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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Iran
Based on 163 articles published since 2008
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These are the 163 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Iran during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7
1 Review Radiotracers for imaging of Parkinson's disease. 2019

Abbasi Gharibkandi, Nasrin / Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal. ·Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran; Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. · Department of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. Electronic address: sjhosseinim@yahoo.com. ·Eur J Med Chem · Pubmed #30685535.

ABSTRACT: Radiotracers along with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission computed tomography (PET) instruments have led to significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiology and pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD), clinical diagnosis and patient care. Valuable information is available on both pathology and progression of the neurodegenerative disease through human brain imaging. Preliminary data from PET and SPECT studies in early PD suggests that dopamine agonists might have a slight neuroprotective effect. They also might slow down the rate of progression of the disease. This review gives an overview of the recent SPECT and PET imaging radiotracers of the dopaminergic system imaging used in order for differential diagnosis and for the determination of the progression rate of PD.

2 Review Potential of Extracellular Vesicles in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Indications. 2018

Izadpanah, Mehrnaz / Seddigh, Arshia / Ebrahimi Barough, Somayeh / Fazeli, Seyed Abolhassan Shahzadeh / Ai, Jafar. ·Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 1417755469, Tehran, Iran. · Human and Animal Cell Bank, Iranian Biological Resource Center (IBRC), ACECR, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Neurology, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK. · Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences and Advanced Technologies in Biology, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Tissue Engineering and Applied Cell Sciences, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P. O. Box: 1417755469, Tehran, Iran. jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir. ·J Mol Neurosci · Pubmed #30140997.

ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-bound vesicles, including exosomes and microvesicles. EVs are nanometer sized, found in physiological fluids such as urine, blood, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), with a capacity of transferring various biological materials such as microRNAs, proteins, and lipids among cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Many cells in the nervous system have been shown to release EVs. These vesicles are involved in intercellular communication and a variety of biological processes such as modulation of immune response, signal transduction, and transport of genetic materials with low immunogenicity; therefore, they have also been recently investigated for the delivery of therapeutic molecules such as siRNAs and drugs in the treatment of diseases. In addition, since EV components reflect the physiological status of the cells and tissues producing them, they can be utilized as biomarkers for early detection of various diseases. In this review, we summarize EV application, in diagnosis as biomarker sources and as a carrier tool for drug delivery in EV-based therapies in neurodegenerative diseases.

3 Review RIT2: responsible and susceptible gene for neurological and psychiatric disorders. 2018

Daneshmandpour, Yousef / Darvish, Hossein / Emamalizadeh, Babak. ·Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Department of Medical Genetics, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. · Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. emamalizadeh_b@yahoo.com. ·Mol Genet Genomics · Pubmed #29860660.

ABSTRACT: RIT2 gene was recently introduced as a susceptibility gene in neurological disorders, a group of major problems in human society affecting millions of people worldwide. Several variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and CNVs, have been identified and studied in different populations. In this review, we have summarized the studies relevant to the RIT2 gene and its related disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and autism. The protein product of RIT2 is a member of the Ras superfamily that plays important roles in many vital cellular functions, such as differentiation and survival. We have also investigated the protein network of the RIT2 protein and the diseases related to members of this network so as to obtain some clues for future studies by identifying the molecular pathophysiology of neurological disorders and revealing new possible disorders related to RIT2.

4 Review Candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease. 2018

Khodadadian, Ali / Hemmati-Dinarvand, Mohsen / Kalantary-Charvadeh, Ashkan / Ghobadi, Amin / Mazaheri, Mahta. ·Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. · Department of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Electronic address: m.mazaheri@ssu.ac.ir. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #29803930.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common diseases associated with neurodegenerative disorders. It affects 3% to 4% of the population over the age of 65 years. The neuropathological dominant symptoms of PD include the destruction of neurons in the substantia nigra, thus causing striatal dopamine deficiency and the presence of intracellular inclusions that contain aggregates of α‑synuclein. The premature form of PD is familial and is known as early onset PD (EOPD). It involves a small portion of patients with PD, displaying symptoms before the age of 60 years. Although individuals who are suffering from the EOPD may have genetic changes, the molecular mechanisms that differentiate between EOPD and late onset PD (LOPD) remain unclear. Owing to the complexity of discriminating between the different forms, treatment, and management of PD, the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis seems necessary. For this purpose, many studies have been undertaken for the introduction of several biological molecules through various techniques as potential biomarkers. The main focus of these studies was on α-synuclein. However, there are other molecules that are potential biomarkers, such as microRNAs and peptoids. In this article, we tried to review some of these studies.

