Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Korea
Based on 841 articles published since 2008
||||

These are the 841 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Korea during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline derivatives for treating Parkinson's disease: implications for drug discovery. 2016

Kim, Chun-Hyung / Leblanc, Pierre / Kim, Kwang-Soo. ·a Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory , McLean Hospital and Program in Neuroscience, Harvard Medical School , Belmont , MA , USA. · b Paean Biotechnology Inc. , Daejeon , Korea. ·Expert Opin Drug Discov · Pubmed #26924734.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Familial Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism. 2015

Tomiyama, Hiroyuki / Lesage, Suzanne / Tan, Eng-King / Jeon, Beom S. ·Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6 UMRS 1127, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière (ICM), Paris, France. · Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital and Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #25961036.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial GBA mutations and Parkinson disease: when genotype meets phenotype. 2015

Scholz, Sonja W / Jeon, Beom S. ·From the Department of Neurology (S.W.S.), Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore · Laboratory of Neurogenetics (S.W.S.), National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD · and Department of Neurology (B.S.J.), Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea. ·Neurology · Pubmed #25653294.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial Can phototherapy ameliorate the progression of Parkinson's disease? 2014

Jang, Insoo / Han, Changho. ·1 Department of Internal Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Woosuk University , Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea. ·Photomed Laser Surg · Pubmed #25093424.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Review Therapeutic potentials of plant iridoids in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: A review. 2019

Dinda, Biswanath / Dinda, Manikarna / Kulsi, Goutam / Chakraborty, Ankita / Dinda, Subhajit. ·Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala, Tripura, 799 022, India. Electronic address: dindabtu@gmail.com. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesvile, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave, VA, 22908, USA. · College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151742, Republic of Korea. · Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala, Tripura, 799 022, India. · Department of Chemistry, Dasaratha Deb Memorial College, Khowai, Tripura, 799201, India. ·Eur J Med Chem · Pubmed #30877973.

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. AD is characterized by deposition of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) proteins and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the neurons located particularly in hippocampus and cerebral cortex regions of brain, resulting the neuronal loss, while PD is characterized by deposition of intraneuronal aggregates of mostly composed of alpha-synuclein gene as Lewy bodies (LB) in the striatal region, known as substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of brain, leading to the death of dopaminergic neurons. These are known as pathological hallmarks of these diseases. However, in some overlapping cases, known as Alzheimer with Parkinson disease or vice versa, alpha-synuclein deposition in AD and tau deposition in PD patients are found. Oxidative stress-induced glial cells activation, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction lead to various molecular events in brain neurons causing neuronal cell death in these neurodegenerative disorders. Currently used drugs for treatment of AD and PD only reduce the symptoms of these diseases, but unable to stop the process of neurodegeneration. Therefore, innovation of new synthetic drugs or discovery of natural drugs for the treatment of AD and PD, is a challenging task of basic science and clinical medicine. Plant iridoids such as catalpol and its 10-O-trans-p-coumaroyl derivative, geniposide, harpagoside, and loganin, and seco-iridoids, oleuropein and its aglycone and oleocanthal have been found to exhibit significant neuroprotective effect and the property of slowing down the process of neurogedeneration in AD and PD. These plant metabolites have been shown to ameliorate AD by increasing the expression of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), neprilysin (NEP), PPAR-γ, and α-secretase, and decreasing the expression of β-secretase (BACE-1) to reduce the levels of Aβ oligomers (Aβ

6 Review Psychiatric Manifestation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Han, Ji Won / Ahn, Yebin D / Kim, Won-Seok / Shin, Cheol Min / Jeong, Seong Jin / Song, Yoo Sung / Bae, Yun Jung / Kim, Jong-Min. ·Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30450025.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, hallucination, delusion, apathy and anhedonia, impulsive and compulsive behaviors, and cognitive dysfunction, may also manifest in most patients with PD. Given that the quality of life - and the need for institutionalization - is so highly dependent on the psychiatric well-being of patients with PD, psychiatric symptoms are of high clinical significance. We reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychiatric symptoms to get a better understanding of PD for improved management.

7 Review Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound in Neurosurgery: Taking Lessons from the Past to Inform the Future. 2018

Jung, Na Young / Chang, Jin Woo. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30369860.

ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a new emerging neurosurgical procedure applied in a wide range of clinical fields. It can generate high-intensity energy at the focal zone in deep body areas without requiring incision of soft tissues. Although the effectiveness of the focused ultrasound technique had not been recognized because of the skull being a main barrier in the transmission of acoustic energy, the development of hemispheric distribution of ultrasound transducer phased arrays has solved this issue and enabled the performance of true transcranial procedures. Advanced imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance thermometry could enhance the safety of MRgFUS. The current clinical applications of MRgFUS in neurosurgery involve stereotactic ablative treatments for patients with essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or neuropathic pain. Other potential treatment candidates being examined in ongoing clinical trials include brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, based on MRgFUS abilities of thermal ablation and opening the blood-brain barrier. With the development of ultrasound technology to overcome the limitations, MRgFUS is gradually expanding the therapeutic field for intractable neurological disorders and serving as a trail for a promising future in noninvasive and safe neurosurgical care.

8 Review Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis in Parkinson's disease: relevance to a new therapeutic target for depression with Parkinson's disease. 2018

Lim, Juhee / Bang, Yeojin / Choi, Hyun Jin. ·College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. · College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. hjchoi3@cha.ac.kr. ·Arch Pharm Res · Pubmed #30136247.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, including bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Recent clinical findings recognize PD as a complex disease with diverse neuropsychiatric complications. Depression is the most frequent non-motor psychiatric symptom experienced in PD, and it is associated with poor quality of life. While the pathophysiology of PD-associated depression is not directly related to neurodegenerative processes in the substantia nigra, underlying mechanisms remain unclear and there are few symptomatic treatments. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered crucial for the development and treatment of depression. In genetic animal models and human postmortem studies of PD, severely impaired adult neurogenesis has been observed, with patients showing hippocampal atrophy and disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis. Because adult newborn neurons appear to exert various functions, which relate to non-motor symptoms observed in PD, there might be a close correlation between malformation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and depressive symptoms. Here, we discuss current concepts regarding impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and non-motor symptoms of PD, and review PD-associated pathophysiological factors regulating neurogenesis, including inflammatory signaling and autophagy. We present a novel framework for targeting adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which could provide a promising treatment for PD-associated depression.

9 Review Cellular phenotypes as inflammatory mediators in Parkinson's disease: Interventional targets and role of natural products. 2018

Jiang, Xu / Ganesan, Palanivel / Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan / Choi, Dong-Kug / Arulselvan, Palanisamy. ·Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 3 Shajing St, Baoan Qu, Shenzhen Shi, Guangdong Sheng, 518104, China. Electronic address: dr13510864406@163.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: palanivel67@gmail.com. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India. Electronic address: thamarairaj2000@gmail.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choidk@kku.ac.kr. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India; Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, 637408, India. Electronic address: arulbio@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #30119171.

ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD. Specifically, activation of cellular phenotypes like astrocytes, microglia, activation of peripheral immune cells requires different activation signals and agents like (cytokines, misfolded protein aggregates, infectious agents, pesticides like organophosphates, etc.,). However, what is unknown is how the different cellular phenotypes respond uniquely and the role of the factors they secrete alters the signal cascades in the complex neuron-microglial connections in the CNS. Hence, understanding the role of cellular phenotypes and the inflammatory mediators, the cross talk among the signals and their receptors can help us to identify the potential therapeutic target using natural products. In this review we have tried to put together the role of cellular phenotypes as a skew that favors PD progression and we have also discussed how the lack of experimental approaches and challenges that affects understanding the cellular targets that can be used against natural derivatives in alleviating PD pathophysiology. Together, this review will provide the better insights into the role of cellular phenotypes of neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and the orchestrating factors of inflammation and how they can be targeted in a more specific way that can be used in the clinical management of PD.

