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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Spain
Based on 1,649 articles published since 2010

These are the 1649 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Spain during 2010-2020.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline ESPEN guideline clinical nutrition in neurology. 2018

Burgos, Rosa / Bretón, Irene / Cereda, Emanuele / Desport, Jean Claude / Dziewas, Rainer / Genton, Laurence / Gomes, Filomena / Jésus, Pierre / Leischker, Andreas / Muscaritoli, Maurizio / Poulia, Kalliopi-Anna / Preiser, Jean Charles / Van der Marck, Marjolein / Wirth, Rainer / Singer, Pierre / Bischoff, Stephan C. ·Nutritional Support Unit, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: rburgos@vhebron.net. · Nutrition Unit, University Hospital Gregorio Marañón, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain. · Nutrition and Dietetics Service, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy; Fondazione Grigioni per il Morbo di Parkinson, Milano, Italy. · Nutrition Unit, ALS Centre, University Hospital of Limoges, Limoges, France. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. · Clinical Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. · Cereneo (Center for Neurology and Rehabilitation) and University Department of Internal Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Switzerland. · Department of Geriatrics, Alexianer Hospital Krefeld, Krefeld, Germany. · Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Department of Nutrition, Laikon General Hospital, Athens, Greece. · Department of Intensive Care, Erasme University Hospital, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of Geriatric Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Geriatric Medicine, Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. · Department of General Intensive Care and Institute for Nutrition Research, Rabin Medical Center, Beilinson Hospital, Tel Aviv University, Petah Tikva, Israel. · Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. ·Clin Nutr · Pubmed #29274834.

ABSTRACT: Neurological diseases are frequently associated with swallowing disorders and malnutrition. Moreover, patients with neurological diseases are at increased risk of micronutrient deficiency and dehydration. On the other hand, nutritional factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Multiple causes for the development of malnutrition in patients with neurological diseases are known including oropharyngeal dysphagia, impaired consciousness, perception deficits, cognitive dysfunction, and increased needs. The present evidence- and consensus-based guideline addresses clinical questions on best medical nutrition therapy in patients with neurological diseases. Among them, management of oropharyngeal dysphagia plays a pivotal role. The guideline has been written by a multidisciplinary team and offers 88 recommendations for use in clinical practice for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis.

2 Guideline Collective physician perspectives on non-oral medication approaches for the management of clinically relevant unresolved issues in Parkinson's disease: Consensus from an international survey and discussion program. 2015

Odin, P / Ray Chaudhuri, K / Slevin, J T / Volkmann, J / Dietrichs, E / Martinez-Martin, P / Krauss, J K / Henriksen, T / Katzenschlager, R / Antonini, A / Rascol, O / Poewe, W / Anonymous2260838. ·Department of Neurology, Lund University Hospital, 221 85 Lund, Sweden; Klinikum-Bremerhaven, D-27574 Bremerhaven, Germany. Electronic address: per.odin@med.lu.se. · King's College London, and National Parkinson Foundation Centre of Excellence, Dept of Neurology, King's College Hospital, London, UK. · Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Kentucky Clinic L-445, 740 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0284, USA. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany. · Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital and University of Oslo, N-0424 Oslo, Norway. · National Center for Epidemiology and CIBERNED, ISCIII, Avenida Monforte de Lemos 5, 28029 Madrid, Spain. · Department of Neurosurgery, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. · University Hospital of Bispebjerg, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, 2400 København, NV, Denmark. · Department of Neurology and Karl Landsteiner Institute for Neuroimmunological and Neurodegenerative Disorders, Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Ost - Donauspital, 1220 Wien Langobardenstraße 122, Austria. · Parkinson and Movement Disorders Unit, IRCCS Hospital San Camillo, Venice, Italy. · Clinical Investigation Center 1436 and Department of Clinical Pharmacology, INSERM and University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse University, 37 alées Jules Giesde, 31000 Toulouse, France; Clinical Investigation Center 1436 and Department of Neurosciences, INSERM and University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse University, 37 alées Jules Giesde, 31000 Toulouse, France. · Innsbruck Medical University/University Hospital, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #26233582.

