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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Malaysia
Based on 60 articles published since 2008
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These are the 60 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Malaysia during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3
1 Review Current Concepts of Neurodegenerative Mechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease. 2018

Magalingam, Kasthuri Bai / Radhakrishnan, Ammu / Ping, Ng Shee / Haleagrahara, Nagaraja. ·Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, International Medical University, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Applied Sciences, Nilai University, 71800 Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. · College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #29707568.

ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases are hereditary or sporadic conditions that result in the progressive loss of the structure and function of neurons as well as neuronal death. Although a range of diseases lie under this umbrella term, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative diseases that affect a large population around the globe. Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid-

2 Review The potential role of herbal products in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. 2018

Amro, M S / Teoh, S L / Norzana, A G / Srijit, D. ·Department of Anatomy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Clin Ter · Pubmed #29446788.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multifactorial disorder of the nervous system in which there is a progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. There is a disturbance in the movement in PD and these include resting tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia, disturbance, posture and freezing (motor block). The substantia nigra and other parts of the brain are commonly affected. The disorder could be related to oxidative stress and there is an important role of reactive oxygen species (ROS). A number of herbal products contain active components which are known to possess antioxidant action. Hence, the potential role of herbal products in treating PD cannot be undermined. In the present narrative review, the main aim is to discuss the pathogenesis of PD, define the role of different potential herbal extracts on its pathogenesis which may form the basis of treatment. We also discuss in detail the active chemical compounds present each herb which are effective in the treatment of PD. These herbs include Baicalei, Erythrina velutin, Resveratrol, Peganum Harmal, Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae), Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower), Pueraria lobate, Juglandis Semen (Walnut), Tianma Gouteng Yin (TGY), Lycium barbarum L fruit, Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean), Chunghyuldan (CHD), Paeoniae Alba Radix. The present review may be beneficial for designing future drugs for effective treatment of PD.

3 Review Historical perspective: The pros and cons of conventional outcome measures in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Lim, Shen-Yang / Tan, Ai Huey. ·Division of Neurology, The Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: limshenyang@gmail.com. · Division of Neurology, The Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28793970.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Conventional outcome measures (COMs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) refer to rating scales, questionnaires, patient diaries and clinically-based tests that do not require specialized equipment. METHODS: It is timely at this juncture - as clinicians and researchers begin to grapple with the "invasion" of digital technologies - to review the strengths and weaknesses of these outcome measures. RESULTS: This paper discusses advances (including an enhanced understanding of PD itself, and the development of clinimetrics as a field) that have led to improvements in the COMs used in PD; their strengths and limitations; and factors to consider when selecting and using a measuring instrument. CONCLUSIONS: It is envisaged that in the future, a combination of COMs and technology-based objective measures will be utilized, with different methods having their own strengths and weaknesses. Judgement is required on the part of the clinician and researcher in terms of which instrument(s) are appropriate to use, depending on the particular clinical or research setting or question.

4 Review Pharmacology and toxicology of α- and β-Asarone: A review of preclinical evidence. 2017

Chellian, Ranjithkumar / Pandy, Vijayapandi / Mohamed, Zahurin. ·Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: pandiphd@gmail.com. ·Phytomedicine · Pubmed #28732807.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Asarone is one of the most researched phytochemicals and is mainly present in the Acorus species and Guatteria gaumeri Greenman. In preclinical studies, both α- and β-asarone have been reported to have numerous pharmacological activities and at the same time, many studies have also revealed the toxicity of α- and β-asarone. PURPOSE: The purpose of this comprehensive review is to compile and analyze the information related to the pharmacokinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological studies reported on α- and β-asarone using preclinical in vitro and in vivo models. Besides, the molecular targets and mechanism(s) involved in the biological activities of α- and β-asarone were discussed. METHODS: Databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google scholar were searched and the literature from the year 1960 to January 2017 was retrieved using keywords such as α-asarone, β-asarone, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, pharmacological activities (e.g. depression, anxiety). RESULTS: Based on the data obtained from the literature search, the pharmacokinetic studies of α- and β-asarone revealed that their oral bioavailability in rodents is poor with a short plasma half-life. Moreover, the metabolism of α- and β-asarone occurs mainly through cytochrome-P450 pathways. Besides, both α- and/or β-asarone possess a wide range of pharmacological activities such as antidepressant, antianxiety, anti-Alzheimer's, anti-Parkinson's, antiepileptic, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, antithrombotic, anticholestatic and radioprotective activities through its interaction with multiple molecular targets. Importantly, the toxicological studies revealed that both α- and β-asarone can cause hepatomas and might possess mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and teratogenicity. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, further preclinical studies are required to confirm the pharmacological properties of α-asarone against depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, psychosis, drug dependence, pain, inflammation, cholestasis and thrombosis. Besides, the anticancer effect of β-asarone should be further studied in different types of cancers using in vivo models. Moreover, further dose-dependent in vivo studies are required to confirm the toxicity of α- and β-asarone. Overall, this extensive review provides a detailed information on the preclinical pharmacological and toxicological activities of α-and β-asarone and this could be very useful for researchers who wish to conduct further preclinical studies using α- and β-asarone.