5 Review Parkinson Disease from Mendelian Forms to Genetic Susceptibility: New Molecular Insights into the Neurodegeneration Process. 2018

Karimi-Moghadam, Amin / Charsouei, Saeid / Bell, Benjamin / Jabalameli, Mohammad Reza. ·Division of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. · Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Human Genetics & Genomic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. · Division of Genetics, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. mjaf1d14@soton.ac.uk. · Human Genetics & Genomic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Southampton General Hospital, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. mjaf1d14@soton.ac.uk. ·Cell Mol Neurobiol · Pubmed #29700661.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is known as a common progressive neurodegenerative disease which is clinically diagnosed by the manifestation of numerous motor and nonmotor symptoms. PD is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with both familial and sporadic forms. To date, researches in the field of Parkinsonism have identified 23 genes or loci linked to rare monogenic familial forms of PD with Mendelian inheritance. Biochemical studies revealed that the products of these genes usually play key roles in the proper protein and mitochondrial quality control processes, as well as synaptic transmission and vesicular recycling pathways within neurons. Despite this, large number of patients affected with PD typically tends to show sporadic forms of disease with lack of a clear family history. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) meta-analyses on the large sporadic PD case-control samples from European populations have identified over 12 genetic risk factors. However, the genetic etiology that underlies pathogenesis of PD is also discussed, since it remains unidentified in 40% of all PD-affected cases. Nowadays, with the emergence of new genetic techniques, international PD genomics consortiums and public online resources such as PDGene, there are many hopes that future large-scale genetics projects provide further insights into the genetic etiology of PD and improve diagnostic accuracy and therapeutic clinical trial designs.

6 Review Dysfunction in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway and Susceptibility to Schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases. 2018

Mohammadi, Alireza / Amooeian, Vahid Ghasem / Rashidi, Ehsan. ·Neuroscience Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Students` Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ·Curr Gene Ther · Pubmed #29512462.

ABSTRACT: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a dominant neurotrophic factor in the brain which plays a crucial role in differentiation, regeneration and plasticity mechanisms. Binding of the BDNF to its high-affinity Tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor leads to phosphorylation of TrkB, thus activating the three important downstream intracellular signaling cascades within the neural cells including phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT), Phospholipase C-γ (PLCγ), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-related kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways. Transcription of these pathways is regulated by cAMP Response Element-Binding protein (CREB) transcription factor, which can upregulate gene expression. In this review, we attempted to explore the role of BDNF and its associated pathways in susceptibility to Schizophrenia (Scz), Alzheimer's (AD), and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Furthermore, we discuss dysfunction in BDNF signaling pathway and the therapeutic potential of BDNF in the treatment of these disorders. The review covers various therapeutic strategies including BDNF gene therapy, transplantation of BDNFexpressing cell grafts, epigenetic manipulation, and intraparenchymal BDNF protein infusion as well. This review seeks to achieve these goals by reviewing recent studies on BDNF and examining the details of BDNF pathway in any of the above-mentioned diseases.

7 Review Neurotrophic factors hold promise for the future of Parkinson's disease treatment: is there a light at the end of the tunnel? 2018

Nasrolahi, Ava / Mahmoudi, Javad / Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl / Karimipour, Mohammad / Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed / Salehi, Roya / Farhoudi, Mehdi. ·Molecular Medicine Department, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51656-87386, Iran. · Neurosciences Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51666-14756, Iran. · Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51656-87386, Iran. · Neuroscience Department, Faculty of Advanced Medical Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51656-87386, Iran. · Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51656-87386, Iran. ·Rev Neurosci · Pubmed #29305570.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder and is characterized by a spectrum of clinicopathologic signs and a complex etiology. PD results from the degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the substantia nigra. Current therapies for PD are only able to alleviate symptoms without stopping disease progression. In addition, the available therapeutic strategies do not have long-lasting effects. Furthermore, these therapies cause different ranges of adverse side effects. There is great interest in neurotrophic factors (NTFs) due to their ability to promote the survival of different neural cells. These factors are divided into four families: neurotrophins, neurokines, the glial cell line-derived NTF family of ligands, and the newly recognized cerebral DA NTF/mesencephalic astrocyte-derived NTF family. The protective and therapeutic effects of these factors on DAergic neurons make them suitable for the prevention of progressive cell loss in PD. Based on the above premise, we focus on the protective effects of NTFs, especially CDNF and MANF, on nigrostriatal DAergic neurons in PD.