ABSTRACT: Navigate PD was an educational program established to supplement existing guidelines and provide recommendations on the management of Parkinson's disease (PD) refractory to oral/transdermal therapies. It involved 103 experts from 13 countries overseen by an International Steering Committee (ISC) of 13 movement disorder specialists. The ISC identified 71 clinical questions important for device-aided management of PD. Fifty-six experts responded to a web-based survey, rating 15 questions as 'critically important;' these were refined to 10 questions by the ISC to be addressed through available evidence and expert opinion. Draft guidance was presented at international/national meetings and revised based on feedback. Key take-home points are: • Patients requiring levodopa >5 times daily who have severe, troublesome 'off' periods (>1-2 h/day) despite optimal oral/transdermal levodopa or non-levodopa-based therapies should be referred for specialist assessment even if disease duration is <4 years. • Cognitive decline related to non-motor fluctuations is an indication for device-aided therapies. If cognitive impairment is mild, use deep brain stimulation (DBS) with caution. For patients who have cognitive impairment or dementia, intrajejunal levodopa infusion is considered as both therapeutic and palliative in some countries. Falls are linked to cognitive decline and are likely to become more frequent with device-aided therapies. • Insufficient control of motor complications (or drug-resistant tremor in the case of DBS) are indications for device-aided therapies. Levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel infusions or subcutaneous apomorphine pump may be considered for patients aged >70 years who have mild or moderate cognitive impairment, severe depression or other contraindications to DBS.

3 Editorial The Eighth ECS Workshop on "Calcium Signaling in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases". 2019

Parys, Jan B / Pereira, Cláudia F / Villalobos, Carlos. ·KU Leuven, Laboratory for Molecular and Cellular Signaling, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Campus Gasthuisberg O/N-1 B-802, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. · Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology (CNC), University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, Faculty of Medicine, Polo I, 1st Floor, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal. · CIBB-Center for Innovative Biomedicine and Biotechnology, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, Faculty of Medicine, Polo I, 1st Floor, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal. · Faculty of Medicine, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal. · Instituto de Biología y Genética Molecular (IBGM), Universidad de Valladolid y Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 47003 Valladolid, Spain. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #31842284.

ABSTRACT: The European Calcium Society (ECS) is very glad to present the realization of a special issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences (IJMS) related to the eighth ECS workshop organized this year around the theme of "Calcium Signaling in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases" [...].

4 Editorial A tear fluid proteome of Parkinson's disease. 2019

Zetterberg, Henrik / Compta, Yaroslau. ·Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden; Clinical Neurochemistry Laboratory, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden; Department of Neurodegenerative Disease, UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London, UK; UK Dementia Research Institute at UCL, London, UK. · Parkinson's disease & Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Parkinson's disease and other degenerative movement disorders team, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Institut Clínic de Neurociències (Maria de Maetzu center), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address: ycompta@clinic.cat. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #31353307.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Parkinson's disease as a systemic pathology. 2019

Ezquerra, Mario / Martí, María-José / Fernández-Santiago, Rubén. ·Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disorders, Department of Neurology-Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, UB, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia. · Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid 28031, Spain. ·Aging (Albany NY) · Pubmed #30745469.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Moving forward the in vivo diagnosis of the synucleinopathies. 2019

Vilas, Dolores. ·Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias I Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain. dvilas.germanstrias@gencat.cat. ·Clin Auton Res · Pubmed #30721384.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial Parkinson disease, substantia nigra vulnerability, and calbindin expression: Enlightening the darkness? 2019

Blesa, Javier / Vila, Miquel. ·HM CINAC, Hospital Universitario HM Puerta del Sur, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain. · CIBERNED, Instituto Carlos III, Spain. · Vall d'Hebron Research Institute-Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies, Barcelona, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #30675930.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial We are what we eat - editors' note on the role of diet in Parkinson's disease. 2019