5 Review Rivastigmine: the advantages of dual inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase and its role in subcortical vascular dementia and Parkinson's disease dementia. 2017

Kandiah, Nagaendran / Pai, Ming-Chyi / Senanarong, Vorapun / Looi, Irene / Ampil, Encarnita / Park, Kyung Won / Karanam, Ananda Krishna / Christopher, Stephen. ·Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital. · Duke-NUS, Graduate Medical School, Singapore. · Division of Behavioral Neurology, Department of Neurology. · Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan. · Division of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand. · Clinical Research Centre. · Department of Medicine, Hospital Seberang Jaya, Penang, Malaysia. · Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Santo Tomas, Manila, Philippines. · Department of Neurology and Cognitive Disorders and Dementia Center, Institute of Convergence Bio-Health, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea. · Novartis Healthcare Private Limited, Hyderabad, India. · Novartis (Singapore) Pte. Ltd., Singapore. ·Clin Interv Aging · Pubmed #28458525.

ABSTRACT: Several studies have demonstrated clinical benefits of sustained cholinesterase inhibition with rivastigmine in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Unlike donepezil and galantamine that selectively inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7), rivastigmine is a unique cholinesterase inhibitor with both AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE; EC 3.1.1.8) inhibitory activity. Rivastigmine is also available as transdermal patch that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe AD as well as mild-to-moderate PDD. In this review, we explore the role of BuChE inhibition in addition to AChE inhibition with rivastigmine in the outcomes of cognition, global function, behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily living. Additionally, we review the evidence supporting the use of dual AChE-BuChE inhibitory activity of rivastigmine as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders, with a focus on the role of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias such as vascular dementia (VaD) and PDD. Toward this objective, we performed a literature search in PubMed and Ovid with limits to articles published in the English language before June 2016. The available evidence from the literature suggests that the dual inhibition of AChE and BuChE may afford additional therapeutic potential of rivastigmine in subcortical dementias (subcortical VaD and PDD) with benefits on cognition and behavioral symptoms. Rivastigmine was found to specifically benefit executive dysfunction frequently observed in subcortical dementias; however, large randomized clinical studies are warranted to support these observations.

6 Review Integrating Patient Concerns into Parkinson's Disease Management. 2017

Lim, Shen-Yang / Tan, Ai Huey / Fox, Susan H / Evans, Andrew H / Low, Soon Chai. ·Division of Neurology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. limshenyang@ymail.com. · Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. limshenyang@ymail.com. · Division of Neurology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Movement Disorder Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia. ·Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep · Pubmed #28102483.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex motor and non-motor disorder and management is often challenging. In this review, we explore emerging approaches to improve the care of patients, drawing from the literature regarding patient-centred care, patient and caregiver perspectives and priorities, gaps in knowledge among patients and caregivers and the need for accurate information, individual variability in disease manifestations, prognostication of disease course, new developments in health technologies and personalized medicine, specialty care, pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, financial burden, lifestyle and work-related issues, support groups and palliative care.

7 Review Natural Products Combating Neurodegeneration: Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Solayman, Md / Islam, Md Asiful / Alam, Fahmida / Khalil, Md Ibrahim / Kamal, Mohammad Amjad / Gan, Siew Hua. ·Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. ·Curr Drug Metab · Pubmed #27396919.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by neurodegeneration and a progressive functional impairment of the midbrain nigral dopaminergic neurons. The cause remains unknown; however, several pathological processes and central factors, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, have been reported. The current treatment method primarily targets symptoms by using anti-Parkinson drugs such as levodopa, carbidopa, dopamine (DA) agonists, monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors and anticholinergics to replace DA. When drug therapy is not satisfactory, surgical treatments are recommended. Unfortunately, the existing conventional strategies that target PD are associated with numerous side effects and possess an economic burden. Therefore, novel therapeutic approaches that regulate the pathways leading to neuronal death and dysfunction are necessary. For many years, nature has provided the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutic agents. Remarkably, many natural products from medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables have been demonstrated to be efficacious anti-Parkinson agents. These products possess neuroprotective properties as a result of not only their wellrecognized anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities but also their inhibitory roles regarding iron accumulation, protein misfolding and the maintenance of proteasomal degradation, as well as mitochondrial homeostasis. The aim of this review is to report the available anti-Parkinson agents based on natural products and delineate their therapeutic actions, which act on various pathways. Overall, this review emphasizes the types of natural products that are potential future resources in the treatment of PD as novel regimens or supplementary agents.

