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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Korea
Based on 855 articles published since 2008
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These are the 855 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Korea during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
26 Review Switching from an oral dopamine receptor agonist to rotigotine transdermal patch: a review of clinical data with a focus on patient perspective. 2017

Chung, Sun Ju / Asgharnejad, Mahnaz / Bauer, Lars / Benitez, Arturo / Boroojerdi, Babak / Heidbrede, Tanja / Little, Allison / Kim, Han Joon. ·a Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center , University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. · b UCB Pharma , Raleigh , NC , USA. · c UCB Pharma , Monheim am Rhein , Germany. · d UCB Pharma , São Paulo , Brazil. · e UCB Pharma , Atlanta , GA , USA. · f Seoul National University Hospital , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #28548894.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dopamine receptor agonists (DAs) are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). In certain situations, switching from oral DAs to rotigotine transdermal patch may be beneficial for the patient (e.g., optimal symptom control/side effects/perioperative management, preference for once-daily/non-oral administration, RLS augmentation treatment). Areas covered: This narrative review summarizes available data on DA dose equivalency, dose conversions, switching schedules, safety, tolerability, efficacy and patient treatment preferences of switching from oral DAs to rotigotine (and vice versa) in patients with PD/RLS. The studies were identified in a PubMed search (up to 8 November 2016) using terms ('dopamine receptor agonist' OR 'rotigotine') AND 'switch'. Expert commentary: Randomized controlled studies often do not address the challenges clinicians face in practice, e.g., switching medications within the same class when dosing is not a one-to-one ratio. The authors describe three open-label studies in PD where oral DAs were successfully switched to rotigotine, and review three studies in RLS where oral DAs/levodopa were switched to rotigotine. Finally, the authors provide a suggested tool for switching from oral DAs to rotigotine, which includes dose conversion factors and switching schedules. The authors' view is that low-dose oral DAs (equivalent to ≤8 mg/24 h rotigotine) may be switched overnight.

27 Review Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia. 2017

Kandiah, Nagaendran / Pai, Ming-Chyi / Senanarong, Vorapun / Looi, Irene / Ampil, Encarnita / Park, Kyung Won / Karanam, Ananda Krishna / Christopher, Stephen. ·Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital. · Duke-NUS, Graduate Medical School, Singapore. · Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology. · Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan. · Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. · Clinical Research Centre. · Department of Medicine, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia. · Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. · Department of Neurology and Cognitive Disorders and Dementia Center, Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea. · Novartis Healthcare Private Limited, Hyderabad, India. · Novartis (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., Singapore. ·Clin Interv Aging · Pubmed #28458525.

ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of sustained cholinesterase inhibition with rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Unlike donepezil and galantamine that selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), rivastigmine is a unique cholinesterase inhibitor with both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8) inhibitory activity. Rivastigmine is also available as transdermal patch that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe AD as well as mild-to-moderate PDD. In this review, we explore the role of BuChE inhibition in addition to AChE inhibition with rivastigmine in the outcomes of cognition, global function, behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily living. Additionally, we review the evidence supporting the use of dual AChE-BuChE inhibitory activity of rivastigmine as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders, with a focus on the role of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and PDD. Toward this objective, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Ovid with limits to articles published in the English language before June 2016. The available evidence from the literature suggests that the dual inhibition of AChE and BuChE may afford additional therapeutic potential of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias (subcortical VaD and PDD) with benefits on cognition and behavioral symptoms. Rivastigmine was found to specifically benefit executive dysfunction frequently observed in subcortical dementias; however, large randomized clinical studies are warranted to support these observations.

28 Review Deregulation of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease: Insight from epigenetic structure and transcriptional regulation of SNCA. 2017

Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu / Bok, Eugene / Evangelista, Baggio A / Kim, Yoon-Seong. ·Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA. · Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA; Kyunghee University Medical College, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address: yoon-seong.kim@ucf.edu. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #28445713.

