 'diagnosis' and 'management of Parkinson disease'. RESULTS: PD is linked to factors such as environmental chemicals, aging, family history and pesticide exposure such as the use of synthetic heroin. PD is characterised clinically by tremors at rest, postural instability, expressionless countenance, lead pipe rigidity and less commonly cognitive impairment. After 60 years of age, PD is commonly prevalent in 1-% of the population, no racial differences are apparent, but the prevalence of PD is more common in men than women. There has also been a better understanding that the disorder may be linked with major non-motor trouble in addition to the additional generally recognised motor complications. There are various management options for the timely management of PD. As the ailment advances, further management strategies are existing; however, the management of non-motor manifestations and late stage motor complications remains mainly testing and will advantage from additional clinical studies. CONCLUSIONS: In this article, we have discussed current progress in the understanding of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and management strategies of the disease.

16 Review Hypotension and bradycardia, a serious adverse effect of piribedil, a case report and literature review. 2018

Zhang, Piao / Li, Yan / Nie, Kun / Wang, Lijuan / Zhang, Yuhu. ·Department of Neurology, Guangdong Neuroscience Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong province, China. · The Second School of Clinical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515, Guangdong province, China. · Department of Neurology, Guangdong Neuroscience Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, 510080, Guangdong province, China. yhzhangsd@126.com. ·BMC Neurol · Pubmed #30591018.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dopamine agonists (DAs) are efficacious for the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The treatment of PD with DAs is often complicated by adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic origins. The DA piribedil is widely used in Asian, European, and Latin American countries; therefore, its ADRs are pertinent to clinicians. Here we present a rare case of hypotension and bradycardia that is significantly related to the dosage of piribedil. CASE PRESENTATION: A middle-aged male, diagnosed with PD, received dopamine replacement with piribedil. When taking 50 mg piribedil daily dose, the patient didn't feel any discomfort. Two hours after taking 100 mg piribedil he presented with serious concomitant hypotension and bradycardia with a blood pressure (BP) reading of 85/48 mmHg and a heart rate (HR) of 45 beats/min when sitting. After taking 75 mg piribedil, the patient showed the same symptoms with BP reading at 70/45 mmHg and HR of 47 beats/min in the same position. Upon replacing treatment with pramipexole 0.125 mg, 0.25 mg, and 0.375 mg three times a day, no further cardiovascular effects persisted. CONCLUSIONS: No studies have previously reported the simultaneous observation of position-unrelated hypotension and bradycardia after taking small doses of piribedil. More studies are needed to explore the effects of DAs on BP and HR, especially piribedil. Piribedil is efficacious for the treatment of PD, but it is important to weigh the potential risk of hypotension and bradycardia against the clinical benefits of this drug.

17 Review Roco Proteins and the Parkinson's Disease-Associated LRRK2. 2018

Liao, Jingling / Hoang, Quyen Q. ·Department of Public Health, Wuhan University of Science and Technology School of Medicine, Wuhan 430081, China. jingling.liao@gmail.com. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. jingling.liao@gmail.com. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. qqhoang@gmail.com. · Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. qqhoang@gmail.com. · Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. qqhoang@gmail.com. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #30562929.

ABSTRACT: Small G-proteins are structurally-conserved modules that function as molecular on-off switches. They function in many different cellular processes with differential specificity determined by the unique effector-binding surfaces, which undergo conformational changes during the switching action. These switches are typically standalone monomeric modules that form transient heterodimers with specific effector proteins in the 'on' state, and cycle to back to the monomeric conformation in the 'off' state. A new class of small G-proteins called "Roco" was discovered about a decade ago; this class is distinct from the typical G-proteins in several intriguing ways. Their switch module resides within a polypeptide chain of a large multi-domain protein, always adjacent to a unique domain called COR, and its effector kinase often resides within the same polypeptide. As such, the mechanisms of action of the Roco G-proteins are likely to differ from those of the typical G-proteins. Understanding these mechanisms is important because aberrant activity in the human Roco protein LRRK2 is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. This review provides an update on the current state of our understanding of the Roco G-proteins and the prospects of targeting them for therapeutic purposes.

18 Review [Roles of exosomes in Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis]. 2018

Gu, Xiaojing / Chen, Yongping / Shang, Huifang. ·Department of Neurology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, China. hfshang2002@163.com. ·Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi · Pubmed #30298513.

ABSTRACT: Exosomes, as a kind of extracellular vesicles generated by inward budding of the endosomes to form multi-vesicular bodies (MVBs), are secreted into the extracellular milieu and the systemic circulation thereafter. By endocytosis, direct fusion or receptor-ligand interactions, exosomes can interact with receptor cells and involve in various pathophysiological processes. Accumulating evidence have indicated that exosomes may play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this paper, the roles of exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of PD and ALS are reviewed.