8 Review Protective Mechanisms of Flavonoids in Parkinson's Disease. 2015

Magalingam, Kasthuri Bai / Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty / Haleagrahara, Nagaraja. ·Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, International Medical University, Bukit Jalil, 57000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Discipline of Biomedicine, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia. ·Oxid Med Cell Longev · Pubmed #26576219.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a chronic, debilitating neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region in human midbrain. To date, oxidative stress is the well accepted concept in the etiology and progression of Parkinson's disease. Hence, the therapeutic agent is targeted against suppressing and alleviating the oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Within the past decades, an explosion of research discoveries has reported on the protective mechanisms of flavonoids, which are plant-based polyphenols, in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease using both in vitro and in vivo models. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on the neuroprotective mechanisms of flavonoids in protecting the dopaminergic neurons hence reducing the symptoms of this movement disorder. The mechanism reviewed includes effect of flavonoids in activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes, suppressing the lipid peroxidation, inhibition of inflammatory mediators, flavonoids as a mitochondrial target therapy, and modulation of gene expression in neuronal cells.

9 Review Technologies for Assessment of Motor Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: A Review. 2015

Oung, Qi Wei / Muthusamy, Hariharan / Lee, Hoi Leong / Basah, Shafriza Nisha / Yaacob, Sazali / Sarillee, Mohamed / Lee, Chia Hau. ·School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. aliciaoung@gmail.com. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. hari@unimap.edu.my. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. hoileong89@gmail.com. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. shafriza@unimap.edu.my. · Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute, Kulim Hi-TechPark, 09000 Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia. sazali.yaacob@unikl.edu.my. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. sarilleelee@gmail.com. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. mrlionryan@gmail.com. ·Sensors (Basel) · Pubmed #26404288.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized as the commonest neurodegenerative illness that gradually degenerates the central nervous system. The goal of this review is to come out with a summary of the recent progress of numerous forms of sensors and systems that are related to diagnosis of PD in the past decades. The paper reviews the substantial researches on the application of technological tools (objective techniques) in the PD field applying different types of sensors proposed by previous researchers. In addition, this also includes the use of clinical tools (subjective techniques) for PD assessments, for instance, patient self-reports, patient diaries and the international gold standard reference scale, Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). Comparative studies and critical descriptions of these approaches have been highlighted in this paper, giving an insight on the current state of the art. It is followed by explaining the merits of the multiple sensor fusion platform compared to single sensor platform for better monitoring progression of PD, and ends with thoughts about the future direction towards the need of multimodal sensor integration platform for the assessment of PD.

10 Review Asian perspectives on the recognition and management of levodopa 'wearing-off' in Parkinson's disease. 2015

Bhidayasiri, Roongroj / Hattori, Nobutaka / Jeon, Beomseok / Chen, Rou-Shayn / Lee, Moon Keen / Bajwa, Jawad A / Mok, Vincent C T / Zhang, Baorong / Syamsudin, Thamrin / Tan, Louis Chew Seng / Jamora, Roland Dominic G / Pisarnpong, Apichart / Poewe, Werner. ·a 1 Chulalongkorn Centre of Excellence for Parkinson's Disease & Related Disorders, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, Bangkok, Thailand. · b 2 Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · c 3 Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. · d 4 Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lingkou, Taiwan. · e 5 Sunway Medical Centre, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. · f 6 National Neuroscience Institute, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. · g 7 Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. · h 8 Department of Neurology, Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China. · i 9 National Brain Centre Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. · j 10 National Neuroscience Institute, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore. · k 11 Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine-Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Philippines. · l 12 Movement Disorder Service and Section of Neurology, Institute for Neurosciences, St. Luke's Medical Center-Quezon City and Global City, Philippines. · m 13 Department of Neurology, Bangkok Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. · n 14 Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #26390066.

ABSTRACT: Most Parkinson's disease patients will receive levodopa therapy, and of these, the majority will develop some levodopa-induced complications. For many patients, the first complication to develop is the decline in the duration of therapeutic benefit of each levodopa dose, a phenomenon commonly termed 'wearing-off'. There is already extensive literature documenting the epidemiology and management of wearing-off in Parkinson's disease patients of western descent. However, data derived from these studies might not always apply to patients of Asian descent due to genetic variations, differences in co-morbidities or non-availability of certain drugs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the epidemiology of wearing-off in Asian (including Arab) patients and discusses the management issues in the context of drug availability in Asia.

11 Review Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) signaling: Implications for Parkinson's disease. 2015

Golpich, Mojtaba / Amini, Elham / Hemmati, Fatemeh / Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed / Rahmani, Behrouz / Mohamed, Zahurin / Raymond, Azman Ali / Dargahi, Leila / Ghasemi, Rasoul / Ahmadiani, Abolhassan. ·Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · NeuroBiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. · Neurophysiology Research Center and Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: Rghasemi60@sbmu.ac.ir. · Neuroscience Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: aahmadiani@yahoo.com. ·Pharmacol Res · Pubmed #25829335.

ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) dysregulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders, affecting the central nervous system (CNS) encompassing both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. Several lines of evidence have illustrated a key role of the GSK-3 and its cellular and molecular signaling cascades in the control of neuroinflammation. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β), one of the GSK-3 isomers, plays a major role in neuronal apoptosis and its inhibition decreases expression of alpha-Synuclein (α-Synuclein), which make this kinase an attractive therapeutic target for neurodegenerative disorders. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons by neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. Thus, understanding the role of GSK-3β in PD will enhance our knowledge of the basic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disorder and facilitate the identification of new therapeutic avenues. In recent years, GSK-3β has been shown to play essential roles in modulating a variety of cellular functions, which have prompted efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors as therapeutics. In this review, we summarize GSK-3 signaling pathways and its association with neuroinflammation. Moreover, we highlight the interaction between GSK-3β and several cellular processes involved in the pathogenesis of PD, including the accumulation of α-Synuclein aggregates, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Finally, we discuss about GSK-3β inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy in PD.

12 Review Differentiating multiple-system atrophy from Parkinson's disease. 2015

Ramli, N / Nair, S R / Ramli, N M / Lim, S Y. ·Department of Biomedical Imaging, University Malaya Research Imaging Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address: norlisahramli@gmail.com. · National Cancer Institute, Putrajaya, Malaysia. · University Malaya Eye Research Centre, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Clin Radiol · Pubmed #25752581.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review is to illustrate the differentiating features of multiple-system atrophy from Parkinson's disease at MRI. The various MRI sequences helpful in the differentiation will be discussed, including newer methods, such as diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy, and nuclear imaging.

13 Review Preconditioning as a potential strategy for the prevention of Parkinson's disease. 2015

Golpich, Mojtaba / Rahmani, Behrouz / Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah / Dargahi, Leila / Mohamed, Zahurin / Raymond, Azman Ali / Ahmadiani, Abolhassan. ·Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Mol Neurobiol · Pubmed #24696268.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by the progressive and massive loss of dopaminergic neurons by neuronal apoptosis in the substantia nigra pars compacta and depletion of dopamine in the striatum, which lead to pathological and clinical abnormalities. A numerous of cellular processes including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of α-synuclein aggregates are considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. A further understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of PD is crucial for developing effective diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic strategies to cure this devastating disorder. Preconditioning (PC) is assumed as a natural adaptive process whereby a subthreshold stimulus can promote protection against a subsequent lethal stimulus in the brain as well as in other tissues that affords robust brain tolerance facing neurodegenerative insults. Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that preconditioning as a possible neuroprotective technique may reduce the neural deficits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Throughout the last few decades, a lot of efforts have been made to discover the molecular determinants involved in preconditioning-induced protective responses; although, the accurate mechanisms underlying this "tolerance" phenomenon are not fully understood in PD. In this review, we will summarize pathophysiology and current therapeutic approaches in PD and discuss about preconditioning in PD as a potential neuroprotective strategy. Also the role of gene reprogramming and mitochondrial biogenesis involved in the preconditioning-mediated neuroprotective events will be highlighted. Preconditioning may represent a promising therapeutic weapon to combat neurodegeneration.

14 Clinical Trial Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection improves levodopa action, clinical symptoms and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. 2014

Hashim, Hasriza / Azmin, Shahrul / Razlan, Hamizah / Yahya, Nafisah Wan / Tan, Hui Jan / Manaf, M Rizal Abdul / Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed. ·Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, UKM Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Community Health, UKM Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #25411976.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) compared to controls. H. pylori infection affects levodopa absorption and its eradication significantly improves clinical response to levodopa. Here, we studied the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its eradication effects among our PD patients. METHODS: A prospective study involving idiopathic PD patients on levodopa therapy. 13C-urea breath test (UBT) was used to detect H. pylori. UBT-positive patients were given standard eradication therapy and followed up at 6 and 12 weeks in an open label single arm design. Repeat UBT was performed at 12 weeks. The UPDRS, PD NMQ, PD NMSS and PDQ-39 were administered at baseline and post-eradication (6 and 12 weeks). Levodopa 'onset' time and ON-duration were recorded. RESULTS: Of 82 patients recruited, 27 (32.9%) had positive UBT. H. pylori-positive patients had significantly poorer total UPDRS (p = 0.005) and PDQ39 (p<0.0001) scores compared to H. pylori-negative patients. At 12 weeks post-eradication, the mean levodopa onset time shortened by 14 minutes (p = 0.011). The mean ON duration time increased by 56 minutes at week 6 (p = 0.041) and 38 minutes at week 12 (p = 0.035). The total UPDRS scores (p<0.0001), scores for parts II (p = 0.001), III (p<0.0001) and IV (p = 0.009) were significantly better. The total PDQ-39 scores (p = 0.001) and subdomains mobility (p = 0.002), ADL (p = 0.001), emotional well being (p = 0.026) and stigma (p = 0.034) significantly improved. The PD NMSQ did not show significant improvement. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori eradication improved levodopa onset time, ON duration, motor severity and quality of life parameters. Screening and eradication of H. pylori is inexpensive and should be recommended in PD patients, particularly those with erratic response to levodopa. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02112812.