ABSTRACT: Understanding regulation of α-synuclein has long been a central focus for Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers. Accumulation of this protein in the Lewy body or neurites, mutations in the coding region of the gene and strong association of α-synuclein encoding gene multiplication (duplication/triplication) with familial form of PD have indicated the importance of this molecule in pathogenesis of the disease. Several years of research identified many potential faulty pathways associated with accumulation of α-synuclein inside dopaminergic neurons and its transmission to neighboring ones. Concurrently, an appreciable body of research is growing to understand the epigenetic and genetic deregulation of α-synuclein that might contribute to the disease pathology. Completion of the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project and recent advancement made in the epigenetic and trans factor mediated regulation of each gene, has tremendously accelerated the need to carefully understand the epigenetic structure of the gene (SNCA) encoding α-synuclein protein in order to decipher the regulation and contribution of α-synuclein to the pathogenesis of PD. We have also analyzed the detailed epigenetic structure of this gene with knowledge from ENCODE database, which may open new avenues in α-synuclein research. Interestingly, we have found that the gene contains several transcriptionally activate histone modifications and associated potential transcription factor binding sites in the non-coding areas that strongly suggest alternative regulatory pathways. Altogether this review will provide interesting insight of α-synuclein gene regulation from epigenetic, genetic and post-transcriptional perspectives and their potential implication in the PD pathogenesis.

29 Review Role of Gasotransmitters in Oxidative Stresses, Neuroinflammation, and Neuronal Repair. 2017

Shefa, Ulfuara / Yeo, Seung Geun / Kim, Min-Sik / Song, In Ok / Jung, Junyang / Jeong, Na Young / Huh, Youngbuhm. ·Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, H & N Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea. · Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, 17 Seoae-ro 1 Gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04619, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 32 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #28386548.

ABSTRACT: To date, three main gasotransmitters, that is, hydrogen sulfide (H

30 Review Small-Molecule Inhibitors of LRRK2. 2017

Hatcher, John M / Choi, Hwan Geun / Alessi, Dario R / Gray, Nathanael S. ·Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. · New Drug Development Center, Daegu Gyeongbuk Medical Innovation Foundation, 80 Cheombok-ro, Dong-gu, Daegu, 41061, South Korea. · MRC Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, University of Dundee, Sir James Black Centre, Dow Street, Dundee, DD1 5EH, UK. · Department of Cancer Biology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA, 02215, USA. nathanael_gray@dfci.harvard.edu. ·Adv Neurobiol · Pubmed #28353288.

ABSTRACT: Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) protein have been genetically and functionally linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). The kinase activity of LRRK2 is increased by pathogenic mutations; therefore, modulation of LRRK2 kinase activity by a selective small-molecule inhibitor has been proposed as a potentially viable treatment for Parkinson's disease. This chapter presents a historical overview of the development and bioactivity of several small-molecule LRRK2 inhibitors that have been used to inhibit LRRK2 kinase activity in vitro or in vivo. These compounds are important tools for understanding the cellular biology of LRRK2 and for evaluating the potential of LRRK2 inhibitors as disease-modifying PD therapies.

31 Review Synapses in neurodegenerative diseases. 2017

Bae, Jae Ryul / Kim, Sung Hyun. ·Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. · Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. ·BMB Rep · Pubmed #28270301.

ABSTRACT: Synapse is the basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. The presynaptic terminal is the structural and functionally essential area that initiates communication and maintains the continuous functional neural information flow. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitters, an active zone for release, and numerous proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is a representative characteristic; however, it is highly vulnerable to various pathological conditions. In fact, synaptic alteration is thought to be central to neural disease processes. In particular, the alteration of the structural and functional phenotype of the presynaptic terminal is a highly significant evidence for neural diseases. In this review, we specifically describe structural and functional alteration of nerve terminals in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). [BMB Reports 2017; 50(5): 237-246].