19 Review [Perioperative treatment progress of Parkinson's disease with hip fracture]. 2018

Xing, Fei / Li, Lang / Liu, Ming / Duan, Xin / Long, Ye / Xiang, Zhou. ·Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu Sichuan, 610041, P.R.China. · Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu Sichuan, 610041, P.R.China.xiangzhou15@hotmail.com. ·Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi · Pubmed #30238731.

ABSTRACT: Objective: To review the progress of perioperative treatments for patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures. Methods: The related literature of treatments for patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures were reviewed and analyzed from the aspects such as the perioperative management, selection of operation ways, and prognosis. Results: The patients of Parkinson's disease are more likely to sustain hip fractures because of postural instability and osteoporosis. The perioperative treatments for patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures should be determined by orthopedists, neurologist, anesthesiologist, and physical therapist. There is still controversy about the selection of operation and surgical approach. And the prognosis of patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures are associated with the severity of Parkinson's disease. Conclusion: There are few clinical studies about the patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures. The mid-term and long-term functional outcomes of patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures are unsufficient. And the best treatments of patients of Parkinson's disease and hip fractures need to be further explored.

20 Review The long-term efficacy of STN vs GPi deep brain stimulation for Parkinson disease: A meta-analysis. 2018

Peng, Lilei / Fu, Jie / Ming, Yang / Zeng, Shan / He, Haiping / Chen, Ligang. ·Department of Neurosurgery. · Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #30170458.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis assessed the long-term efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus interna (GPi) for Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials databases were searched. Outcomes were unified Parkinson disease rating scale section (UPDRS) III off-medication score, Parkinson's disease questionnaire: 39 activities of daily living (PDQ-39 ADL) score, and levodopa-equivalent dosage after DBS. RESULTS: During the off-medication state, pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of UPDRS III score was .69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.77 to 3.16, P = .58). In subgroup analysis, WMD of UPDRS III off-medication scores from baseline to 2 years and 3 years post-DBS were -.61 (95% CI = -2.97 to 1.75, P = .61) and 2.59 (95% CI = -2.30 to 7.47, P = .30). Pooled WMD of changes in tremor, rigidity, and gait scores were 1.12 (95% CI = -0.05 to 2.28, P = .06), 1.22 (95% CI = -0.51 to 2.94, P = .17) and .37 (95% CI = -0.13 to 0.87, P = .15), respectively. After DBS, pooled WMD of PDQ-39 ADL and LED were -3.36 (95% CI = -6.36 to -0.36, P = .03) and 194.89 (95% CI = 113.16 to 276.63, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: STN-DBS and GPi-DBS improve motor function and activities of daily living for PD. Differences in the long-term efficacy for PD on motor symptoms were not observed.

21 Review Cellular phenotypes as inflammatory mediators in Parkinson's disease: Interventional targets and role of natural products. 2018

Jiang, Xu / Ganesan, Palanivel / Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan / Choi, Dong-Kug / Arulselvan, Palanisamy. ·Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 3 Shajing St, Baoan Qu, Shenzhen Shi, Guangdong Sheng, 518104, China. Electronic address: dr13510864406@163.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: palanivel67@gmail.com. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India. Electronic address: thamarairaj2000@gmail.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choidk@kku.ac.kr. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India; Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, 637408, India. Electronic address: arulbio@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #30119171.

ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD. Specifically, activation of cellular phenotypes like astrocytes, microglia, activation of peripheral immune cells requires different activation signals and agents like (cytokines, misfolded protein aggregates, infectious agents, pesticides like organophosphates, etc.,). However, what is unknown is how the different cellular phenotypes respond uniquely and the role of the factors they secrete alters the signal cascades in the complex neuron-microglial connections in the CNS. Hence, understanding the role of cellular phenotypes and the inflammatory mediators, the cross talk among the signals and their receptors can help us to identify the potential therapeutic target using natural products. In this review we have tried to put together the role of cellular phenotypes as a skew that favors PD progression and we have also discussed how the lack of experimental approaches and challenges that affects understanding the cellular targets that can be used against natural derivatives in alleviating PD pathophysiology. Together, this review will provide the better insights into the role of cellular phenotypes of neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and the orchestrating factors of inflammation and how they can be targeted in a more specific way that can be used in the clinical management of PD.

22 Review The role of T cells in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. 2018

Chen, Zhichun / Chen, Shengdi / Liu, Jun. ·Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated with the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. · Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated with the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address: jly0520@hotmail.com. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #30114440.

ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has shown that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, different components of the brain's immune system may exert diverse effects on neuroinflammatory events in PD. The adaptive immune response, especially the T cell response, can trigger type 1 pro-inflammatory activities and suppress type 2 anti-inflammatory activities, eventually resulting in deregulated neuroinflammation and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Additionally, studies have increasingly shown that therapies targeting T cells can alleviate neurodegeneration and motor behavior impairment in animal models of PD. Therefore, we conclude that abnormal T cell-mediated immunity is a fundamental pathological process that may be a promising translational therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease.

