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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Ontario
Based on 718 articles published since 2008
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These are the 718 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Ontario during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Consensus statements on driving in people with Parkinson's disease. 2014

Classen, Sherrilene / Anonymous510792 / Anonymous520792. ·School of Occupational Therapy, Elborn College, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada. ·Occup Ther Health Care · Pubmed #24754762.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder leading to motor and non-motor impairments, all of which can affect fitness to drive. The literature suggest that on-road and simulated driving performances are impaired in people with PD, as compared to healthy control drivers. Clear associations exist between impaired driving performance and contrast sensitivity, visual processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Prior to this review and expert panel process, no evidence-based guidelines have existed to help occupational therapy practitioners determining fitness to drive in those with PD. Three consensus statements are presented in this work to enable occupational therapy practitioners and other driver rehabilitation specialists to make fitness to drive determinations in people with PD.

2 Guideline Canadian Guidelines on Parkinson's Disease. 2012

Grimes, David / Gordon, Joyce / Snelgrove, Barbara / Lim-Carter, Ivy / Fon, Edward / Martin, Wayne / Wieler, Marguerite / Suchowersky, Oksana / Rajput, Alex / Lafontaine, Anne L / Stoessl, Jon / Moro, Elena / Schoffer, Kerrie / Miyasaki, Janis / Hobson, Doug / Mahmoudi, Minoo / Fox, Susan / Postuma, Ron / Kumar, Hrishikesh / Jog, Mandar / Anonymous2770741. ·Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada. dagrimes@ottawahospital.on.ca ·Can J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #23126020.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Editorial Are Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders caused by impaired signalling of insulin and other hormones? 2018

Hölscher, Christian / De Felice, Fernanda G / Greig, Nigel H / Ferreira, Sergio T. ·Biomedical and Life Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK. Electronic address: c.holscher@lancaster.ac.uk. · Centre for Neuroscience Studies, Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. · Drug Design & Development Section, Translational Gerontology Branch, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, USA. · Institute of Biophysics Carlos Chagas Filho, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ·Neuropharmacology · Pubmed #29782874.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Editorial What Would Dr. James Parkinson Think Today III: Measuring Health-Related Quality of Life. 2017

Marras, Connie. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28318116.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

5 Editorial Angiogenesis: A new paradigm for Parkinson disease with practical and pathogenic implications. 2015

Munoz, David G / Woulfe, John M. ·From the Neuroscience Research Program (D.G.M.), The Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute and Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Michael's Hospital · the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (D.G.M.), University of Toronto · the Centre for Cancer Therapeutics (J.M.W.), Ottawa Hospital Research Institute · and the Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine (J.M.W.) and Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology (J.M.W.), University of Ottawa, Canada. ·Neurology · Pubmed #26511449.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

6 Editorial Serotonin/dopamine transporter ratio as a predictor of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia. 2015

Huot, Philippe / Hutchison, William D. ·From the Department of Pharmacology (P.H.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada · Division of Neurology (P.H.), Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Quebec, Canada · Departments of Surgery and Physiology (W.D.H.), University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada · and Division of Neurosurgery (W.D.H.), Toronto Western Hospital MP11-308 and Toronto Western Research Institute, Ontario, Canada. ·Neurology · Pubmed #26253446.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

7 Editorial How much does sex matter in Parkinson disease? 2015

Picillo, Marina / Fasano, Alfonso. ·From the Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease (M.P., A.F.), Toronto Western Hospital and Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Canada · and the Centre for Neurodegenerative Diseases (CEMAND), Department of Medicine and Surgery (M.P.), University of Salerno, Italy. ·Neurology · Pubmed #25925984.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

8 Editorial Doctor--how quickly will my Parkinson's progress? 2015

Fox, S H / Ceravolo, R. ·Movement Disorder Clinic, University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada. sfox@uhnresearch.ca. ·Eur J Neurol · Pubmed #24995513.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

9 Editorial The complexities of hormonal influences and risk of Parkinson's disease. 2014

Marras, Connie / Saunders-Pullman, Rachel. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's disease, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #24789470.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Editorial The FM/AM world is shaping the future of deep brain stimulation. 2014

Fasano, Alfonso / Lozano, Andres M. ·Movement Disorders Center, TWH, UHN, Division of Neurology, Toronto Western Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #24591170.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