32 Review Clinical effectiveness of acupuncture on Parkinson disease: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Lee, Sook-Hyun / Lim, Sabina. ·aDepartment of Applied Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University bResearch Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute cDepartment of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #28099340.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most-common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The long-term use of levodopa leads to a loss of efficacy and to complications. Therefore, many patients with PD have turned to complementary therapies to help relieve their symptoms. Acupuncture is most commonly used as a complementary therapy in patients with PD. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupuncture for patients with PD. This study was performed to summarize and evaluate evidence regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture in the relief of PD symptoms. METHODS: Seven databases, namely, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and three Korean medical databases, were searched from their inception through August 2015 without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they contained reports of acupuncture compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone or acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone for PD symptoms. Assessments were performed with the unified PD rating scales (UPDRS) I, II, III, and IV and the total score, the Webster scale, and effectiveness rating. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB). RESULTS: In all, 982 potentially relevant articles were identified; 25 RCTs met our inclusion criterion, 19 of 25 RCTs were high-quality studies (i.e., a score of 6 or higher). The included RCTs showed favorable results for acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone in the UPDRS II, III, and IV and the total score. Acupuncture was effective in relieving PD symptoms compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone, and acupuncture plus conventional treatment had a more significant effect than conventional treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the use of acupuncture for relief of PD symptoms and found that acupuncture has significant positive effects. Acupuncture can be considered as a combination treatment with conventional treatment for patients with PD. Further studies on this topic should be carried out according to rigorous methodological designs in both the East and the West.

33 Review A Meta-Analysis of Nonpharmacological Interventions for People With Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Lee, JuHee / Choi, MoonKi / Yoo, Yonju. ·1 Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea. · 2 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. ·Clin Nurs Res · Pubmed #27318243.

ABSTRACT: Nonpharmacological interventions are important in providing care for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, there is limited evidence related to their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to examine the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for improving the HRQOL of PD patients. Articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2015 were searched through electronic searching, computerized author searching, and footnote chasing. A meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 program. Overall, effect size for the studies ( n = 18) was -4.17 with 95% confidence interval (CI) from -7.63 to -0.70 ( Z = 2.36, p = .02), indicating positive effects of nonpharmacological interventions on HRQOL. In subgroup analysis regarding the intervention types, the effect size of exercise programs was -5.73 with 95% CI of -11.36 to -0.10 ( Z = 2.00, p = .05). Thus, nonpharmacological interventions, and particularly exercise programs, were effective in improving the HRQOL of PD patients.

34 Review Pathogenic Role of Serine Protease HtrA2/Omi in Neurodegenerative Diseases. 2017

Goo, Hui-Gwan / Rhim, Hyangshuk / Kang, Seongman. ·Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea. · Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, 1, 5ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, Korea. ·Curr Protein Pept Sci · Pubmed #26965693.

ABSTRACT: High-temperature-requirement A2 (HtrA2)/Omi/PARK13 is a serine protease with extensive homology to the Escherichia coli HtrAs that are required for bacterial survival at high temperatures. The HtrA2 protein is a key modulator of mitochondrial molecular quality control but under stressful conditions it is released into the cytosol, where it promotes cell death by various pathways, including caspase-dependent pathway and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Recently, the HtrA2 protein has received great attention for its potential role in neurodegeneration. Here, we review the current knowledge and pathophysiological functions of the HtrA2 protein in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

35 Review Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. 2016

Lee, Sook-Hyun / van den Noort, Maurits / Bosch, Peggy / Lim, Sabina. ·Department of Applied Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-west Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 6525 HR, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Applied Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. · Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-west Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. · Department of Meridian & Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-70102447, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. ·BMC Complement Altern Med · Pubmed #27809909.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for animal PD models. The current study aimed to summarize and analyze past studies in order to evaluate these possible differences. METHOD: Each of 7 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 3 Korean medical databases, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was searched from its inception through March 2015 without language restrictions. RESULTS: We included studies of the use of acupuncture treatment in animal models of PD. A total of 810 potentially relevant articles were identified, 57 of which met our inclusion criteria. C57/BL6 mice were used most frequently (42 %) in animal PD models. Most of the studies were carried out using only male animals (67 %); only 1 study (2 %) was performed using solely females. The further 31 % of the studies used a male/female mix or did not specify the sex. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our review suggest that acupuncture is an effective treatment for animal PD models, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether sex differences exist. Future studies of acupuncture treatment for PD should use female animal models because they reflect the physiological characteristics of both males and females to fully evaluate the effect and the safety of the treatment for each sex.