23 Review Review: Revisiting the human cholinergic nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. 2018

Liu, A K L / Lim, E J / Ahmed, I / Chang, R C-C / Pearce, R K B / Gentleman, S M. ·Neuropathology Unit, Division of Brain Sciences, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK. · Department of Eye Pathology, Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London, UK. · Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, LKS Faculty of Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. · State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. ·Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol · Pubmed #30005126.

ABSTRACT: Although the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (nvlDBB) is the second largest cholinergic nucleus in the basal forebrain, after the nucleus basalis of Meynert, it has not generally been a focus for studies of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the nvlDBB has an important projection to the hippocampus and discrete lesions of the rostral basal forebrain have been shown to disrupt retrieval memory function, a major deficit seen in patients with Lewy body disorders. One reason for its neglect is that the anatomical boundaries of the nvlDBB are ill defined and this area of the brain is not part of routine diagnostic sampling protocols. We have reviewed the history and anatomy of the nvlDBB and now propose guidelines for distinguishing nvlDBB from other neighbouring cholinergic cell groups for standardizing future clinicopathological work. Thorough review of the literature regarding neurodegenerative conditions reveals inconsistent results in terms of cholinergic neuronal loss within the nvlDBB. This is likely to be due to the use of variable neuronal inclusion criteria and omission of cholinergic immunohistochemical markers. Extrapolating from those studies showing a significant nvlDBB neuronal loss in Lewy body dementia, we propose an anatomical and functional connection between the cholinergic component of the nvlDBB (Ch2) and the CA2 subfield in the hippocampus which may be especially vulnerable in Lewy body disorders.

24 Review Update on the clinical application of deep brain stimulation in sleep dysfunction of Parkinson's disease. 2018

Zou, Shuang / Lan, Yu-Long / Hu, Ya-Ping / Yin, Xiao-Xue / Liu, Wen-Long / Li, Tao / Liang, Zhanhua. ·Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, No. 222 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian, 116011, People's Republic of China. · Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, 9 Western District, Lvshun South Road, Dalian, 116044, People's Republic of China. · Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, 467 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian, 116023, People's Republic of China. · Department of Pharmacy, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 116044, People's Republic of China. · Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, No. 222 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian, 116011, People's Republic of China. litao00008908@126.com. · Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, No. 222 Zhong Shan Road, Dalian, 116011, People's Republic of China. zhanhualiangdl@163.com. ·Acta Neurol Belg · Pubmed #29987555.

ABSTRACT: Sleep dysfunctions, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep fragmentation, excessive daytime sleepiness and various other dysfunctions, can seriously affect quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Emerging evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS) exerts a substantial effect when used to treat sleep dysfunctions, which are common nonmotor symptoms experienced by patients with PD. However, far less is known about the specific mechanisms underlying the effects of DBS on sleep processes and the factors that potentially influence these effects. These issues therefore need to be further clarified. Intriguingly, a number of recent studies have evaluated the effects of applying DBS to various brain targets on sleep in patients with PD. Deeper research into the efficacy of applying DBS to each brain target may help determine which region should be targeted during surgery in PD patients. Furthermore, compared with pharmacological therapy, DBS had more beneficial effects on sleep symptoms, and appropriate management involving the joint application of dopamine replacement therapy and DBS might accelerate the effects of treatment. Here, we review the potential roles DBS may play and provide clinical guidance for the use of DBS in treating sleep dysfunctions in PD patients.

25 Review [GBA mutations and Parkinson's disease]. 2018

Wang, Dong-Xia / Xie, Jun-Xia / Song, Ning. ·Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Brain Science and Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. · Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Brain Science and Disease, Medical College of Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. ningsong@qdu.edu.cn. ·Sheng Li Xue Bao · Pubmed #29926071.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the intraneuronal Lewy bodies in this area. Genetic mutations in PD pathogenesis have been explored and better understood in recent years. GBA variants are now considered to be the single largest risk factor for PD. Gaucher disease (GD) is a lysosomal storage disorder disease and an inherited deficiency of lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GCase) arising from mutations in the gene GBA. A group of patients with GD exhibit parkinsonian symptoms, meanwhile, GBA mutations are more frequently observed in patients with PD. These lines of evidence suggest a close relationship between GBA mutations and PD. GBA mutations are associated with an earlier onset age and a distinct cognitive decline in PD. GCase loss-of-function caused by GBA mutations interferes with the degradation of α-synuclein, and α-synuclein pathology in turn inhibits normal GCase function in PD, which forms a vicious cycle. However, the exact mechanisms for this bidirectional pathogenic loop have not to be fully elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current understandings on the potential link between GBA mutations and PD pathogenesis, which may show novel insights into PD etiology and therapeutics.

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