8 Review Metals and Parkinson's Disease: Mechanisms and Biochemical Processes. 2018

Bjorklund, Geir / Stejskal, Vera / Urbina, Mauricio A / Dadar, Maryam / Chirumbolo, Salvatore / Mutter, Joachim. ·Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Mo i Rana, Norway. · Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden. · Departamento de Zoologia, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanograficas, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion, Chile. · Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran. · Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. · Department of Environmental and Integrative Medicine, Medical Center, Konstanz, Germany. · Paracelsus Clinica al Ronc, Castaneda, Switzerland. ·Curr Med Chem · Pubmed #29189118.

ABSTRACT: Genetic background accounts for only 5 to 10% of the reported cases of Parkinson's disease (PD), while the remaining cases are of unknown etiology. It is believed that environmental factors may be involved in the causality of a large proportion of PD cases. Several PD genes are activated by xenobiotic exposure, and a link between pesticide exposure and PD has been demonstrated. Many epidemiological studies have shown an association between PD and exposure to metals such as mercury, lead, manganese, copper, iron, aluminum, bismuth, thallium, and zinc. This review explores the biological effects, the pathogenetic processes, genetic susceptibilities to metals as well as examining future strategies for PD treatment, such as chelation therapy.

9 Review Autophagy, its mechanisms and regulation: Implications in neurodegenerative diseases. 2017

Moloudizargari, Milad / Asghari, Mohammad Hossein / Ghobadi, Emad / Fallah, Marjan / Rasouli, Shima / Abdollahi, Mohammad. ·Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. · Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Student Research Committee, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. · Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Toxicology and Diseases Group, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: Mohammad@TUMS.Ac.Ir. ·Ageing Res Rev · Pubmed #28923312.

ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a major regulatory cellular mechanism which gives the cell an ability to cope with some of the destructive events that normally occur within a metabolically living cell. This is done by maintaining the cellular homeostasis, clearance of damaged organelles and proteins and recycling necessary molecules like amino acids and fatty acids. There is a wide array of factors that influence autophagy in the state of health and disease. Disruption of these mechanisms may not only give rise to several autophagy-related disease, but also it can occur as the result of intracellular changes induced during disease pathogenesis causing exacerbation of the disease. Our knowledge is increasing regarding the role of autophagy and its mechanisms in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Indeed, getting to know about the pathways of autophagy and its regulation can provide the basis for designing therapeutic interventions. In the present paper, we review the pathways of autophagy, its regulation and the possible autophagy-targeting interventions for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

10 Review The role of Th17 cells in auto-inflammatory neurological disorders. 2017

Tahmasebinia, Foozhan / Pourgholaminejad, Arash. ·Department of Biological Sciences, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan, Iran. · Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran; Department of Regenerative Biomedicine, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: a.pourgholaminejad@modares.ac.ir. ·Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry · Pubmed #28760387.

ABSTRACT: The role of T helper 17 (Th17) cells in auto-inflammatory neurological disorders such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and schizophrenia has not been clarified completely. Th17-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-17, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ have a critical role in the pathogenesis of these disorders. In this review, we demonstrate the role of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in the immunopathology of above-mentioned disorders to get a better understanding of neuroinflammatory mechanisms mediated by Th17 cells associated with events leading to neurodegeneration.

11 Review Hyperechogenicity of substantia nigra for differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis. 2017

Shafieesabet, Azin / Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad / Shafieesabet, Azadeh / Delbari, Ahmad / Baradaran, Hamid Reza / Postuma, Ronald B / Lökk, Johan. ·Medical Student Research Committee (MSRC), Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: azin.sh68@gmail.com. · Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: sm.fereshtehnejad@mail.mcgill.ca. · Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address: a.shafieesabet@gmail.com. · Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Iranian Research Center on Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: ahmad_1128@yahoo.com. · Endocrine Research Center, Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: baradaran.hr@iums.ac.ir. · Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada; Centre for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address: ron.postuma@mcgill.ca. · Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: johan.lokk@karolinska.se. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28647434.