36 Review Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. 2016

More, Sandeep Vasant / Kumar, Hemant / Cho, Duk-Yeon / Yun, Yo-Sep / Choi, Dong-Kug. ·Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. sandeepbcp@gmail.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. hemantbhave@gmail.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. ejrdus1026@naver.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. aaa003132@naver.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. choidk@kku.ac.kr. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #27598124.

ABSTRACT: Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

37 Review Professional ethics in complementary and alternative medicines in management of Parkinson's disease. 2016

Kim, Hee Jin / Jeon, Beomseok / Chung, Sun Ju. ·Department of Neurology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology and Movement Disorder Center, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. ·J Parkinsons Dis · Pubmed #27589539.

ABSTRACT: The practice of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is not, at present, considered an integral part of conventional medicine. As the popularity of CAM grows and access to information about CAM increases through the media and internet where CAMs are often promoted, patients are at risk of exposure unvalidated information. Therefore, there is a need for physicians to examine objectively the efficacy and safety of CAM, compare it with current medications, and become actively involved in the CAM treatment with patients. In accordance with these needs, this manuscript reviews the utility, scientific evidence, safety and cost-effectiveness of CAM in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). We also address the ethical issues of CAM practices.

38 Review Acupuncture points for treating Parkinson's disease based on animal studies. 2016

Kwon, Sunoh / Seo, Byung-Kwan / Kim, Seungtae. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA. · Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Korean Medical Science, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan, 50612, Republic of Korea. kimst@pusan.ac.kr. ·Chin J Integr Med · Pubmed #27460492.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-known neurodegenerative disease caused by dopaminergic cell death in the nigrostriatal pathway. Recent studies have shown that acupuncture can be a potential therapy for the treatment of PD, but it is not clear which acupuncture points (acupoints) play major roles in reliving symptoms of PD. Yanglingquan (GB 34), Zusanli (ST 36), Fengfu (GV 16), Taichong (LR 3), Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14) acupoints have frequently been to investigate the effectiveness and action mechanism of acupuncture for treating PD, but it is not clear why they were selected. This review summarizes the current understanding of the acupoints for PD treatment based on Oriental medicine theories and on the accumulated findings from previous animal studies. The results of this study will be useful to development of a strategy for future research in this field.

39 Review Predictors of the placebo response in clinical trials on Parkinson's disease: A meta-analysis. 2016

Shin, Chae Won / Hahn, Seokyung / Park, Byung-Joo / Kim, Jong-Min / Park, Eun Ok / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Departments of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Medical Research Collaborating Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Preventive Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #27237106.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have assessed the placebo response in clinical trials on PD using the individual data of participants from the placebo-assigned group. The aim of this study was to examine the group predictors of the placebo response in randomized placebo-controlled trials on PD using a meta-analysis with meta-regression models. METHODS: The placebo response was defined as the mean change in the UPDRS part III score from baseline to the primary efficacy end point in the placebo group. The impacts of the predictors were assessed with meta-regression analyses, and significant predictors were used in a multivariable analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted in studies that enrolled PD patients with or without motor fluctuations. RESULTS: Forty-eight studies (consisting of 5618 participants on placebo) were included. Motor fluctuation and baseline UPDRS part III score were significant predictors in the univariable analyses. The high baseline UPDRS part III score (β = -0.21, 95% CI -0.34, -0.08; p = 0.005) significantly increased the magnitude of the positive placebo response in the multivariable analysis. In the subgroup analyses, the positive placebo response was significant only in studies that enrolled patients with motor fluctuations; high baseline UPDRS part III score and low baseline daily levodopa dose increased the positive placebo response independently in the subgroup with motor fluctuations. CONCLUSION: Researchers should consider the positive placebo response when they design clinical trials in advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations and severe motor symptoms. Baseline daily levodopa dose may be the independent predictor in studies that enrolled fluctuating patients.