Marras, Connie / Obeso, Jose A. ·Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease (CM), University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · CINAC (Centro Integral de Neurociencias), University Hospital HM Puerta del Sur, CEU-San Pablo University, Móstoles, and CIBERNED, Instituto Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #30653736.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial Mitohormesis and autophagic balance in Parkinson disease. 2019

Juarez-Flores, Diana Luz / Gonzalez-Casacuberta, Ingrid / Garrabou, Gloria. ·Muscle Research and Mitochondrial Function Laboratory, Cellex-IDIBAPS, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, University of Barcelona, Internal Medicine Service, Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, Barcelona and CIBERER, Spain. ·Aging (Albany NY) · Pubmed #30650065.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease: a hard-turning point. 2019

Martinez-Castrillo, Juan Carlos. ·Movement Disorders and Neurodegenerative Unit, Service of Neurology, IRYCIS. Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid 28034, Spain jcmcastrillo@gmail.com. ·J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · Pubmed #30361297.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Editorial: New Advanced Wireless Technologies for Objective Monitoring of Motor Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Irrera, Fernanda / Cabestany, Joan / Suppa, Antonio. ·Department of Information Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunication, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Technical Research Centre for Dependency Care and Autonomous Living (CETpD), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Spain. · Sense4Care, Cornellà de Llobregat, Spain. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo (IRCCS), Pozzilli, Italy. ·Front Neurol · Pubmed #29670574.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Editorial Cerebrospinal fluid levels of alpha-synuclein in PARKINSON'S disease: Another long and winding road. 2018

Markopoulou, Katerina / Compta, Yaroslau. ·Movement Disorders Section, Department of Neurology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Chicago, Evanston, USA; University of Chicago, Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. · Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Service, ICN, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERNED, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; Physiology Unit, Department of Biomedicine, Institut de Neurociències, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address: ycompta@clinic.cat. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #29548634.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

13 Editorial Editorial: Proteomic alterations by mutations involved in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. 2017

Cardona, F / Perez-Tur, J. ·Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (IBV-CSIC) Calle Jaime Roig 11 Valencia E46010, Spain. ·Curr Protein Pept Sci · Pubmed #28879817.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

14 Editorial What would Dr. James Parkinson think today? The 21st Annual Congress of the International Parkinson's disease and movement disorders society. 2017

Obeso, Jose A / Trenkwalder, Claudia. ·HM CINAC, HM Puerta del Sur, and CEU-San Pablo University, Madrid. CIBERNED, Institute Carlos III, Spain. · Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center, Goettingen, and Paracelsus-Elena Hospital, Kassel, Germany. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28712120.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Editorial Viral hepatitis and the risk of Parkinson disease. 2017

Benito-León, Julián. ·From the Department of Neurology, University Hospital "12 de Octubre"; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED); and Department of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. jbenitol67@gmail.com. ·Neurology · Pubmed #28356459.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Editorial What Would Dr. James Parkinson Think Today? I. The Role of Functional Neurosurgery for Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Hariz, Marwan / Obeso, Jose A. ·UCL-Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. · CINAC-HM Puerta del Sur, Mostoles and CEU-San Pablo University, Madrid, Spain. · CIBERNED, Insituto Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28124429.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

17 Editorial Functions of the basal ganglia-paradox or no paradox? 2016

Crossman, Alan R / Obeso, Jose A. ·University of Manchester, Manchester, UK. · HM CINAC, HM Puerta del Sur, Mostoles, Madrid, Universidad CEU San Pablo, Madrid, Spain. · Center for Networked Biomedical Research on Neurodegenerative Diseases, Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #27506637.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

18 Editorial Advances in sensor and wearable technologies for Parkinson's disease. 2016

Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro / Maetzler, Walter. ·HM CINAC, Hospital Universitario HM Puerta del Sur, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain. · Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. · Center for Neurology and Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, Department of Neurodegeneration, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany. walter.maetzler@uni-tuebingen.de. · German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Tübingen, Germany. walter.maetzler@uni-tuebingen.de. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #27477675.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