ABSTRACT: Studies have suggested that the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease have abnormal ultrasound hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra, and that this may be useful in diagnosis. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate diagnostic value of substantia nigra ultrasound to differentiate Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonism and from essential tremor. We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant studies published until November 2016. Eligible articles were screened, data were extracted and study quality was scored by two independent reviewers. We applied random effect models to calculate pooled estimates for the prevalence of hyperechogenicity in each condition. For final meta-analysis, 71 articles with a total number of 5730 participants (idiopathic Parkinson's disease: 4494, atypical parkinsonism: 594, essential tremor: 642) were included. The pooled prevalence rate of hyperechogenicity was 84% (95 %CI 80-87%) in idiopathic Parkinson's disease, 28% (95% CI 20-36%) in atypical parkinsonism and 15% (95% CI 7-23%) in essential tremor. Based on our meta-analysis, substantia nigra hyperechogenecity has 75% (95% CI: 60-86%) sensitivity and 70% (95% CI: 55-81%) specificity to differentiate idiopathic Parkinson's disease from atypical parkinsonism. Sensitivity and specificity to distinguish idiopathic Parkinson's disease from essential tremor was calculated as 78% (95% CI: 69-85%) and 85% (95% CI: 77-91%), respectively. Findings from our meta-analysis showed that transcranial sonography can provide useful information to differentiate idiopathic Parkinson's disease from mimicking movement disorders, although sensitivity and specificity are suboptimal, particularly for differentiating from atypical parkinsonism.

12 Review Neuroprotective Effects of Citrus Fruit-Derived Flavonoids, Nobiletin and Tangeretin in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Braidy, Nady / Behzad, Sahar / Habtemariam, Solomon / Ahmed, Touqeer / Daglia, Maria / Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad / Sobarzo-Sanchez, Eduardo / Nabavi, Seyed Fazel. ·Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Sydney. Australia. · School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Pharmacognosy Research Laboratories, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Central Avenue, Chatham-Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom. · Attaur- Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad. Pakistan. · Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, University of Pavia, Lombardy, Italy. · Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Departamento de Farmacia y Tecnología Farmacéutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782. Spain. ·CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #28474543.

ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases, namely Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease represent a deleterious impact worldwide. Despite extensive preclinical and clinical research in neurodegenerative disorders, therapeutic strategies aimed at the prevention and chronic treatment of neurodegenerative conditions have not been successfully translated to the clinic. Therefore, the identification of novel pharmacological intervention derived from natural products is warranted. Nobiletin and tangeretin are important citrus flavonoids derived from the peel and other parts of Citrus L. genus, and have been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in several in vitro and in vivo studies. Apart from there antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, nobiletin and tangeretin have been shown to attenuate cholinergic deficits, reduce the abnormal accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta peptides, reverse N-methyl- D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction, ameliorate ischemic injury, inhibit hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, enhance neprilysin levels, modulate several signaling cascades, and protect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) toxicity. Taken together, these naturally occurring phytochemicals may represent beneficial drug candidates for the treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

13 Review Resting-state functional reorganization in Parkinson's disease: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis. 2017

Tahmasian, Masoud / Eickhoff, Simon B / Giehl, Kathrin / Schwartz, Frank / Herz, Damian M / Drzezga, Alexander / van Eimeren, Thilo / Laird, Angela R / Fox, Peter T / Khazaie, Habibolah / Zarei, Mojtaba / Eggers, Carsten / Eickhoff, Claudia R. ·Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Germany; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran; Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address: masoudtahmasian@gmail.com. · Institute of Clinical Neuroscience & Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, INM-7), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Germany. · Medical Research Council Brain Network Dynamics Unit at the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom; Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Germany; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA. · Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA. · Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. · Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran; School of Cognitive Sciences, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital Cologne, Germany; Department of Neurology, Phillips University Marburg, Germany. · Institute for Systems Neuroscience, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. ·Cortex · Pubmed #28467917.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Studies using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate underlying pathophysiology of motor and non-motor symptoms in PD yielded largely inconsistent results. This quantitative neuroimaging meta-analysis aims to identify consistent abnormal intrinsic functional patterns in PD across studies. We used PubMed to retrieve suitable resting-state studies and stereotactic data were extracted from 28 individual between-group comparisons. Convergence across their findings was tested using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. We found convergent evidence for intrinsic functional disturbances in bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the supramarginal gyrus in PD patients compared to healthy subjects. In follow-up task-based and task-independent functional connectivity (FC) analyses using two independent healthy subject data sets, we found that the regions showing convergent aberrations in PD formed an interconnected network mainly with the default mode network (DMN). Behavioral characterization of these regions using the BrainMap database suggested associated dysfunction of perception and executive processes. Taken together, our findings highlight the role of parietal cortex in the pathophysiology of PD.