11 Editorial Science to practice: Imaging tools to study cognition in Parkinson's disease. 2014

Strafella, Antonio P / Burn, David. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorder Unit & E.J. Safra Parkinson Disease Program, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Research Imaging Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Brain, Imaging and Behaviour - Systems Neuroscience, Toronto Western Research Institute, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #24338679.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

12 Review Triggers, Facilitators, and Aggravators: Redefining Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis. 2019

Johnson, Michaela E / Stecher, Benjamin / Labrie, Viviane / Brundin, Lena / Brundin, Patrik. ·Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA; These authors contributed equally to this work. · Tomorrow Edition, Toronto, Canada; These authors contributed equally to this work. · Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA. · Center for Neurodegenerative Science, Van Andel Research Institute, 333 Bostwick Avenue, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA. Electronic address: Patrik.Brundin@vai.org. ·Trends Neurosci · Pubmed #30342839.

ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis can be divided into three temporal phases. During the first phase, 'triggers', such as viral infections or environmental toxins, spark the disease process in the brain and/or peripheral tissues. Triggers alone, however, may be insufficient, requiring 'facilitators' like peripheral inflammation for PD pathology to develop. Once the disease manifests, 'aggravators' spur further neurodegeneration and exacerbate symptoms. Aggravators are proposed to include impaired autophagy and cell-to-cell propagation of α-synuclein pathology. We believe clinical trials need to consider these three phases and target potential therapies at the appropriate stage of the disease process in order to be effective.

13 Review Molecular Imaging of Addictive Behavior in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Ghadery, Christine / Valli, Mikaeel / Mihaescu, Alexander / Strafella, Rebecca / Navalpotro, Irene / Kim, Jinhee / Strafella, Antonio P. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorder Unit & E.J. Safra Parkinson Disease Program, Neurology Division, Department of Medicine, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Brain, Imaging and Behavior-Systems Neuroscience, Krembil Research Institute, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: christine.ghadery@camhpet.ca. · Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorder Unit & E.J. Safra Parkinson Disease Program, Neurology Division, Department of Medicine, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorder Unit & E.J. Safra Parkinson Disease Program, Neurology Division, Department of Medicine, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Brain, Imaging and Behavior-Systems Neuroscience, Krembil Research Institute, UHN, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Research Imaging Centre, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: antonio.strafella@uhn.ca. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #30314604.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly associated with motor symptoms, however cognitive and neurobehavioral complications are increasingly recognized and contribute to long-term disability. Dopamine replacement therapy is effective for motor symptoms, but can also lead to motor side-effects and addictive behavior such as impulse control disorders. Molecular imaging is advancing our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the development of behavioral addictions. This chapter will discuss potential risk factors and associations with the development of addictive behavior in PD including the role of dopaminergic medication and genetic predisposition. We further will describe the common neurobiology and similarities of addictive behavior in PD to addiction, particularly the neuroanatomy of reward processing and its alteration in substance and behavioral addictions. Finally, we will discuss molecular imaging approaches which are helping to delineate the structure as well as the dynamic interactions between different components involving neurotransmitters, transporters, and receptors.

14 Review The effects of exercise on cognition and gait in Parkinson's disease: A scoping review. 2018

Intzandt, Brittany / Beck, Eric N / Silveira, Carolina R A. ·PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, 7200 rue Sherbrooke O, Montreal, H4B 1R6, Canada. Electronic address: brittany.intzandt@mail.concordia.ca. · School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, University of Dublin, College Green, Dublin, 2, Ireland. Electronic address: becke@tcd.ie. · Lawson Health Research Institute, 750 Base Line Rd E, London, N6C 2R5, Canada. Electronic address: carolina.silveira@sjhc.london.on.ca. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #30291852.

ABSTRACT: Cognitive and gait deficits are two debilitating symptoms that occur in Parkinson's disease (PD). Importantly, a relationship between cognitive and gait deficits exists in PD, suggesting reliance on cognition is increased to compensate for gait deficits and/or deterioration of cognition and gait may share common mechanisms. Rehabilitation strategies targeting one factor could lead to the improvement of the other, presenting a unique opportunity to treat both simultaneously. Gold-standard pharmaceuticals partially alleviate these deficits with significant side effects, highlighting the importance of investigating adjunct therapies like exercise. We critically reviewed the influence of three exercise modalities (aerobic, resistance, and goal-based) on cognition and/or gait in PD. Most studies showed improvements in cognition or gait, yet, a limited number investigated them concurrently. This is the first review examining exercise for cognition and gait in PD. Key gaps in the literature are identified; potential exercise-driven mechanisms for enhancements in cognition and gait proposed, and suggestions for the design of future studies investigating the effects of exercise on cognition and gait in PD.