10 Review Herbal Prescriptions and Medicinal Herbs for Parkinson-Related Rigidity in Korean Medicine: Identification of Candidates Using Text Mining. 2018

Park, So Hyun / Hwang, Min Seob / Park, Hye Jin / Shin, Hwa Kyoung / Baek, Jin Ung / Choi, Byung Tae. ·1 Division of Humanities and Social Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University , Yangsan, Republic of Korea. · 2 Division of Meridian and Structural Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University , Yangsan, Republic of Korea. ·J Altern Complement Med · Pubmed #29583014.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dongeuibogam (DongYiBaoGian), one of the most important books in Korean medicine, comprises a comprehensive summary of all traditional medicines of North-East Asia before the 17th century. This medicinal literature was mined to establish a list of candidate herbs to treat Parkinson-related rigidity. METHODS: A systematic search for terms describing Parkinson-related rigidity and candidate prescriptions for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity in the Dongeuibogam was performed. A high-frequency medicinal herb combination group and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were also selected through an analysis of medicinal herb combination frequencies. The existing literature pertaining to the potential effects of candidate herbs for Parkinson-related rigidity was reviewed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Ten medicinal herb candidates for the treatment of Parkinson-related rigidity were selected, and their respective precedent studies were analyzed.

11 Review Beneficial Effects of Flavonoids Against Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Jung, Un Ju / Kim, Sang Ryong. ·1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyong National University , Busan, Korea. · 2 School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Institute of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University , Daegu, Korea. · 3 Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University , Daegu, Korea. ·J Med Food · Pubmed #29412767.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and decreases in striatal dopamine levels. These changes led to several clinical symptoms: rigidity, resting tremor, and bradykinesia. Although the cause of PD remains unclear, it is widely accepted that oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insufficient support of neurotrophic factors are involved in the pathophysiology of the disease. However, novel regimens to prevent neurodegeneration and restore the degenerated nigrostriatal DA system are still required. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in naturally occurring phytochemicals, which are believed to reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases. This review provides an overview of the scientific literature concerning the preventive and protective roles of flavonoids, one of the largest families of phytochemicals, against PD. In addition to providing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, flavonoids exhibit a neuroprotective effect by activating antiapoptotic pathways that target mitochondrial dysfunction and induce neurotrophic factors. This review suggests that flavonoids may be promising natural products for the prevention of PD and could potentially be utilized as therapeutic compounds against PD, even though there was no report showing that the treatment with flavonoids could restore the aberrant phenotypes of patients with PD.

12 Review Abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson's disease: Pathophysiological correlates and role in motor control deficits. 2018

Lee, Myung Sik / Lee, Myung Jun / Conte, Antonella / Berardelli, Alfredo. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslee@yuhs.ac. · Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslayer9@gmail.com. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: antonella.conte@uniroma1.it. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: alfredo.berardelli@uniroma1.it. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #29304419.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017. RESULTS: Abnormal STDT in PD correlates with disease duration, disease severity and degree of nigrostriatal dopamine loss, and responds to dopaminergic medication. In PD, a prolonged STDT does not correlate, or only marginally correlates, with clinically assessed bradykinesia of finger tapping. By contrast, a prolonged STDT correlates with the variability in amplitude and speed of finger tapping as assessed by means of neurophysiological techniques and may contribute to impaired finger dexterity in PD. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that abnormal temporal processing of sensory information in PD generates incorrect signals for the execution and control of voluntary movements. SIGNIFICANCE: This review sheds light on unsolved questions regarding the relationship between STDT alterations and motor disturbances in PD and proposes directions for future research on this topic.

13 Review Functional dissection of astrocyte-secreted proteins: Implications in brain health and diseases. 2018

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar / Kim, Jong-Heon / Song, Gyun Jee / Lee, Won-Ha / Lee, In-Kyu / Lee, Ho-Won / An, Seong Soo A / Kim, SangYun / Suk, Kyoungho. ·Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ksuk@knu.ac.kr. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #29247683.

ABSTRACT: Astrocytes, which are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system (CNS), display remarkable heterogeneity in their morphology and function. Besides their physical and metabolic support to neurons, astrocytes modulate the blood-brain barrier, regulate CNS synaptogenesis, guide axon pathfinding, maintain brain homeostasis, affect neuronal development and plasticity, and contribute to diverse neuropathologies via secreted proteins. The identification of astrocytic proteome and secretome profiles has provided new insights into the maintenance of neuronal health and survival, the pathogenesis of brain injury, and neurodegeneration. Recent advances in proteomics research have provided an excellent catalog of astrocyte-secreted proteins. This review categorizes astrocyte-secreted proteins and discusses evidence that astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal activity and brain function. An in-depth understanding of astrocyte-secreted proteins and their pathways is pivotal for the development of novel strategies for restoring brain homeostasis, limiting brain injury/inflammation, counteracting neurodegeneration, and obtaining functional recovery.