14 Review Current insights into pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease: Approach to mevalonate pathway and protective role of statins. 2017

Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil / Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Sobhan / Khoshbin, Katayoun / Dehpour, Ahmad Reza. ·Department of Toxicology-Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Toxicology-Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran. · School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Experimental Medicine Research Center, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: dehpour@yahoo.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #28419968.

ABSTRACT: Although Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as the second most common life threatening age-related neurodegenerative disorder, but the underlying mechanisms for pathogenesis of PD are remained to be fully found. However, a complex relationship between genetic and environmental predisposing factors are involved in progression of PD. Dopaminergic neuronal cell death caused by mutations and accumulation of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites was suggested as the main strategy for PD, but current studies have paid attention to the role of mevalonate pathway in incidence of neurodegenerative diseases including PD. The discovery may change the therapeutic protocols from symptomatic treatment by dopamine precursors and agonists to neurodegenerative process halting drugs. Moreover, the downstream metabolites of mevalonate pathway may be used as diagnostic biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. Statins, as cholesterol lowering drugs, may ameliorate the enzyme complex dysfunction, a key step in the progression of the neurodegenerative disorders, oxidative stress-induced damage and neuro-inflammation. Statins exert the neuroprotective effects on striatal dopaminergic neurons through blocking the mevalonate pathway. In the present review, we have focused on the new approaches to pathogenesis of PD regarding to mevalonate pathway, in addition to the previous understood mechanisms for the disease. It tries to elucidate the novel findings about PD for the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Moreover, we explain the controversial role of statins in improvement or progression of PD and the position of these drugs in neuroprotection in PD patients.

15 Review A review of fuzzy cognitive maps in medicine: Taxonomy, methods, and applications. 2017

Amirkhani, Abdollah / Papageorgiou, Elpiniki I / Mohseni, Akram / Mosavi, Mohammad R. ·Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran. Electronic address: amirkhani@ieee.org. · Dept. of Computer Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Central Greece, Lamia 35100, Greece. Electronic address: epapageorgiou@teiste.gr. · Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran. Electronic address: amohseni@elec.iust.ac.ir. · Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114, Iran. Electronic address: m_mosavi@iust.ac.ir. ·Comput Methods Programs Biomed · Pubmed #28325441.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A high percentage of medical errors, committed because of physician's lack of experience, huge volume of data to be analyzed, and inaccessibility to medical records of previous patients, can be reduced using computer-aided techniques. Therefore, designing more efficient medical decision-support systems (MDSSs) to assist physicians in decision-making is crucially important. Through combining the properties of fuzzy logic and neural networks, fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) are among the latest, most efficient, and strongest artificial intelligence techniques for modeling complex systems. This review study is conducted to identify different FCM structures used in MDSS designs. The best structure for each medical application can be introduced by studying the properties of FCM structures. METHODS: This paper surveys the most important decision- making methods and applications of FCMs in the medical field in recent years. To investigate the efficiency and capability of different FCM models in designing MDSSs, medical applications are categorized into four key areas: decision-making, diagnosis, prediction, and classification. Also, various diagnosis and decision support problems addressed by FCMs in recent years are reviewed with the goal of introducing different types of FCMs and determining their contribution to the improvements made in the fields of medical diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: In this survey, a general trend for future studies in this field is provided by analyzing various FCM structures used for medical purposes, and the results from each category. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the unique specifications of FCMs in integrating human knowledge and experience with computer-aided techniques, they are among practical instruments for MDSS design. In the not too distant future, they will have a significant role in medical sciences.

16 Review A Mini Review on the Chemistry and Neuroprotective Effects of Silymarin. 2017

Devi, Kasi Pandima / Malar, Dicson Sheeja / Braidy, Nady / Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad / Nabavi, Seyed Fazel. ·Department of Biotechnology, Alagappa University, Karaikudi-630 004, Tamil Nadu. India. · Centre for Healthy Brain Ageing, School of Psychiatry, University of New South Wales, Australia. · Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ·Curr Drug Targets · Pubmed #28025940.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The plant milk thistle and silymarin has been traditionally used as a natural remedy for the treatment of various ailments including neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease and cerebral ischemia for over 2000 years. OBJECTIVE: In this article we review the neuroprotective effects of silymarin against various neurological dysfunctions. RESULTS: The neuroprotective effects conferred by silymarin include modulation of various antioxidant mechanisms, and several kinases involved in cell signaling pathways, inhibition of the inflammatory response generated during neurodegeneration, neurotropic effects, regulation of neurotransmitters and inhibition of apoptosis. The ease of availability, comparative low cost and safety profile provide additional advantages for the use of this compound as a potent drug with immense clinical benefit. However, there is a growing need for improvements in the bioavailability of silymarin and related products, and more consistent and reliable human trials are required to accurately validate the neuroprotective efficacy of this natural compound. CONCLUSION: The promising outcomes of the studies mentioned in this review provide renewed insight into the clinical relevance of silymarin in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders where neuroinflammation and oxidative stress are pathologically relevant to disease progression.