15 Review Decisions about deep brain stimulation therapy in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Brandão, Pedro / Grippe, Talyta Cortez / Modesto, Luiz Cláudio / Ferreira, André Gustavo Fonseca / Silva, Flávia Martins da / Pereira, Flávio Faria / Lobo, Marcelo Evangelista / Allam, Nasser / Freitas, Tiago da Silva / Munhoz, Renato P. ·Universidade de Brasília, Laboratório de Neurociência e Comportamento, Brasilia DF, Brasil. · Câmara dos Deputados, Departamento Médico, Serviço de Neurologia, Brasilia DF, Brasil. · Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Unidade de Neurologia, Brasilia DF, Brasil. · Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal, Unidade de Neurocirurgia, Brasilia DF, Brasil. · University of Toronto, Toronto Western Hospital, Movement Disorders Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada. ·Arq Neuropsiquiatr · Pubmed #29972424.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease can be treated surgically in patients who present with motor complications such as fluctuations and dyskinesias, or medically-refractory disabling tremor. In this review, a group of specialists formulated suggestions for a preoperative evaluation protocol after reviewing the literature published up to October 2017. In this protocol, eligibility and ineligibility criteria for surgical treatment were suggested, as well as procedures that should be carried out before the multidisciplinary therapeutic decisions. The review emphasizes the need to establish "DBS teams", with professionals dedicated specifically to this area. Finally, surgical target selection (subthalamic nucleus or globus pallidus internus) is discussed briefly, weighing the pros and cons of each target.

16 Review Update in therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease. 2018

Kulisevsky, Jaime / Oliveira, Lais / Fox, Susan H. ·Movement Disorders Unit, Neurology Department, Sant Pau Hospital (IIB Sant Pau), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBERNED, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. · Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease and The Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Curr Opin Neurol · Pubmed #29746402.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent advances in therapeutics for motor and nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Neuroprotection remains a large area of investigation with preliminary safety data on alpha synuclein immunotherapy and glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists. Novel Monoamine Oxidase B and Caetchol-O-methyltransferase-inhibitors for motor fluctuations have shown benefit and are recently approved for clinical use. Long-acting amantadine has also been approved to reduce dyskinesia. Alternative delivery strategies (sublingual, inhaled) dopaminergics may prove useful for rapid reversal of Parkinson's disease motor symptoms. Advanced therapies (surgery and infusional therapies) continue to be useful in subgroups of patients for motor complications with improved safety and also benefit on some nonmotor symptoms, including neuropsychiatric issues. Specific therapeutics for cognition, swallowing, sleep, and mood disorders had moderate to limited benefits. Exercise-based therapy appears beneficial at all stages of Parkinson's disease. SUMMARY: The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be reasonably treated and managed. However, therapies to slow or prevent disease progression remain a focus of research. Despite increased studies, treating nonmotor symptoms remains a challenge and an ongoing priority.

17 Review Risk factors for non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Marinus, Johan / Zhu, Kangdi / Marras, Connie / Aarsland, Dag / van Hilten, Jacobus J. ·Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Electronic address: j.marinus@lumc.nl. · Department of Neurology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. · The Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson's Research, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Old Age Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Centre for Age-Related Medicine, Stavanger University, Stavanger, Norway. ·Lancet Neurol · Pubmed #29699914.

ABSTRACT: Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease can be predominant as the disease advances, thereby constituting a major source of disease burden for patients and caregivers. However, current understanding of NMS is incomplete, particularly as a result of the absence of standardisation of outcome definitions and the heterogeneity of the risk factors that are assessed. The best data on risk factors for NMS in Parkinson's disease come from longitudinal studies, with the strongest evidence identifying factors for cognitive impairment and dementia, hallucinations, depression, apathy, excessive daytime sleepiness, insomnia, and impulse-control disorders. Cognitive impairment, hallucinations, and depression have several common risk factors, and many other NMS share a few risk factors, showing the interdependence between NMS with advancing Parkinson's disease. Disease severity, sex, age, and antiparkinsonian medication might have roles in the development of different NMS, although only antiparkinsonian medication is potentially modifiable. Until disease-modifying therapies are developed, increased knowledge of risk factors could ameliorate early identification of patients who are at an increased risk of developing specific NMS and potentially allow improvement of symptom management or prevention of specific NMS.