40 Review How close are we to individualized medicine for Parkinson's disease? 2016

Kim, Hee Jin / Jeon, Beomseok. ·a Department of Neurology , Konkuk University Medical Center , Seoul , South Korea. · b Parkinson Disease Study Group , Seoul National University Hospital , Seoul , South Korea. · c Department of Neurology and Movement Disorder Center, College of Medicine , Seoul National University , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #27105072.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: There is a considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in clinical features, disease course, and treatment response in Parkinson's disease (PD), which can be explained not only by disease process and clinical variables, but also by an impact from genetic factors. Evidence-based medicine relies on large randomized control trials and meta-analysis-average medicine, which ignores individual differences. However, we are now in the early phases of a paradigm shift in medicine relating to individuality and variability. The purpose of individualized medicine is to predict patients' responses to targeted therapy using diagnostic tests based on genetics or other molecular mechanisms, thus providing the right drug at the right dose at the right time. AREAS COVERED: In this article, we outline current state of individualized medicine for PD. Expert Commentary: Pharmacogenomics, an important element of individualized medicine, is just beginning to be considered in PD. To advance the clinical use of pharmacogenomics, big data cohort for genomic research and multidisciplinary team approaches are necessary.

41 Review Loss of Nigral Hyperintensity on 3 Tesla MRI of Parkinsonism: Comparison With (123) I-FP-CIT SPECT. 2016

Bae, Yun Jung / Kim, Jong-Min / Kim, Eunhee / Lee, Kyung Mi / Kang, Seo Young / Park, Hyun Soo / Kim, Kyeong Joon / Kim, Young Eun / Oh, Eung Seok / Yun, Ji Young / Kim, Ji Seon / Jeong, Hye-Jin / Jeon, Beomseok / Kim, Sang Eun. ·Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Seoul, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea. · Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon, Korea. · Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #26990970.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether 3 Tesla susceptibility-weighted imaging can detect the alteration of substantia nigra hyperintensity in Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and to assess the concordance between the loss of nigral hyperintensity on 3 Tesla susceptibility-weighted imaging and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration indicated by (123) I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computerized tomography. METHODS: Consecutive subjects with suspected parkinsonism were included, and clinical diagnosis was solidified during clinical follow-up. Two blinded neuroradiologists interpreted the nigral hyperintensity on susceptibility-weighted imaging. The performance of susceptibility-weighted imaging for detection of nigral hyperintensity loss was estimated on the basis of the clinical diagnosis and compared with single photon emission computerized tomography results. RESULTS: The study included 210 subjects (126 PD, 11 MSA, 11 PSP patients, 26 healthy controls, 36 disease controls). The presence or absence of nigral hyperintensity was accurately visualized in 112 PD, 7 MSA, and 11 PSP patients and 53 controls. We identified 16 false-negative cases and 11 false-positive cases. The sensitivity and specificity of susceptibility-weighted imaging were 88.8% and 83.6%, respectively. The concordance rate between susceptibility-weighted imaging and single photon emission computerized tomography was 86.2%. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of nigral hyperintensity on susceptibility-weighted imaging suggested nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration in a large portion of patients with parkinsonism, which was indicated by (123) I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl)-nortropane single photon emission computerized tomography. In consideration of false-negative and -positive cases, well-designed imaging protocols should be introduced to improve the performance of nigral hyperintensity imaging. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

42 Review Emerging preclinical pharmacological targets for Parkinson's disease. 2016

More, Sandeep Vasant / Choi, Dong-Kug. ·Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, South Korea. ·Oncotarget · Pubmed #26988916.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia. It is the most prevalent form of Parkinsonism, categorized by cardinal features such as bradykinesia, rigidity, tremors, and postural instability. Due to the multicentric pathology of PD involving inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis, and protein aggregation, it has become difficult to pin-point a single therapeutic target and evaluate its potential application. Currently available drugs for treating PD provide only symptomatic relief and do not decrease or avert disease progression resulting in poor patient satisfaction and compliance. Significant amount of understanding concerning the pathophysiology of PD has offered a range of potential targets for PD. Several emerging targets including AAV-hAADC gene therapy, phosphodiesterase-4, potassium channels, myeloperoxidase, acetylcholinesterase, MAO-B, dopamine, A2A, mGlu5, and 5-HT-1A/1B receptors are in different stages of clinical development. Additionally, alternative interventions such as deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and gamma knife surgery, are also being developed for patients with advanced PD. As much as these therapeutic targets hold potential to delay the onset and reverse the disease, more targets and alternative interventions need to be examined in different stages of PD. In this review, we discuss various emerging preclinical pharmacological targets that may serve as a new promising neuroprotective strategy that could actually help alleviate PD and its symptoms.