17 Review Does any drug to treat cancer target mTOR and iron hemostasis in neurodegenerative disorders? 2017

Jodeiri Farshbaf, Mohammad / Ghaedi, Kamran. ·Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003, USA. Mohamad7@nmsu.edu. · Department of Biology, School of Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran. · Department of Cellular Biotechnology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Biotechnology, ACECR, Isfahan, Iran. ·Biometals · Pubmed #27853903.

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease are increased by age. Alleviation of their symptoms and protection of normal neurons against degeneration are the main aspects of the research to establish novel therapeutic strategies. Iron as the one of most important cation not only play important role in the structure of electron transport chain proteins but also has pivotal duties in cellular activities. But disruption in iron hemostasis can make it toxin to neurons which causes lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and etc. In patients with Alzheimer and Parkinson misbalancing in iron homeostasis accelerate neurodegeneration and cause neuroinflmmation. mTOR as the common signaling pathway between cancer and neurodegenerative disorders controls iron uptake and it is in active form in both diseases. Anti-cancer drugs which target mTOR causes iron deficiency and dual effects of mTOR inhibitors can candidate them as a therapeutic strategy to alleviate neurodegeneration/inflammation because of iron overloading.

18 Review The roles of non-coding RNAs in Parkinson's disease. 2016

Majidinia, Maryam / Mihanfar, Aynaz / Rahbarghazi, Reza / Nourazarian, Alireza / Bagca, BakiyeGoker / Avci, Çığır Biray. ·Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. · Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Laboratories, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. alinour65@gmail.com. · Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. alinour65@gmail.com. · Research Center for Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. alinour65@gmail.com. · Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. · Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. cbavci@gmail.com. ·Mol Biol Rep · Pubmed #27492082.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered as a high prevalence neurodegenerative disorders worldwide. Pathologically, the demise of dopamine-producing cells, in large part due to an abnormal accumulation of the α-synuclein in the substantia nigra, is one of the main causes of the disease. Up until now, many de novo investigations have been conducted to disclose the mechanisms underlying in PD. Among them, impacts of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) on the pathogenesis and/or progression of PD need to be highlighted. microRNAs (miRNAs) and long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) are more noteworthy in this context. miRNAs are small ncRNAs (with 18-25 nucleotide in length) that control the expression of multiple genes at post-transcriptional level, while lncRNAs have longer size (over 200 nucleotides) and are involved in some key biological processes through various mechanisms. Involvement of miRNAs has been well documented in the development of PD, particularly gene expression. Hence, in this current review, we will discuss the impacts of miRNAs in regulation of the expression of PD-related genes and the role of lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of PD.

19 Review Neuroprotective Effects of Fisetin in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Diseases: From Chemistry to Medicine. 2016

Nabavi, Seyed Fazel / Braidy, Nady / Habtemariam, Solomon / Sureda, Antoni / Manayi, Azadeh / Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad. ·Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, P.O. Box 19395-5487, Iran. Nabavi208@gmail.com. ·Curr Top Med Chem · Pubmed #26845554.

ABSTRACT: According to the epidemiological reports published by the World Health Organization, the proportion of elderly people (over 60 years) will increase from 11% to 22% by 2050 worldwide. This increase will be associated with a growing rate of morbidity and mortality of age-related diseases. Mental and neurodegenerative diseases are important health problems in elderly people. Therefore, recent research has been focused on finding effective neuroprotective agents with low adverse effects. Over the last two decades, much attention has been drawn to plant-derived bioactive compounds as novel therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Among them, flavonoid chemical class is known as one of the most bioactive and non-toxic phytochemicals, which are widely found in different herbal medicines and edible plants. Fisetin is one of the most common and bioactive flavonoids which possesses potential neuroprotective effects. Fisetin also enhances learning and memory, decreases neuronal cell death, and suppresses oxidative stress. The present paper aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the beneficial effects of fisetin on neurodegenerative diseases, especially AD and PD. In addition, we provide information regarding the chemistry, sources, bioavailability and clinical impacts of fisetin to provide a broad spectrum for the use of this compound as a new approach to the treatment of AD and PD.