19 Editorial The 'parkinsonian heart': a diagnostic and prognostic tool. 2015

Muxí, África. ·Nuclear Medicine Department, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pí i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. ·J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · Pubmed #25986366.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Editorial DaTscan and Parkinson's disease: DAT binding should not lead to binding decisions in clinical practice. 2014

de la Fuente-Fernández, R / Lövblad, K-O. ·Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Ferrol (CHUF), Section of Neurology, Hospital A. Marcide, Ferrol, Spain. raul.delafuente@sen.es. ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #24837615.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Editorial Nonmotor symptoms and health-related quality of life in early Parkinson's disease. 2014

Martinez-Martin, Pablo. ·Research Unit, Alzheimer Center Reina Sofía Foundation; Section of Neuroepidemiology, National Center for Epidemiology; and Center for Biomedical Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases (CIBERNED), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #24375626.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

22 Review Regional brain susceptibility to neurodegeneration: what is the role of glial cells? 2020

Cragnolini, Andrea Beatriz / Lampitella, Giorgia / Virtuoso, Assunta / Viscovo, Immacolata / Panetsos, Fivos / Papa, Michele / Cirillo, Giovanni. ·Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba; Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas (IIByT), CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina. · Human Anatomy and Laboratory of Morphology of Neuronal Networks, Department of Mental and Physical Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy. · Neuro-computing & Neuro-robotics Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid; Neural Plasticity Research Group, Instituto Investigación Sanitaria Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain. ·Neural Regen Res · Pubmed #31719244.

ABSTRACT: The main pathological feature of the neurodegenerative diseases is represented by neuronal death that represents the final step of a cascade of adverse/hostile events. Early in the neurodegenerative process, glial cells (including astrocytes, microglial cells, and oligodendrocytes) activate and trigger an insidious neuroinflammatory reaction, metabolic decay, blood brain barrier dysfunction and energy impairment, boosting neuronal death. How these mechanisms might induce selective neuronal death in specific brain areas are far from being elucidated. The last two decades of neurobiological studies have provided evidence of the main role of glial cells in most of the processes of the central nervous system, from development to synaptogenesis, neuronal homeostasis and integration into, highly specific neuro-glial networks. In this mini-review, we moved from in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration to analyze the putative role of glial cells in the early mechanisms of neurodegeneration. We report changes of transcriptional, genetic, morphological, and metabolic activity in astrocytes and microglial cells in specific brain areas before neuronal degeneration, providing evidence in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Understanding these mechanisms might increase the insight of these processes and pave the way for new specific glia-targeted therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative disorders.

23 Review Hydrogels for neuroprotection and functional rewiring: a new era for brain engineering. 2020

Fernandez-Serra, Rocío / Gallego, Rebeca / Lozano, Paloma / González-Nieto, Daniel. ·Center for Biomedical Technology, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. · Center for Biomedical Technology; Departamento de Tecnología Fotónica y Bioingeniería, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid; Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid, Spain. ·Neural Regen Res · Pubmed #31719237.

ABSTRACT: The neurological devastation of neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases reinforces our perseverance to find advanced treatments to deal with these fatal pathologies. High-performance preclinical results have failed at clinical level, as it has been the case for a wide variety of neuroprotective agents and cell-based therapies employed to treat high prevalent brain pathologies such as stroke, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. An unquestionable reality is the current absence of effective therapies to neuroprotect the brain, to arrest neurodegeneration and rewire the impaired brain circuits. Part of the problem might arise from the lack of adequate in vitro and in vivo models and that most of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are not yet clarified. Another contributing factor is the lack of efficient systems to sustain drug release at therapeutic concentrations and enhance the survival and function of grafted cells in transplantation procedures. For medical applications the use of biomaterials of different compositions and formats has experienced a boom in the last decades. Although the greater complexity of central nervous system has probably conditioned their extensive use with respect to other organs, the number of biomaterials-based applications to treat the injured brain or in the process of being damaged has grown exponentially. Hydrogel-based biomaterials have constituted a turning point in the treatment of cerebral disorders using a new form of advanced therapy. Hydrogels show mechanical properties in the range of cerebral tissue resulting very suitable for local implantation of drugs and cells. It is also possible to fabricate three-dimensional hydrogel constructs with adaptable mesh size to facilitate axonal guidance and elongation. Along this article, we review the current trends in this area highlighting the positive impact of hydrogel-based biomaterials over the exhaustive control of drug delivery, cell engraftment and axonal reinnervation in brain pathologies.