43 Review Brain metabolism as a modulator of autophagy in neurodegeneration. 2016

Lim, Yun / Cho, Hanchae / Kim, Eun-Kyoung. ·Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, 333, Techno Jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 42988, Korea. · Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, 333, Techno Jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 42988, Korea; Neurometabolomics Research Center, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, 333, Techno Jungang-daero, Hyeonpung-myeon, Dalseong-gun, Daegu 42988, Korea. Electronic address: ekkim@dgist.ac.kr. ·Brain Res · Pubmed #26970520.

ABSTRACT: Emerging evidence that autophagy serves as a sweeper for toxic materials in the brain gives us new insight into the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy is important for maintaining cellular homeostasis associated with metabolism. Some neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer׳s and Parkinson׳s diseases are accompanied by altered metabolism and autophagy in the brain. In this review, we discuss how hormones and nutrients regulate autophagy in the brain and affect neurodegeneration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Autophagy.

44 Review Recent trends in the development of nanophytobioactive compounds and delivery systems for their possible role in reducing oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease models. 2015

Ganesan, Palanivel / Ko, Hyun-Myung / Kim, In-Su / Choi, Dong-Kug. ·Nanotechnology Research Center, Department of Applied Life Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea ; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, Republic of Korea. ·Int J Nanomedicine · Pubmed #26604750.

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a very critical role in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disease among elderly people worldwide. Increasing evidence has suggested that phytobioactive compounds show enhanced benefits in cell and animal models of PD. Curcumin, resveratrol, ginsenosides, quercetin, and catechin are phyto-derived bioactive compounds with important roles in the prevention and treatment of PD. However, in vivo studies suggest that their concentrations are very low to cross blood-brain barrier thereby it limits bioavailability, stability, and dissolution at target sites in the brain. To overcome these problems, nanophytomedicine with the controlled size of 1-100 nm is used to maximize efficiency in the treatment of PD. Nanosizing of phytobioactive compounds enhances the permeability into the brain with maximized efficiency and stability. Several nanodelivery techniques, including solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoliposomes, and nanoniosomes can be used for controlled delivery of nanobioactive compounds to brain. Nanocompounds, such as ginsenosides (19.9 nm) synthesized using a nanoemulsion technique, showed enhanced bioavailability in the rat brain. Here, we discuss the most recent trends and applications in PD, including 1) the role of phytobioactive compounds in reducing oxidative stress and their bioavailability; 2) the role of nanotechnology in reducing oxidative stress during PD; 3) nanodelivery systems; and 4) various nanophytobioactive compounds and their role in PD.

45 Review Asian perspectives on the recognition and management of levodopa 'wearing-off' in Parkinson's disease. 2015

Bhidayasiri, Roongroj / Hattori, Nobutaka / Jeon, Beomseok / Chen, Rou-Shayn / Lee, Moon Keen / Bajwa, Jawad A / Mok, Vincent C T / Zhang, Baorong / Syamsudin, Thamrin / Tan, Louis Chew Seng / Jamora, Roland Dominic G / Pisarnpong, Apichart / Poewe, Werner. ·a 1 Chulalongkorn Centre of Excellence for Parkinson's Disease & Related Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand. · b 2 Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · c 3 Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. · d 4 Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lingkou, Taiwan. · e 5 Sunway Medical Centre, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. · f 6 National Neuroscience Institute, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. · g 7 Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · h 8 Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. · i 9 National Brain Centre Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. · j 10 National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore. · k 11 Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine-Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines. · l 12 Movement Disorder Service and Section of Neurology, Institute for Neurosciences, St. Luke's Medical Center-Quezon City and Global City, Philippines. · m 13 Department of Neurology, Bangkok Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. · n 14 Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #26390066.

