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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Seoul area
Based on 680 articles published since 2008
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These are the 680 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Seoul area during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Familial Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism. 2015

Tomiyama, Hiroyuki / Lesage, Suzanne / Tan, Eng-King / Jeon, Beom S. ·Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6 UMRS 1127, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière (ICM), Paris, France. · Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital and Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #25961036.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial GBA mutations and Parkinson disease: when genotype meets phenotype. 2015

Scholz, Sonja W / Jeon, Beom S. ·From the Department of Neurology (S.W.S.), Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore · Laboratory of Neurogenetics (S.W.S.), National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD · and Department of Neurology (B.S.J.), Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea. ·Neurology · Pubmed #25653294.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Psychiatric Manifestation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Han, Ji Won / Ahn, Yebin D / Kim, Won-Seok / Shin, Cheol Min / Jeong, Seong Jin / Song, Yoo Sung / Bae, Yun Jung / Kim, Jong-Min. ·Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30450025.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, hallucination, delusion, apathy and anhedonia, impulsive and compulsive behaviors, and cognitive dysfunction, may also manifest in most patients with PD. Given that the quality of life - and the need for institutionalization - is so highly dependent on the psychiatric well-being of patients with PD, psychiatric symptoms are of high clinical significance. We reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychiatric symptoms to get a better understanding of PD for improved management.

4 Review Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound in Neurosurgery: Taking Lessons from the Past to Inform the Future. 2018

Jung, Na Young / Chang, Jin Woo. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30369860.

ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a new emerging neurosurgical procedure applied in a wide range of clinical fields. It can generate high-intensity energy at the focal zone in deep body areas without requiring incision of soft tissues. Although the effectiveness of the focused ultrasound technique had not been recognized because of the skull being a main barrier in the transmission of acoustic energy, the development of hemispheric distribution of ultrasound transducer phased arrays has solved this issue and enabled the performance of true transcranial procedures. Advanced imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance thermometry could enhance the safety of MRgFUS. The current clinical applications of MRgFUS in neurosurgery involve stereotactic ablative treatments for patients with essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or neuropathic pain. Other potential treatment candidates being examined in ongoing clinical trials include brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, based on MRgFUS abilities of thermal ablation and opening the blood-brain barrier. With the development of ultrasound technology to overcome the limitations, MRgFUS is gradually expanding the therapeutic field for intractable neurological disorders and serving as a trail for a promising future in noninvasive and safe neurosurgical care.

5 Review Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis in Parkinson's disease: relevance to a new therapeutic target for depression with Parkinson's disease. 2018

Lim, Juhee / Bang, Yeojin / Choi, Hyun Jin. ·College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. · College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. hjchoi3@cha.ac.kr. ·Arch Pharm Res · Pubmed #30136247.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, including bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Recent clinical findings recognize PD as a complex disease with diverse neuropsychiatric complications. Depression is the most frequent non-motor psychiatric symptom experienced in PD, and it is associated with poor quality of life. While the pathophysiology of PD-associated depression is not directly related to neurodegenerative processes in the substantia nigra, underlying mechanisms remain unclear and there are few symptomatic treatments. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered crucial for the development and treatment of depression. In genetic animal models and human postmortem studies of PD, severely impaired adult neurogenesis has been observed, with patients showing hippocampal atrophy and disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis. Because adult newborn neurons appear to exert various functions, which relate to non-motor symptoms observed in PD, there might be a close correlation between malformation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and depressive symptoms. Here, we discuss current concepts regarding impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and non-motor symptoms of PD, and review PD-associated pathophysiological factors regulating neurogenesis, including inflammatory signaling and autophagy. We present a novel framework for targeting adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which could provide a promising treatment for PD-associated depression.

6 Review Cellular phenotypes as inflammatory mediators in Parkinson's disease: Interventional targets and role of natural products. 2018

Jiang, Xu / Ganesan, Palanivel / Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan / Choi, Dong-Kug / Arulselvan, Palanisamy. ·Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 3 Shajing St, Baoan Qu, Shenzhen Shi, Guangdong Sheng, 518104, China. Electronic address: dr13510864406@163.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: palanivel67@gmail.com. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India. Electronic address: thamarairaj2000@gmail.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choidk@kku.ac.kr. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India; Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, 637408, India. Electronic address: arulbio@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #30119171.

ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD. Specifically, activation of cellular phenotypes like astrocytes, microglia, activation of peripheral immune cells requires different activation signals and agents like (cytokines, misfolded protein aggregates, infectious agents, pesticides like organophosphates, etc.,). However, what is unknown is how the different cellular phenotypes respond uniquely and the role of the factors they secrete alters the signal cascades in the complex neuron-microglial connections in the CNS. Hence, understanding the role of cellular phenotypes and the inflammatory mediators, the cross talk among the signals and their receptors can help us to identify the potential therapeutic target using natural products. In this review we have tried to put together the role of cellular phenotypes as a skew that favors PD progression and we have also discussed how the lack of experimental approaches and challenges that affects understanding the cellular targets that can be used against natural derivatives in alleviating PD pathophysiology. Together, this review will provide the better insights into the role of cellular phenotypes of neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and the orchestrating factors of inflammation and how they can be targeted in a more specific way that can be used in the clinical management of PD.