15 Article Deciduous DPSCs Ameliorate MPTP-Mediated Neurotoxicity, Sensorimotor Coordination and Olfactory Function in Parkinsonian Mice. 2019

Simon, Christopher / Gan, Quan Fu / Kathivaloo, Premasangery / Mohamad, Nur Afiqah / Dhamodharan, Jagadeesh / Krishnan, Arulmoli / Sengodan, Bharathi / Palanimuthu, Vasanth Raj / Marimuthu, Kasi / Rajandas, Heera / Ravichandran, Manickam / Parimannan, Sivachandran. ·Brain Research Institute, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Selangor 47500, Malaysia. Christopher.simon@monash.edu. · Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. Christopher.simon@monash.edu. · Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. qfganptana@outlook.com. · Pre-Clinical Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, UTAR, Sungai Long Campus, Selangor 43000, Malaysia. qfganptana@outlook.com. · Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. prema@meluhagroup.com. · Meluha Life Sciences Sdn Bhd, Lot 1G-2G Kompleks Lanai, Putrajaya 62250, Malaysia. prema@meluhagroup.com. · Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. afiqah@meluhagroup.com. · Meluha Life Sciences Sdn Bhd, Lot 1G-2G Kompleks Lanai, Putrajaya 62250, Malaysia. afiqah@meluhagroup.com. · Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. jagadeesh@aimst.edu.my. · Anatomy Unit, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. arulmoli@aimst.edu.my. · Pathology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. bharathi@aimst.edu.my. · School of Pharmacy, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland BT9 7BL, UK. V.Palanimuthu@qub.ac.uk. · China Queens College (CQC), China Medical University Joint College (off-campus), Shenyang 110122, China. V.Palanimuthu@qub.ac.uk. · Centre of Excellence for Omics-Driven Computational Biodiscovery, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. aquamuthu2k@gmail.com. · Centre of Excellence for Omics-Driven Computational Biodiscovery, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. heraadaas@gmail.com. · Centre of Excellence for Omics-Driven Computational Biodiscovery, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. ravichandran@aimst.edu.my. · Centre of Excellence for Omics-Driven Computational Biodiscovery, AIMST University, Bedong, Kedah 08100, Malaysia. sivachandran@aimst.edu.my. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #30699944.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder defined by progressive deterioration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been proposed to replace the degenerated dopaminergic neurons due to its inherent neurogenic and regenerative potential. However, the effective delivery and homing of DPSCs within the lesioned brain has been one of the many obstacles faced in cell-based therapy of neurodegenerative disorders. We hypothesized that DPSCs, delivered intranasally, could circumvent these challenges. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of intranasally administered DPSCs in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of PD. Human deciduous DPSCs were cultured, pre-labelled with PKH 26, and intranasally delivered into PD mice following MPTP treatment. Behavioural analyses were performed to measure olfactory function and sensorimotor coordination, while tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunofluorescence was used to evaluate MPTP neurotoxicity in SNpc neurons. Upon intranasal delivery, degenerated TH-positive neurons were ameliorated, while deterioration in behavioural performances was significantly enhanced. Thus, the intranasal approach enriched cell delivery to the brain, optimizing its therapeutic potential through its efficacious delivery and protection against dopaminergic neuron degeneration.

16 Article Computational prediction of changes in brain metabolic fluxes during Parkinson's disease from mRNA expression. 2018

Supandi, Farahaniza / van Beek, Johannes H G M. ·Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. · Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Experimental Vascular Medicine, Academic Medical Center, AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #30208076.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a widespread neurodegenerative disorder which affects brain metabolism. Although changes in gene expression during disease are often measured, it is difficult to predict metabolic fluxes from gene expression data. Here we explore the hypothesis that changes in gene expression for enzymes tend to parallel flux changes in biochemical reaction pathways in the brain metabolic network. This hypothesis is the basis of a computational method to predict metabolic flux changes from post-mortem gene expression measurements in Parkinson's disease (PD) brain. RESULTS: We use a network model of central metabolism and optimize the correspondence between relative changes in fluxes and in gene expression. To this end we apply the Least-squares with Equalities and Inequalities algorithm integrated with Flux Balance Analysis (Lsei-FBA). We predict for PD (1) decreases in glycolytic rate and oxygen consumption and an increase in lactate production in brain cortex that correspond with measurements (2) relative flux decreases in ATP synthesis, in the malate-aspartate shuttle and midway in the TCA cycle that are substantially larger than relative changes in glucose uptake in the substantia nigra, dopaminergic neurons and most other brain regions (3) shifts in redox shuttles between cytosol and mitochondria (4) in contrast to Alzheimer's disease: little activation of the gamma-aminobutyric acid shunt pathway in compensation for decreased alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase activity (5) in the globus pallidus internus, metabolic fluxes are increased, reflecting increased functional activity. CONCLUSION: Our method predicts metabolic changes from gene expression data that correspond in direction and order of magnitude with presently available experimental observations during Parkinson's disease, indicating that the hypothesis may be useful for some biochemical pathways. Lsei-FBA generates predictions of flux distributions in neurons and small brain regions for which accurate metabolic flux measurements are not yet possible.