20 Review Air pollution, a rising environmental risk factor for cognition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration: The clinical impact on children and beyond. 2016

Calderón-Garcidueñas, L / Leray, E / Heydarpour, P / Torres-Jardón, R / Reis, J. ·The University of Montana, Missoula, MT, 59812, USA; Universidad del Valle de México, Mexico City 04850, Mexico. · EHESP Sorbonne Paris Cité, Rennes, France. · MS Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico. · Service de Neurologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hôpital de Hautepierre, 1, avenue Molière, 67200 Strasbourg, France. Electronic address: Jacques.reis@wanadoo.fr. ·Rev Neurol (Paris) · Pubmed #26718591.

ABSTRACT: Air pollution (indoors and outdoors) is a major issue in public health as epidemiological studies have highlighted its numerous detrimental health consequences (notably, respiratory and cardiovascular pathological conditions). Over the past 15 years, air pollution has also been considered a potent environmental risk factor for neurological diseases and neuropathology. This review examines the impact of air pollution on children's brain development and the clinical, cognitive, brain structural and metabolic consequences. Long-term potential consequences for adults' brains and the effects on multiple sclerosis (MS) are also discussed. One challenge is to assess the effects of lifetime exposures to outdoor and indoor environmental pollutants, including occupational exposures: how much, for how long and what type. Diffuse neuroinflammation, damage to the neurovascular unit, and the production of autoantibodies to neural and tight-junction proteins are worrisome findings in children chronically exposed to concentrations above the current standards for ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and may constitute significant risk factors for the development of Alzheimer's disease later in life. Finally, data supporting the role of air pollution as a risk factor for MS are reviewed, focusing on the effects of PM10 and nitrogen oxides.

21 Review Oxidative stress and Parkinson's disease: New hopes in treatment with herbal antioxidants. 2016

Sarrafchi, Amir / Bahmani, Mahmoud / Shirzad, Hedayatollah / Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud. ·Medical Plants Research Center, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran. rafieian@yahoo.com. ·Curr Pharm Des · Pubmed #26561062.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder due to dopamine deficit in substatia nigra. PD is mainly a sporadic disease with unestablished etiology. However, exposure to environmental toxins, head trauma, inflammation, and free radicals are potential reasons. Recently, the role of oxidative stress in neurological abnormalities, including PD, has been particularly addressed. Antioxidant remedies, particularly herbal antioxidants, have revealed new perspectives of research and therapy as possible preventive and therapeutic approaches for PD. In this paper, we reviewed the recently published papers on the effects of herbal medicines on PD alongside the pathogenesis of PD with regard to oxidative stress.

22 Review A review of presented mathematical models in Parkinson's disease: black- and gray-box models. 2016

Sarbaz, Yashar / Pourakbari, Hakimeh. ·School of Engineering Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. yashar.sarbaz@tabrizu.ac.ir. · School of Engineering Emerging Technologies, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran. ·Med Biol Eng Comput · Pubmed #26546075.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most common movement disorders, is caused by damage to the central nervous system. Despite all of the studies on PD, the formation mechanism of its symptoms remained unknown. It is still not obvious why damage only to the substantia nigra pars compacta, a small part of the brain, causes a wide range of symptoms. Moreover, the causes of brain damages remain to be fully elucidated. Exact understanding of the brain function seems to be impossible. On the other hand, some engineering tools are trying to understand the behavior and performance of complex systems. Modeling is one of the most important tools in this regard. Developing quantitative models for this disease has begun in recent decades. They are very effective not only in better understanding of the disease, offering new therapies, and its prediction and control, but also in its early diagnosis. Modeling studies include two main groups: black-box models and gray-box models. Generally, in the black-box modeling, regardless of the system information, the symptom is only considered as the output. Such models, besides the quantitative analysis studies, increase our knowledge of the disorders behavior and the disease symptoms. The gray-box models consider the involved structures in the symptoms appearance as well as the final disease symptoms. These models can effectively save time and be cost-effective for the researchers and help them select appropriate treatment mechanisms among all possible options. In this review paper, first, efforts are made to investigate some studies on PD quantitative analysis. Then, PD quantitative models will be reviewed. Finally, the results of using such models are presented to some extent.