18 Review The Promise of Telemedicine for Movement Disorders: an Interdisciplinary Approach. 2018

Ben-Pazi, H / Browne, P / Chan, P / Cubo, E / Guttman, M / Hassan, A / Hatcher-Martin, J / Mari, Z / Moukheiber, E / Okubadejo, N U / Shalash, A / Anonymous1401121. ·Neuropediatric unit, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. · Neurology Department, University Hospital Galway, Newcastle Road, Galway, Ireland. · School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland. · Department of Neurobiology, Neurology and Geriatrics, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University Beijing, Beijing, China. · Neurology Department, University Hospital, Burgos, Spain. mcubo@saludcastillayleon.es. · University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. · Movement Disorders Program, Department of Neurology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Program, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, USA. · Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. · Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria. · Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. ·Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep · Pubmed #29654523.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in technology have expanded telemedicine opportunities covering medical practice, research, and education. This is of particular importance in movement disorders (MDs), where the combination of disease progression, mobility limitations, and the sparse distribution of MD specialists increase the difficulty to access. In this review, we discuss the prospects, challenges, and strategies for telemedicine in MDs. RECENT FINDINGS: Telemedicine for MDs has been mainly evaluated in Parkinson's disease (PD) and compared to in-office care is cost-effective with similar clinical care, despite the barriers to engagement. However, particular groups including pediatric patients, rare MDs, and the use of telemedicine in underserved areas need further research. Interdisciplinary telemedicine and tele-education for MDs are feasible, provide similar care, and reduce travel costs and travel time compared to in-person visits. These benefits have been mainly demonstrated for PD but serve as a model for further validation in other movement disorders.

19 Review Update on Molecular Imaging in Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Liu, Zhen-Yang / Liu, Feng-Tao / Zuo, Chuan-Tao / Koprich, James B / Wang, Jian. ·Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Ageing and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. · PET Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200235, China. · Krembil Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada. · Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Ageing and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. wangjian336@hotmail.com. ·Neurosci Bull · Pubmed #29282614.

ABSTRACT: Advances in radionuclide tracers have allowed for more accurate imaging that reflects the actions of numerous neurotransmitters, energy metabolism utilization, inflammation, and pathological protein accumulation. All of these achievements in molecular brain imaging have broadened our understanding of brain function in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implementation of molecular imaging has supported more accurate PD diagnosis as well as assessment of therapeutic outcome and disease progression. Moreover, molecular imaging is well suited for the detection of preclinical or prodromal PD cases. Despite these advances, future frontiers of research in this area will focus on using multi-modalities combining positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging along with causal modeling with complex algorithms.

20 Review Brain plasticity and sleep: Implication for movement disorders. 2018

Caverzasio, Serena / Amato, Ninfa / Manconi, Mauro / Prosperetti, Chiara / Kaelin-Lang, Alain / Hutchison, William Duncan / Galati, Salvatore. ·Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, Switzerland. · Sleep and Epilepsy Center, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, Switzerland. · Sleep and Epilepsy Center, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, Switzerland; Neurology Department Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Switzerland. · Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. · Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano, Switzerland. Electronic address: salvatore.galati@eoc.ch. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #29278685.

ABSTRACT: Brain plasticity is a lifelong process and involves both Hebbian and non-Hebbian synaptic plasticity. The latter, such as intrinsic plasticity and homeostatic synaptic plasticity or synaptic scaling, is thought to counteract Hebbian plasticity, in order to maintain a balanced network. Recent studies support the role of sleep in the regulation of homeostatic synaptic plasticity involved in memory and learning processes. Most evidence focus on the dependence of memory and plasticity in sleep mechanisms. Abnormal brain plasticity during sleep might be implicated in the development of movement disorders, particularly Parkinson's disease (PD) and dystonia. From that, the great interest to understand the underlying process of sleep in relation to movement disorders. The first objective of the review is to summarize the latest knowledge about brain plasticity. The second objective is to analyze the association between sleep, memory and brain plasticity. Finally, the review aims to assess the consequence of abnormal plasticity during PD and dystonia with a viewpoint on the underling pathogenesis of these disorders.

21 Review The changing landscape of surgery for Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Lozano, Christopher S / Tam, Joseph / Lozano, Andres M. ·Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #29194808.