17 Article Tubulin and Tau: Possible targets for diagnosis of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. 2018

Salama, Mohamed / Shalash, Ali / Magdy, Alshimaa / Makar, Marianne / Roushdy, Tamer / Elbalkimy, Mahmoud / Elrassas, Hanan / Elkafrawy, Passent / Mohamed, Wael / Abou Donia, Mohamed B. ·Medical Experimental Research Center (MERC), Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. · Toxicology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. · Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. · Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt. · Okasha Institute of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. · Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkoum, Egypt. · Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebeen Elkoum, Egypt. · Basic Medical Science Department, Kulliyyah of Medicine, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan Pahang, Malaysia. · Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #29742117.

ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are characterized by progressive neuronal loss and pathological accumulation of some proteins. Developing new biomarkers for both diseases is highly important for the early diagnosis and possible development of neuro-protective strategies. Serum antibodies (AIAs) against neuronal proteins are potential biomarkers for AD and PD that may be formed in response to their release into systemic circulation after brain damage. In the present study, two AIAs (tubulin and tau) were measured in sera of patients of PD and AD, compared to healthy controls. Results showed that both antibodies were elevated in patients with PD and AD compared to match controls. Curiously, the profile of elevation of antibodies was different in both diseases. In PD cases, tubulin and tau AIAs levels were similar. On the other hand, AD patients showed more elevation of tau AIAs compared to tubulin. Our current results suggested that AIAs panel could be able to identify cases with neuro-degeneration when compared with healthy subjects. More interestingly, it is possible to differentiate between PD and AD cases through identifying specific AIAs profile for each neurodegenerative states.

18 Article Discovery of indolylpiperazinylpyrimidines with dual-target profiles at adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors for Parkinson's disease treatment. 2018

Shao, Yi-Ming / Ma, Xiaohua / Paira, Priyankar / Tan, Aaron / Herr, Deron Raymond / Lim, Kah Leong / Ng, Chee Hoe / Venkatesan, Gopalakrishnan / Klotz, Karl-Norbert / Federico, Stephanie / Spalluto, Giampiero / Cheong, Siew Lee / Chen, Yu Zong / Pastorin, Giorgia. ·Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore, Singapore. · National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. · Institut für Pharmakologie, Universität Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany. · Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy. · Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #29304113.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the human brain, leading to depletion of dopamine production. Dopamine replacement therapy remains the mainstay for attenuation of PD symptoms. Nonetheless, the potential benefit of current pharmacotherapies is mostly limited by adverse side effects, such as drug-induced dyskinesia, motor fluctuations and psychosis. Non-dopaminergic receptors, such as human A2A adenosine receptors, have emerged as important therapeutic targets in potentiating therapeutic effects and reducing the unwanted side effects. In this study, new chemical entities targeting both human A2A adenosine receptor and dopamine D2 receptor were designed and evaluated. Two computational methods, namely support vector machine (SVM) models and Tanimoto similarity-based clustering analysis, were integrated for the identification of compounds containing indole-piperazine-pyrimidine (IPP) scaffold. Subsequent synthesis and testing resulted in compounds 5 and 6, which acted as human A2A adenosine receptor binders in the radioligand competition assay (Ki = 8.7-11.2 μM) as well as human dopamine D2 receptor binders in the artificial cell membrane assay (EC50 = 22.5-40.2 μM). Moreover, compound 5 showed improvement in movement and mitigation of the loss of dopaminergic neurons in Drosophila models of PD. Furthermore, in vitro toxicity studies on compounds 5 and 6 did not reveal any mutagenicity (up to 100 μM), hepatotoxicity (up to 30 μM) or cardiotoxicity (up to 30 μM).