23 Review A systematic review on the applications of resting-state fMRI in Parkinson's disease: Does dopamine replacement therapy play a role? 2015

Tahmasian, Masoud / Bettray, Lisa M / van Eimeren, Thilo / Drzezga, Alexander / Timmermann, Lars / Eickhoff, Claudia R / Eickhoff, Simon B / Eggers, Carsten. ·Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address: masoud.tahmasian@uk-koeln.de. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. · Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany. · Institute of Clinical Neuroscience & Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany. ·Cortex · Pubmed #26386442.

ABSTRACT: Functional neuroimaging techniques provide important insight into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) in-vivo. Recently, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has been applied as a non-invasive tool in many studies to assess functional abnormalities observed in PD without the effects of particular motor or cognitive tasks. In this review, we summarized 50 original PD rs-fMRI studies and subdivided them based on the medication status of the patients to highlight the impact of dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) when rs-fMRI was used to assess patients with PD. Although there are many different published approaches to analyzing rs-fMRI in PD, it seems that DRT plays a critical role in the functional reorganization of the brain throughout all of these approaches. In particular, studies that compared PD patients with and without medication demonstrated that DRT normalizes aberrant functional patterns in PD and leads to an improvement of PD symptoms. Thus, researchers should consider DRT as a confounding factor, which could result in misinterpretations. We suggest that performing rs-fMRI in de novo patients could be a method of choice to study the fundamental functional abnormalities in PD independent of the effects of DRT. However, it is necessary to carefully control for excessive involuntary head motions in the patients not receiving DRT. On the other hand, recruiting patients under daily DRT might be favorable to assess particular interventions in clinical routine.

24 Review Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) signaling: Implications for Parkinson's disease. 2015

Golpich, Mojtaba / Amini, Elham / Hemmati, Fatemeh / Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed / Rahmani, Behrouz / Mohamed, Zahurin / Raymond, Azman Ali / Dargahi, Leila / Ghasemi, Rasoul / Ahmadiani, Abolhassan. ·Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · NeuroBiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Neurophysiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: Rghasemi60@sbmu.ac.ir. · Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: aahmadiani@yahoo.com. ·Pharmacol Res · Pubmed #25829335.

ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) dysregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders, affecting the central nervous system (CNS) encompassing both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Several lines of evidence have illustrated a key role of the GSK-3 and its cellular and molecular signaling cascades in the control of neuroinflammation. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β), one of the GSK-3 isomers, plays a major role in neuronal apoptosis and its inhibition decreases expression of alpha-Synuclein (α-Synuclein), which make this kinase an attractive therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons by neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. Thus, understanding the role of GSK-3β in PD will enhance our knowledge of the basic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disorder and facilitate the identification of new therapeutic avenues. In recent years, GSK-3β has been shown to play essential roles in modulating a variety of cellular functions, which have prompted efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors as therapeutics. In this review, we summarize GSK-3 signaling pathways and its association with neuroinflammation. Moreover, we highlight the interaction between GSK-3β and several cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis of PD, including the accumulation of α-Synuclein aggregates, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we discuss about GSK-3β inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy in PD.

25 Review Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate, a Promising Molecule for Parkinson's Disease? 2015

Renaud, Justine / Nabavi, Seyed Fazel / Daglia, Maria / Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad / Martinoli, Maria-Grazia. ·1 Department of Medical Biology and Research Group in Neuroscience, Université du Québec , Trois-Rivières, Québec, Canada . · 2 Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran . · 3 Department of Drug Sciences, Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology Section, University of Pavia , Italy . · 4 Department of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, Université Laval and CHU Research Center , Québec, Canada . ·Rejuvenation Res · Pubmed #25625827.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, and it is characterized by the loss of the neurotransmitter dopamine and neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Thus far, current therapeutic strategies have failed to address neuronal degeneration. It has been reported that overproduction of reactive oxygen species, resulting in oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases through the induction of macromolecular oxidative damage and modulation of intracellular signaling pathways concurring to neuronal cell death. Indeed, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs have been the subject of recommendation as a complementary therapy alongside an effective symptomatic treatment to hamper the progression of PD. Today, much attention is paid to polyphenols in light of their potent capacity to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, while having much fewer side effects than most other drugs. Camellia sinensis L. is the most common ancient herbal tea prepared as a beverage worldwide and it possesses numerous beneficial effects on human health. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the best-known bioactive component of C. sinensis and is recognized to exert potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, protein aggregation, autophagy, and neuronal cell death in vitro as well as in vivo. The present review appraises the available literature on the beneficial role of epigallocatechin-3-gallate pertaining to dopaminergic degeneration characteristic of PD with particular emphasis on its possible mechanisms of action.

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