ABSTRACT: Neurosurgical interventions have been used to treat PD for over a century. We examined the changing landscape of surgery for PD to appraise the value of various procedures in the context of advances in our understanding and technology. We assessed the number of articles published on neurosurgical procedures for PD over time as an albeit imprecise surrogate for their usage level. We identified over 8,000 publications associated with PD surgery. Over half the publications were on DBS. The field of DBS for PD showed a rapid rise in articles, but is now in a steady state. Thalamotomy and, to a lesser extent, pallidotomy follow a biphasic publication distribution with peaks approximately 30 years apart. Articles on gene therapy and transplantation experienced initial rapid rises and significant recent declines. Procedures using novel technologies, including gamma knife and focused ultrasound, are emerging, but are yet to have significant impact as measured by publication numbers. Pallidotomy and thalamotomy are prominent examples of procedures that were popular, declined, and re-emerged and redeclined. Transplantation and gene therapy have never broken into clinical practice. DBS overtook all procedures as the dominant surgical intervention and drove widespread use of surgery for PD. Notwithstanding, the number of DBS articles appears to have plateaued. As advances continue, emerging treatments may compete with DBS in the future. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

22 Review Global scales for cognitive screening in Parkinson's disease: Critique and recommendations. 2018

Skorvanek, Matej / Goldman, Jennifer G / Jahanshahi, Marjan / Marras, Connie / Rektorova, Irena / Schmand, Ben / van Duijn, Erik / Goetz, Christopher G / Weintraub, Daniel / Stebbins, Glenn T / Martinez-Martin, Pablo / Anonymous2421195. ·Department of Neurology, Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia. · Department of Neurology, University Hospital of L. Pasteur, Kosice, Slovakia. · Rush University Medical Center, Department of Neurological Sciences, Section of Parkinson Disease and Movement Disorders, Chicago, Illinois, USA. · Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience & Movement Disorders and the National Hospital for Neurology & Neurosurgery, London, UK. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Applied Neuroscience Research Group, Central European Institute of Technology, CEITEC, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic. · Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, and Centre of Mental Health Care Delfland, Delft, Netherlands. · Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Parkinson's Disease and Mental Health Research, Education and Clinical Centers (PADRECC and MIRECC), Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. · National Centre of Epidemiology and CIBERNED, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #29168899.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor manifestation of Parkinson's disease, with deficits ranging from mild cognitive difficulties in 1 or more of the cognitive domains to severe dementia. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned the assessment of the clinimetric properties of cognitive rating scales measuring global cognitive performance in PD to make recommendations regarding their use. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the scales used to assess global cognitive performance in PD, and the identified scales were reviewed and rated as "recommended," "recommended with caveats," "suggested," or "listed" by the panel using previously established criteria. RESULTS: A total of 12 cognitive scales were included in this review. Three scales, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale Second Edition, and the Parkinson's Disease-Cognitive Rating Scale, were classified as "recommended." Two scales were classified as "recommended with caveats": the Mini-Mental Parkinson, because of limited coverage of executive abilities, and the Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Cognition, which has limited data on sensitivity to change. Six other scales were classified as "suggested" and 1 scale as "listed." CONCLUSIONS: Because of the existence of "recommended" scales for assessment of global cognitive performance in PD, this task force suggests that the development of a new scale for this purpose is not needed at this time. However, global cognitive scales are not a substitute for comprehensive neuropsychological testing. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

23 Review Pedunculopontine nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease: A clinical review. 2018

Thevathasan, Wesley / Debu, Bettina / Aziz, Tipu / Bloem, Bastiaan R / Blahak, Christian / Butson, Christopher / Czernecki, Virginie / Foltynie, Thomas / Fraix, Valerie / Grabli, David / Joint, Carole / Lozano, Andres M / Okun, Michael S / Ostrem, Jill / Pavese, Nicola / Schrader, Christoph / Tai, Chun-Hwei / Krauss, Joachim K / Moro, Elena / Anonymous621156. ·Department of Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia and the Bionics Institute of Australia, Melbourne, Australia. · Movement Disorders Center, Division of Neurology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) Grenoble, Grenoble Alpes University, Grenoble, France. · Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. · Department of Neurology, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands. · Department of Neurology, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · Department of Bioengineering, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, USA. · Department of Neurology, Institut de Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière, Sorbonne Universités, University Pierre-and-Marie-Curie (UPMC) Université, Paris, France. · Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience, University College London (UCL) Institute of Neurology, United Kingdom. · Department of Neurology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Pitié-Salpêtière University Hospital, Paris, France. · Department of Neurosurgery, Toronto Western Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. · Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University of Florida Center for Movement Disorders, Gainesville, Florida, USA. · Department of Neurology, UCSF Movement Disorder and Neuromodulation Center, University of California, San Francisco, USA. · Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Department of Clinical Medicine, Centre for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark. · Department of Neurology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. · Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. · Department of Neurosurgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #28960543.