14 Review Understanding the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Choi, Hojin / Koh, Seong-Ho. ·a Department of Neurology , Hanyang University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · Pubmed #29233065.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term use is associated with various complications, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many studies have suggested that L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID are associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation. Areas covered: LID is caused by striatal dopamine (DA) denervation in PD and pulsatile L-DOPA treatment. These factors lead to dysregulated DA transmission, abnormal intracellular signaling and transcription factors in striatal neurons, and altered gene expression and plasticity at corticostriatal synapses. The mechanisms of L-DOPA toxicity involve oxidative stress, L-DOPA oxidation to quinone, mitochondrial dysfunction, and α-synuclein. GSK-3 has been suggested to play key roles in all the mechanisms associated of L-DOPA toxicity and LID in PD. Expert opinion: GSK-3 plays critical roles in L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity, and the development of specific methods to inhibit GSK-3 function may help prevent L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID in PD. However, balanced GSK-3 inhibition and less β-catenin degradation is essential for preventing LID, because too much GSK-3 inhibition increases β-catenin levels, which is related to cancers.

15 Review REM sleep behavior disorder portends poor prognosis in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review. 2018

Kim, Yoon / Kim, Young Eun / Park, Eun Ok / Shin, Chae Won / Kim, Han-Joon / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #29102236.

ABSTRACT: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia wherein a loss of REM sleep atonia manifests as dream-enactment, often violent. Aside from its significance as a predictor of PD, RBD in PD may imply more than merely screaming at night and experiencing sleep fragmentation. To probe its significance as a prognostic factor in PD, we performed a systematic literature review. Analysis of prospective studies reveals baseline RBD confers a higher risk of developing dementia and hallucinations. In cross-sectional studies, RBD is associated with the non-tremor predominant motor phenotype and autonomic dysfunction. Clinical, imaging, and autopsy studies support the presence of dense and diffuse pathology extending beyond the brainstem in PD with RBD. As RBD in PD is associated with a greater disease burden and an increased risk of mortality, we propose the RBD subtype in PD to highlight that RBD may mark a distinct subtype with relatively poor prognosis.

16 Review Breaking down autophagy and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System. 2018

Jung, Shinae / Chung, Yuhyun / Oh, Young J. ·Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. · Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. Electronic address: yjoh@yonsei.ac.kr. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28764914.

ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that is involved in cellular homeostasis and stress responses. Although basal levels of autophagy are essential for cellular homeostasis, dysregulated autophagy is linked to neurodegeneration. Recent studies using genetic or neurotoxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) detect autophagy. We demonstrate that neurotoxins induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cell line and primary cultured neurons. Based on previous reports, including ones from our laboratory, which show that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium are implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we reasoned that these triggers may play critical roles in determining dysregulated autophagy. Similarly, we have demonstrated that ROS-mediated signals play an essential role in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis, whereas MPP

17 Review Autophagy impairment in Parkinson's disease. 2017

Karabiyik, Cansu / Lee, Min Jae / Rubinsztein, David C. ·Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · UK Dementia Research Institute, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge, U.K. ·Essays Biochem · Pubmed #29233880.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder typically associated with the accumulation of intracytoplasmic aggregate prone protein deposits. Over recent years, increasing evidence has led to the suggestion that the mutations underlying certain forms of PD impair autophagy. Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cytoplasmic content to lysosomes for degradation and represents a major route for degradation of aggregated cellular proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy up-regulation is a promising therapeutic strategy that is being explored for its potential to protect cells against the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe how the mutations in different subtypes of PD can affect different stages of autophagy.

18 Review Oxidative stress and cellular pathologies in Parkinson's disease. 2017

Puspita, Lesly / Chung, Sun Young / Shim, Jae-Won. ·Soonchunhyang Institute of Medi-bio Science (SIMS), Soonchunhyang University, 25, Bongjeong-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, 31151, South Korea. · Center for Stem Cell Biology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, New York, NY, 10065, USA. · Soonchunhyang Institute of Medi-bio Science (SIMS), Soonchunhyang University, 25, Bongjeong-ro, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, 31151, South Korea. shimj@sch.ac.kr. ·Mol Brain · Pubmed #29183391.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. The reason for the death of these neurons is unclear; however, studies have demonstrated the potential involvement of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, α-synuclein or dopamine levels in contributing to cellular oxidative stress as well as PD symptoms. Even though those papers had separately described the individual roles of each element leading to neurodegeneration, recent publications suggest that neurodegeneration is the product of various cellular interactions. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress in mediating separate pathological events that together, ultimately result in cell death in PD. Understanding the multi-faceted relationships between these events, with oxidative stress as a common denominator underlying these processes, is needed for developing better therapeutic strategies.