19 Article Empirical Wavelet Transform Based Features for Classification of Parkinson's Disease Severity. 2017

Oung, Qi Wei / Muthusamy, Hariharan / Basah, Shafriza Nisha / Lee, Hoileong / Vijean, Vikneswaran. ·School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. aliciaoung@gmail.com. · Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Bio-Engineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, SRM Nagar, Kancheepuram District, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, 603 203, India. · School of Mechatronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Campus Pauh Putra, 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia. ·J Med Syst · Pubmed #29288342.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of progressive neurodegenerative disorder that has affected a large part of the population till now. Several symptoms of PD include tremor, rigidity, slowness of movements and vocal impairments. In order to develop an effective diagnostic system, a number of algorithms were proposed mainly to distinguish healthy individuals from the ones with PD. However, most of the previous works were conducted based on a binary classification, with the early PD stage and the advanced ones being treated equally. Therefore, in this work, we propose a multiclass classification with three classes of PD severity level (mild, moderate, severe) and healthy control. The focus is to detect and classify PD using signals from wearable motion and audio sensors based on both empirical wavelet transform (EWT) and empirical wavelet packet transform (EWPT) respectively. The EWT/EWPT was applied to decompose both speech and motion data signals up to five levels. Next, several features are extracted after obtaining the instantaneous amplitudes and frequencies from the coefficients of the decomposed signals by applying the Hilbert transform. The performance of the algorithm was analysed using three classifiers - K-nearest neighbour (KNN), probabilistic neural network (PNN) and extreme learning machine (ELM). Experimental results demonstrated that our proposed approach had the ability to differentiate PD from non-PD subjects, including their severity level - with classification accuracies of more than 90% using EWT/EWPT-ELM based on signals from motion and audio sensors respectively. Additionally, classification accuracy of more than 95% was achieved when EWT/EWPT-ELM is applied to signals from integration of both signal's information.

20 Article Levodopa and Parkinson Disease-Myths Revisited. 2017

Lim, Shen-Yang / Poewe, Werner / Tan, Ai Huey. ·Division of Neurology and the Mah Pooi Soo & Tan Chin Nam Centre for Parkinson's & Related Disorders, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. ·JAMA Neurol · Pubmed #28973082.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Article Quality of Life and Caregivers' Burden of Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Rajiah, Kingston / Maharajan, Mari Kannan / Yeen, Si Jen / Lew, Sara. ·Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Neuroepidemiology · Pubmed #28728161.

ABSTRACT: AIM: This study focused on the impact of the clinical features on the quality of life (QoL) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and of their caregivers. METHODS: This study included PD patients along with their caregivers and was undertaken at the Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Association from June 2016 to November 2016. Clinical features of PD patients were assessed using the Movement Disorder Society revised Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale; the Hoehn and Yahr stage and the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale were used to assess the severity and the ability of PD patients respectively. QoL of PD patients was measured using the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). The revised version of the Zarit Burden Interview assessed caregiver burden. RESULTS: At least one of the clinical features affected PD patients' QoL, and at least one of the QoL domains affected the caregivers' burden. Clinical features "saliva and drooling" and "dyskinesia" explained 29% of variance in QoL of PD patients. The QoL domains "stigma," along with "emotional well-being" explained 48.6% of variance in caregivers' burden. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical features "saliva and drooling" and "dyskinesia" impacted the QoL of PD patients, and the QoL domains "stigma" and "emotional well-being" of PD patients impacted their caregivers' burden.

22 Article Neuroimmunomodulatory properties of DPSCs in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. 2017

Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran / Govindasamy, Vijayendran / Mani, Vasudevan / Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty. ·Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. ·IUBMB Life · Pubmed #28685937.

ABSTRACT: In neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, microglial cell activation is thought to contribute to their degeneration by producing neurotoxic compounds. While dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have been regarded as the next possible cell source for cell replacement therapy (CRT), their actual role when exposed in such harsh environment remains elusive. In this study, the immunomodulatory behavior of DPSCs from human subjects was investigated in a coculture system consisting of neuron and microglia which were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine, which mimics the inflammatory conditions and contribute to degeneration of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons. Assessments were performed on their proliferation, extent of DNA damage, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), as well as secretion of inflammatory mediators. Notably, DPSCs were shown to attenuate their proliferation, production of ROS, and NO significantly (P < 0.05). Additionally, their immunomodulatory properties were distinct although insignificant changes were observed in DNA damage. Despite DPSCs were exposed to such harsh environment, they were still able to express neuronal markers such as Nestin, Pax 6, and Nurr1, at least by twofold thereby indicating their applicability for CRT especially in PD conditions. To conclude, DPSCs were shown to have immunomodulatory capacities which could probably serve as secondary effects upon transplantation in a CRT regime. © 2017 IUBMB Life, 69(9):689-699, 2017.