ABSTRACT: Most Parkinson's disease patients will receive levodopa therapy, and of these, the majority will develop some levodopa-induced complications. For many patients, the first complication to develop is the decline in the duration of therapeutic benefit of each levodopa dose, a phenomenon commonly termed 'wearing-off'. There is already extensive literature documenting the epidemiology and management of wearing-off in Parkinson's disease patients of western descent. However, data derived from these studies might not always apply to patients of Asian descent due to genetic variations, differences in co-morbidities or non-availability of certain drugs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the epidemiology of wearing-off in Asian (including Arab) patients and discusses the management issues in the context of drug availability in Asia.

46 Review Impact of Movement Disorders on Management of Spinal Deformity in the Elderly. 2015

Ha, Yoon / Oh, Jae Keun / Smith, Justin S / Ailon, Tamir / Fehlings, Michael G / Shaffrey, Christopher I / Ames, Christopher P. ·‡Department of Neurosurgery, Spine and Spinal Cord Research Institute, College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea; §Department of Neurosurgery, Spine Center, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, Korea; ¶Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia; ‖Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; #Department of Neurosurgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California. ·Neurosurgery · Pubmed #26378355.

ABSTRACT: Spinal deformities are frequent and disabling complications of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and multiple system atrophy. The most distinct spinal deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Spinal surgery has become lower risk and more efficacious for complex spinal deformities, and thus more appealing to patients, particularly those for whom conservative treatment is inappropriate or ineffective. Recent innovations and advances in spinal surgery have revolutionized the management of spinal deformities in elderly patients. However, spinal deformity surgeries in patients with Parkinson disease remain challenging. High rates of mechanical complications can necessitate revision surgery. The success of spinal surgery in patients with Parkinson disease depends on an interdisciplinary approach, including both surgeons and movement disorder specialists, to select appropriate surgical patients and manage postoperative movement in order to decrease mechanical failures. Achieving appropriate correction of sagittal alignment with strong biomechanical instrumentation and bone fusion is the key determinant of satisfactory results.

47 Review Transcriptional mutagenesis by 8-oxodG in α-synuclein aggregation and the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. 2015

Basu, Sambuddha / Je, Goun / Kim, Yoon-Seong. ·Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA. · Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Korea. ·Exp Mol Med · Pubmed #26315598.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with selective loss of dopaminergic neurons. The characteristic hallmark of the disease is intracytoplasmic proteinacious inclusion bodies called Lewy bodies, primarily consisting of a presynaptic protein α-synuclein. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to macromolecules have been shown to occur frequently in PD. Oxidative damage to DNA in the form of oxidized guanine (8-oxodG) accumulates in both the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra in PD. 8-oxodG-mediated transcriptional mutagenesis has been shown to have the potential to alter phenotype of cells through production of mutant pool of proteins. This review comprehensively summarizes the role of oxidative stress-mediated damage incurred during neurodegeneration, and highlights the scope of transcriptional mutagenesis event in leading to α-synuclein aggregation as seen in PD.

48 Review Mutations in presenilin 2 and its implications in Alzheimer's disease and other dementia-associated disorders. 2015

Cai, Yan / An, Seong Soo A / Kim, SangYun. ·Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. ·Clin Interv Aging · Pubmed #26203236.

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. Mutations in the genes encoding presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), and amyloid precursor protein have been identified as the main genetic causes of familial AD. To date, more than 200 mutations have been described worldwide in PSEN1, which is highly homologous with PSEN2, while mutations in PSEN2 have been rarely reported. We performed a systematic review of studies describing the mutations identified in PSEN2. Most PSEN2 mutations were detected in European and in African populations. Only two were found in Korean populations. Interestingly, PSEN2 mutations appeared not only in AD patients but also in patients with other disorders, including frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, breast cancer, dilated cardiomyopathy, and Parkinson's disease with dementia. Here, we have summarized the PSEN2 mutations and the potential implications of these mutations in dementia-associated disorders.