24 Review The interplay between aging-associated loss of protein homeostasis and extracellular vesicles in neurodegeneration. 2020

Guix, Francesc X. ·Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC/UAM, Madrid, Spain. ·J Neurosci Res · Pubmed #31549445.

ABSTRACT: The finding of an effective cure or treatment for neurodegenerative diseases is one of the biggest challenges for this century. Although these diseases show different clinical manifestations, the presence of toxic protein aggregates in the brain of patients is a common feature to all of them, suggesting a loss of protein homeostasis. Aging, the primary risk factor for the majority of neurodegenerative disorders, is linked to the impairment of degradative compartments such as lysosomes and autophagosomes. Besides, many genetic factors for Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or frontotemporal dementia, as examples of frequent neurodegenerative diseases, are causative of endo-lysosomal and autophagosomal dysfunctions. There is scientific evidence suggesting that neurons can counteract the accumulation of undegraded cellular material by the secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are vesicles with a size ranging from 50 to 100 nm generated in a type of endosomal compartment named multivesicular body. EVs play a crucial role in removing cellular waste, promoting protein aggregation, and spreading toxic protein aggregates in the brain of patients. In this review, the interplay between the impairment of degradative compartments, the secretion of EVs, and their pathological/beneficial role in neurodegeneration is described.

25 Review Nonpharmacological, Nonsurgical Treatments for Freezing of Gait in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review. 2019

Delgado-Alvarado, Manuel / Marano, Massimo / Santurtún, Ana / Urtiaga-Gallano, Ainhoa / Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana / Infante, Jon. ·Neurology Department, Sierrallana Hospital, Torrelavega, Spain. · Psychiatry Research Area, IDIVAL, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain. · Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain. · Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology and Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, University Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Rome, Italy. · Unit of Legal Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain. · Physical Therapy Faculty, Escuela Universitaria Gimbernat, Torrelavega, Spain. · Neuroimaging Unit, Technological Facilities, Valdecilla Biomedical Research Institute IDIVAL, Santander, Spain. · Neurology Service, University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain. · Centro de investigación en red de enfermedades neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #31769904.

ABSTRACT: Freezing of gait is a disabling phenomenon that appears in a substantial number of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients as the disease evolves. It is considered to be one of the most relevant contributing factors to worsening of quality of life. Current pharmacological or surgical treatment options have limited efficacy. Thus, alternative nonpharmacological/nonsurgical approaches have emerged in recent years in an attempt to improve quality of life in PD. This systematic review summarizes studies of such therapies over the past 5 years. Thirty-five studies were evaluated by use of a qualitative evaluation, while the methodological quality was assessed using validated tools. According to our results, there appear to be two broad categories of nonpharmacological therapies: those that seek a long-lasting benefit and those that aim to achieve a transient effect to overcome the freezing of gait episode. Among the former, it is possible to differentiate between "passive" therapies, which include transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation, and "active" therapies, which are based on different cognitive or physical training programs. Finally, "transient effect" therapies use different types of cues, such as visual, auditory, or proprioceptive stimuli, to attempt to shift the patient's habitual motor control to a goal-directed one. In conclusion, a broad spectrum of nonpharmacological/nonsurgical approaches for freezing of gait has emerged in recent years with promising results. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.