19 Review A New Treatment Strategy for Parkinson's Disease through the Gut-Brain Axis: The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Pathway. 2017

Kim, Dong Seok / Choi, Ho-Il / Wang, Yun / Luo, Yu / Hoffer, Barry J / Greig, Nigel H. ·1 Peptron Inc., Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. · 2 Drug Design and Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, USA. · 3 Center for Neuropsychiatric Research, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan. · 4 Department of Neurosurgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA. ·Cell Transplant · Pubmed #29113464.

ABSTRACT: Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, are critical for maintaining healthy brain function, particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD, and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing, and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based antidiabetic drugs have drawn particular attention as an effectual new strategy to not only regulate blood glucose but also decrease body weight by reducing appetite, which implies that GLP-1 could affect the gut-brain axis in normal and pathological conditions. The neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (R) stimulation have been characterized in numerous in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies using GLP-1R agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Recently, the first open label clinical study of exenatide, a long-acting GLP-1 agonist, in the treatment of PD showed long-lasting improvements in motor and cognitive function. Several double-blind clinical trials of GLP-1R agonists including exenatide in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases are already underway or are about to be initiated. Herein, we review the physiological role of the GLP-1R pathway in the gut-brain axis and the therapeutic strategy of GLP-1R stimulation for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases focused on PD, for which age is the major risk factor.

20 Review Neuroprotective strategies to prevent and treat Parkinson's disease based on its pathophysiological mechanism. 2017

Lee, Yujeong / Kim, Min-Sun / Lee, Jaewon. ·Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Molecular Inflammation Research Center for Aging Intervention, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, Republic of Korea. · Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Sunchon National University, Sunchon, 57922, Republic of Korea. minsun@sunchon.ac.kr. · Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Molecular Inflammation Research Center for Aging Intervention, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735, Republic of Korea. neuron@pusan.ac.kr. ·Arch Pharm Res · Pubmed #28952032.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common progressive neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. PD exhibits clinical symptoms that include tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia. Many drugs are available to treat PD, such as, L-dopa, COMT inhibitor, MAO-B inhibitor, and dopamine agonists, but these drugs simply compensate for dopamine loss in PD, and therefore, cannot completely suppress its symptoms or progression. Although the causes of PD are not clearly understood, common pathophysiological pathways, such as, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neuroinflammation are considered to be etiological factors, and thus, many treatments and interventions have been developed to target these pathophysiological factors. This review describes the neuroprotective strategies devised based on current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of PD.

21 Review Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2017

Noh, Hyeonseok / Kwon, Seungwon / Cho, Seung-Yeon / Jung, Woo-Sang / Moon, Sang-Kwan / Park, Jung-Mi / Ko, Chang-Nam / Park, Seong-Uk. ·Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: seonguk.kr@gmail.com. ·Complement Ther Med · Pubmed #28917379.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: English, Chinese, and Korean electronic databases were searched up to June 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. The methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: In total, 42 studies involving 2625 participants were systematically reviewed. Participants treated using combined acupuncture and conventional medication (CM) showed significant improvements in total Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, and the Webster scale compared to those treated using CM alone. The combination of electroacupuncture and CM was significantly superior to CM alone in total UPDRS, UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS IV. Similarly, the combination of scalp electroacupuncture, acupuncture, and CM was significantly more effective than CM alone in total UPDRS. However, our meta-analysis showed that the combination of electroacupuncture and CM was not significantly more effective than CM alone in UPDRS III, the Webster, and the Tension Assessment Scale. The results also failed to show that acupuncture was significantly more effective than placebo acupuncture in total UPDRS. Overall, the methodological quality of the RCTs was low. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: We found that acupuncture might be a safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with PD. However, because of methodological flaws in the included studies, conclusive evidence is still lacking. More rigorous and well-designed placebo-controlled trials should be conducted.