49 Review Clinically meaningful parameters of progression and long-term outcome of Parkinson disease: An international consensus statement. 2015

Puschmann, Andreas / Brighina, Laura / Markopoulou, Katerina / Aasly, Jan / Chung, Sun Ju / Frigerio, Roberta / Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios / Kõks, Sulev / Krüger, Rejko / Siuda, Joanna / Wider, Christian / Zesiewicz, Theresa A / Maraganore, Demetrius M. ·Department of Neurology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Lund University, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Neurology, Sweden. · Department of Neurology, San Gerardo Hospital, Milan Center for Neuroscience, Monza, Italy. · Department of Neurology, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, IL, USA. · St. Olav's Hospital, Department of Neurology, Trondheim, Norway. · Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessalia, Larissa, Greece. · Department of Pathophysiology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia. · Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience, Luxembourg Center for Systems Biomedicine (LCSB), University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg. · Department of Neurology, Medical University of Silesia, School of Medicine in Katowice, Poland. · Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV-UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland. · Department of Neurology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA. · Department of Neurology, NorthShore University Health System, Evanston, IL, USA. Electronic address: dmaraganore@northshore.org. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #25952959.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with a clinical course of variable duration, severity, and a combination of motor and non-motor features. Recent PD research has focused primarily on etiology rather than clinical progression and long-term outcomes. For the PD patient, caregivers, and clinicians, information on expected clinical progression and long-term outcomes is of great importance. Today, it remains largely unknown what factors influence long-term clinical progression and outcomes in PD; recent data indicate that the factors that increase the risk to develop PD differ, at least partly, from those that accelerate clinical progression and lead to worse outcomes. Prospective studies will be required to identify factors that influence progression and outcome. We suggest that data for such studies is collected during routine office visits in order to guarantee high external validity of such research. We report here the results of a consensus meeting of international movement disorder experts from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium, who convened to define which long-term outcomes are of interest to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and what is presently known about environmental or genetic factors influencing clinical progression or long-term outcomes in PD. We propose a panel of rating scales that collects a significant amount of phenotypic information, can be performed in the routine office visit and allows international standardization. Research into the progression and long-term outcomes of PD aims at providing individual prognostic information early, adapting treatment choices, and taking specific measures to provide care optimized to the individual patient's needs.

50 Review Promising cannabinoid-based therapies for Parkinson's disease: motor symptoms to neuroprotection. 2015

More, Sandeep Vasant / Choi, Dong-Kug. ·Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, South Korea. sandeepbcp@gmail.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, South Korea. choidk@kku.ac.kr. ·Mol Neurodegener · Pubmed #25888232.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a slow insidious neurological disorder characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. Although several recent preclinical advances have proposed to treat PD, there is hardly any clinically proved new therapeutic for its cure. Increasing evidence suggests a prominent modulatory function of the cannabinoid signaling system in the basal ganglia. Hence, use of cannabinoids as a new therapeutic target has been recommended as a promising therapy for PD. The elements of the endocannabinoid system are highly expressed in the neural circuit of basal ganglia wherein they bidirectionally interact with dopaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic signaling systems. As the cannabinoid signaling system undergoes a biphasic pattern of change during progression of PD, it explains the motor inhibition typically observed in patients with PD. Cannabinoid agonists such as WIN-55,212-2 have been demonstrated experimentally as neuroprotective agents in PD, with respect to their ability to suppress excitotoxicity, glial activation, and oxidative injury that causes degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Additional benefits provided by cannabinoid related compounds including CE-178253, oleoylethanolamide, nabilone and HU-210 have been reported to possess efficacy against bradykinesia and levodopa-induced dyskinesia in PD. Despite promising preclinical studies for PD, use of cannabinoids has not been studied extensively at the clinical level. In this review, we reassess the existing evidence suggesting involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the cause, symptomatology, and treatment of PD. We will try to identify future threads of research that will help in the understanding of the potential therapeutic benefits of the cannabinoid system for treating PD.

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