23 Article Polar-phase indices of perioral muscle reciprocity during syllable production in Parkinson's disease. 2017

Chu, Shin Ying / Barlow, Steven M / Lee, Jaehoon / Wang, Jingyan. ·a Faculty of Health Sciences, Speech Sciences Programme , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia , Kuala Lumpur , Malaysia. · b Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, Biological Systems Engineering, Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior , Communication Neuroscience Laboratories, University of Nebraska , Lincoln , NE , USA. · c College of Education , Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy (IMMAP), Texas Tech University , Lubbock , TX , USA , and. · d Communication Neuroscience Laboratories , University of Nebraska , Lincoln , NE , USA. ·Int J Speech Lang Pathol · Pubmed #28425760.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This research characterised perioral muscle reciprocity and amplitude ratio in lower lip during bilabial syllable production [pa] at three rates to understand the neuromotor dynamics and scaling of motor speech patterns in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHOD: Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the orbicularis oris superior [OOS], orbicularis oris inferior [OOI] and depressor labii inferioris [DLI] were recorded during syllable production and expressed as polar-phase notations. RESULT: PD participants exhibited the general features of reciprocity between OOS, OOI and DLI muscles as reflected in the EMG during syllable production. The control group showed significantly higher integrated EMG amplitude ratio in the DLI:OOS muscle pairs than PD participants. No speech rate effects were found in EMG muscle reciprocity and amplitude magnitude across all muscle pairs. CONCLUSION: Similar patterns of muscle reciprocity in PD and controls suggest that corticomotoneuronal output to the facial nucleus and respective perioral muscles is relatively well-preserved in our cohort of mild idiopathic PD participants. Reduction of EMG amplitude ratio among PD participants is consistent with the putative reduction in the thalamocortical activation characteristic of this disease which limits motor cortex drive from generating appropriate commands which contributes to bradykinesia and hypokinesia of the orofacial mechanism.

24 Article Effect of dental pulp stem cells in MPTP-induced old-aged mice model. 2017

Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran / Govindasamy, Vijayendran / Simon, Christopher / Gan, Quan Fu / Vincent-Chong, Vui King / Mani, Vasudevan / Krishnan Selvarajan, Kesavanarayanan / Subramaniam, Vellayan / Musa, Sabri / Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty. ·Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Semeling, Bedong, Kedah, Malaysia. · Oral Cancer Research and Coordinating Center (OCRCC), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia. · Department of Pharmacology, SRM College of Pharmacy, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu, India. · Laboratory Animal Facility and Management (LAFAM), Faculty of Pharmacy, UiTM Puncak, Alam Selangor, Malaysia. · Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Eur J Clin Invest · Pubmed #28369799.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and represented as a huge threat to the geriatric population. Cell replacement therapies (CRTs) have been proposed as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Among the widely available cell sources, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) portray as an attractive source primarily due to their neural crest origin, ease of tissue procurement and less ethical hurdles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We first demonstrated the in vitro differentiation ability of DPSCs towards DA-ergic-like cells before evaluating their neuro-protection/neuro-restoration capacities in MPTP-induced mice. Transplantation via intrathecal was performed with behavioural assessments being evaluated every fortnight. Subsequent analysis investigating their immuno-modulatory behaviour was conducted using neuronal and microglial cell lines. RESULTS: It was apparent that the behavioural parameters began to improve corresponding to tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine decarboxylase (AADC) immunostaining in SN and striatum as early as 8-week post-transplantation (P < 0·05). About 60% restoration of DA-ergic neurons was observed at SN in MPTP-treated mice after 12-week post-transplantation. Similarly, their ability to reduce toxic effects of MPTP (DNA damages, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide release) and regulate cytokine levels was distinctly noted (P < 0·05) upon exposure in in vitro model. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DPSCs may provide a therapeutic benefit in the old-aged PD mice model and may be explored in stem cell-based CRTs especially in geriatric population as an attempt towards 'personalized medicine'.

25 Article Validation of an informant-based cognitive screening tool for Parkinson disease. 2017

Chee, Kok-Yoon / Ong, Kheng-Yee / Mak, Chin-Yeat / Yacob, Sapini / Yeo, Shen-Cheng / Thrichelam, Nathisha / Amarnath, Deepa Darshini / Thong, Kai-Shin / Moey, Chee-Hoong / Ponusamy, Thanam / Viswanathan, Shanthi / Puvanarajah, Santhi. ·Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Tunku Abdul Rahman Institute of Neurosciences, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. · Department of Neurology, Tunku Abdul Rahman Institute of Neurosciences, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ·Asia Pac Psychiatry · Pubmed #28326670.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to establish the psychometric properties of the AD8 Dementia Screening Interview in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with or without cognitive impairment using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool (MoCA) for comparison. METHODS: The AD8 was translated into Malay for Malay-speaking participants. A correlation analysis and a receiver operator characteristic curve were generated to establish the psychometric properties of the AD8 in relation to the MoCA. RESULTS: One hundred fifty patients and their caretakers completed the AD8 and MoCA. Using a cutoff score of 1/8, the AD8 had 81% sensitivity and 59% specificity for the detection of cognitive impairment in PD. With a cutoff score of 2/8, the AD8 had 83% specificity and 64% sensitivity. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 80%, indicating good-to-excellent discriminative ability. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that the AD8 can reliably differentiate between cognitively impaired and cognitively normal patients with PD and is a useful caregiver screening tool for PD.

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