ABSTRACT: Pedunculopontine nucleus region deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising but experimental therapy for axial motor deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly gait freezing and falls. Here, we summarise the clinical application and outcomes reported during the past 10 years. The published dataset is limited, comprising fewer than 100 cases. Furthermore, there is great variability in clinical methodology between and within surgical centers. The most common indication has been severe medication refractory gait freezing (often associated with postural instability). Some patients received lone pedunculopontine nucleus DBS (unilateral or bilateral) and some received costimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or internal pallidum. Both rostral and caudal pedunculopontine nucleus subregions have been targeted. However, the spread of stimulation and variance in targeting means that neighboring brain stem regions may be implicated in any response. Low stimulation frequencies are typically employed (20-80 Hertz). The fluctuating nature of gait freezing can confound programming and outcome assessments. Although firm conclusions cannot be drawn on therapeutic efficacy, the literature suggests that medication refractory gait freezing and falls can improve. The impact on postural instability is unclear. Most groups report a lack of benefit on gait or limb akinesia or dopaminergic medication requirements. The key question is whether pedunculopontine nucleus DBS can improve quality of life in PD. So far, the evidence supporting such an effect is minimal. Development of pedunculopontine nucleus DBS to become a reliable, established therapy would likely require a collaborative effort between experienced centres to clarify biomarkers predictive of response and the optimal clinical methodology. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

24 Review The overlap between Essential tremor and Parkinson disease. 2018

Algarni, Musleh / Fasano, Alfonso. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Clinic and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: alfonso.fasano@uhn.ca. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28729090.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are common disorders especially in the aging population and can have overlapping features that can make it difficult to differentiate between the two. In addition, a possible overlap from a pathophysiological standpoint has been often advocated in the past. METHODS: In this review article, we gather the recent evidence in favor or against a possible relationship between ET and PD. This exercise follows the new advances in the field of tremor from both a pathophysiological and nosological perspective. RESULTS: Dividing ET patients into early onset and late onset disease subtypes can prove useful in ascertaining the phenotypic, epidemiological and genetic characteristics defining its relationships to PD. The only way to ascertain whether ET increases the risk of future PD would be to conduct a longitudinal cohort study on early-onset ET patients. On the other hand, ET-plus patients or late-onset cases with ET of short-duration might represent a group of PD patients in their pre-diagnostic phase after the pre-motor stage. CONCLUSION: In spite of the growing body of literature in recent years of an overlap between ET and PD, we are far from elucidating the relationship (if any) between these two common disorders.

25 Review Falls in Parkinson's disease: A complex and evolving picture. 2017

Fasano, Alfonso / Canning, Colleen G / Hausdorff, Jeffrey M / Lord, Sue / Rochester, Lynn. ·Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J. Safra Program in Parkinson's Disease, Toronto Western Hospital, UHN, Division of Neurology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Krembil Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Discipline of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. · Center for Study of Movement, Cognition and Mobility, Department of Neurology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel. · Sagol School of Neuroscience and Department of Physical Therapy, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. · Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, US. · Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. · Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. · Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. ·Mov Disord · Pubmed #29067726.

ABSTRACT: Falls are a major determinant of poor quality of life, immobilization, and reduced life expectancy in people affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in older adults more generally. Although many questions remain, recent research has advanced the understanding of this complex problem. The goal of this review is to condense new knowledge of falls in PD from prodromal to advanced disease, taking into account risk factors, assessment, and classification as well as treatment. The fundamental steps of clinical and research-based approaches to falls are described, namely, the identification of fall risk factors, clinical and instrumental methods to evaluate and classify fall risk, and the latest evidence to reduce or delay falls in PD. We summarize recent developments, the direction in which the field should be heading, and what can be recommended at this stage. We also provide a practical algorithm for clinicians.© 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

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