22 Review Nonmotor Effects of Conventional and Transdermal Dopaminergic Therapies in Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Kim, Ryul / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28805592.

ABSTRACT: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic therapies. In contrast, certain NMS are exacerbated or even precipitated by dopaminergic drugs and these unwanted effects may be seriously dangerous. Therefore, a dopaminergic strategy for NMS should be based on a consideration of the benefits vs the risks in individual patients with PD.

23 Review Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation. 2017

Kim, Jeongah / Jang, Sangwon / Choe, Han Kyoung / Chung, Sooyoung / Son, Gi Hoon / Kim, Kyungjin. ·Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea. · Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. · Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Scranton College, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02473, Korea. · Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI), Daegu 41068, Korea. ·Mol Cells · Pubmed #28780783.

ABSTRACT: Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor

24 Review The impact of Tai Chi and Qigong mind-body exercises on motor and non-motor function and quality of life in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Song, R / Grabowska, W / Park, M / Osypiuk, K / Vergara-Diaz, G P / Bonato, P / Hausdorff, J M / Fox, M / Sudarsky, L R / Macklin, E / Wayne, P M. ·College of Nursing, Chungnam National University, South Korea. Electronic address: songry@cnu.ac.kr. · Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA. Electronic address: wgrabowska@coa.edu. · Department of Nursing, Woosong College, South Korea. Electronic address: mkpark@wsi.ac.kr. · Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA. Electronic address: kosypiuk@partners.org. · Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA. Electronic address: gvergaradiaz@partners.org. · Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, USA. Electronic address: pbonato@partners.org. · Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Center for the Study of Movement, Cognition, and Mobility at Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Electronic address: Jeff.hausdorff@gmail.com. · Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, USA. Electronic address: Mfox3@bidmc.harvard.edu. · Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA. Electronic address: lsudarsky@partners.org. · Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, USA. Electronic address: emacklin@mgh.harvard.org. · Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, USA. Electronic address: pwayne@partners.org. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28602515.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To systematically evaluate and quantify the effects of Tai Chi/Qigong (TCQ) on motor (UPDRS III, balance, falls, Timed-Up-and-Go, and 6-Minute Walk) and non-motor (depression and cognition) function, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: A systematic search in 7 electronic databases targeted clinical studies evaluating TCQ for individuals with PD published through August 2016. Meta-analysis was used to estimate effect sizes (Hedges's g) and publication bias for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methodological bias in RCTs was assessed by two raters. RESULTS: Our search identified 21 studies, 15 of which were RCTs with a total of 735 subjects. For RCTs, comparison groups included no treatment (n = 7, 47%) and active interventions (n = 8, 53%). Duration of TCQ ranged from 2 to 6 months. Methodological bias was low in 6 studies, moderate in 7, and high in 2. Fixed-effect models showed that TCQ was associated with significant improvement on most motor outcomes (UPDRS III [ES = -0.444, p < 0.001], balance [ES = 0.544, p < 0.001], Timed-Up-and-Go [ES = -0.341, p = 0.005], 6 MW [ES = -0.293, p = 0.06], falls [ES = -0.403, p = 0.004], as well as depression [ES = -0.457, p = 0.008] and QOL [ES = -0.393, p < 0.001], but not cognition [ES = -0.225, p = 0.477]). I CONCLUSION: Evidence to date supports a potential benefit of TCQ for improving motor function, depression and QOL for individuals with PD, and validates the need for additional large-scale trials.

25 Review Hallmarks of Treatment Aspects: Parkinson's Disease Throughout Centuries Including l-Dopa. 2017

Kim, Hee J / Jeon, Beom S / Jenner, Peter. ·Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. · Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Movement Disorder Center, Neuroscience Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. · Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28554412.

ABSTRACT: Deficit of striatal dopamine was first discovered in postmortem brain of patients with Parkinson's disease in 1960. This observation was the starting point for dopamine replacement therapy, and successful introduction of high dose l-dopa therapy in the 1969 revolutionized the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Since then, constant attempts have been made to enhance the efficacy of l-dopa and reduce motor complications by providing more continuous dopamine stimulation. This chapter traces the hallmarks of medical treatments for Parkinson's disease throughout centuries including the first description of antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergics, the birth of apomorphine in the 1900s, then discovery of l-dopa in the 1960s, and development of dopamine agonists since the 1970s.

Next