7 Review Abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson's disease: Pathophysiological correlates and role in motor control deficits. 2018

Lee, Myung Sik / Lee, Myung Jun / Conte, Antonella / Berardelli, Alfredo. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslee@yuhs.ac. · Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslayer9@gmail.com. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: antonella.conte@uniroma1.it. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: alfredo.berardelli@uniroma1.it. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #29304419.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017. RESULTS: Abnormal STDT in PD correlates with disease duration, disease severity and degree of nigrostriatal dopamine loss, and responds to dopaminergic medication. In PD, a prolonged STDT does not correlate, or only marginally correlates, with clinically assessed bradykinesia of finger tapping. By contrast, a prolonged STDT correlates with the variability in amplitude and speed of finger tapping as assessed by means of neurophysiological techniques and may contribute to impaired finger dexterity in PD. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that abnormal temporal processing of sensory information in PD generates incorrect signals for the execution and control of voluntary movements. SIGNIFICANCE: This review sheds light on unsolved questions regarding the relationship between STDT alterations and motor disturbances in PD and proposes directions for future research on this topic.

8 Review Functional dissection of astrocyte-secreted proteins: Implications in brain health and diseases. 2018

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar / Kim, Jong-Heon / Song, Gyun Jee / Lee, Won-Ha / Lee, In-Kyu / Lee, Ho-Won / An, Seong Soo A / Kim, SangYun / Suk, Kyoungho. ·Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ksuk@knu.ac.kr. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #29247683.

ABSTRACT: Astrocytes, which are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system (CNS), display remarkable heterogeneity in their morphology and function. Besides their physical and metabolic support to neurons, astrocytes modulate the blood-brain barrier, regulate CNS synaptogenesis, guide axon pathfinding, maintain brain homeostasis, affect neuronal development and plasticity, and contribute to diverse neuropathologies via secreted proteins. The identification of astrocytic proteome and secretome profiles has provided new insights into the maintenance of neuronal health and survival, the pathogenesis of brain injury, and neurodegeneration. Recent advances in proteomics research have provided an excellent catalog of astrocyte-secreted proteins. This review categorizes astrocyte-secreted proteins and discusses evidence that astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal activity and brain function. An in-depth understanding of astrocyte-secreted proteins and their pathways is pivotal for the development of novel strategies for restoring brain homeostasis, limiting brain injury/inflammation, counteracting neurodegeneration, and obtaining functional recovery.

9 Review Understanding the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Choi, Hojin / Koh, Seong-Ho. ·a Department of Neurology , Hanyang University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · Pubmed #29233065.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term use is associated with various complications, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many studies have suggested that L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID are associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation. Areas covered: LID is caused by striatal dopamine (DA) denervation in PD and pulsatile L-DOPA treatment. These factors lead to dysregulated DA transmission, abnormal intracellular signaling and transcription factors in striatal neurons, and altered gene expression and plasticity at corticostriatal synapses. The mechanisms of L-DOPA toxicity involve oxidative stress, L-DOPA oxidation to quinone, mitochondrial dysfunction, and α-synuclein. GSK-3 has been suggested to play key roles in all the mechanisms associated of L-DOPA toxicity and LID in PD. Expert opinion: GSK-3 plays critical roles in L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity, and the development of specific methods to inhibit GSK-3 function may help prevent L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID in PD. However, balanced GSK-3 inhibition and less β-catenin degradation is essential for preventing LID, because too much GSK-3 inhibition increases β-catenin levels, which is related to cancers.

10 Review REM sleep behavior disorder portends poor prognosis in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review. 2018

Kim, Yoon / Kim, Young Eun / Park, Eun Ok / Shin, Chae Won / Kim, Han-Joon / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #29102236.

ABSTRACT: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia wherein a loss of REM sleep atonia manifests as dream-enactment, often violent. Aside from its significance as a predictor of PD, RBD in PD may imply more than merely screaming at night and experiencing sleep fragmentation. To probe its significance as a prognostic factor in PD, we performed a systematic literature review. Analysis of prospective studies reveals baseline RBD confers a higher risk of developing dementia and hallucinations. In cross-sectional studies, RBD is associated with the non-tremor predominant motor phenotype and autonomic dysfunction. Clinical, imaging, and autopsy studies support the presence of dense and diffuse pathology extending beyond the brainstem in PD with RBD. As RBD in PD is associated with a greater disease burden and an increased risk of mortality, we propose the RBD subtype in PD to highlight that RBD may mark a distinct subtype with relatively poor prognosis.

11 Review Breaking down autophagy and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System. 2018

Jung, Shinae / Chung, Yuhyun / Oh, Young J. ·Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. · Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. Electronic address: yjoh@yonsei.ac.kr. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28764914.

ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that is involved in cellular homeostasis and stress responses. Although basal levels of autophagy are essential for cellular homeostasis, dysregulated autophagy is linked to neurodegeneration. Recent studies using genetic or neurotoxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) detect autophagy. We demonstrate that neurotoxins induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cell line and primary cultured neurons. Based on previous reports, including ones from our laboratory, which show that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium are implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we reasoned that these triggers may play critical roles in determining dysregulated autophagy. Similarly, we have demonstrated that ROS-mediated signals play an essential role in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis, whereas MPP

12 Review Autophagy impairment in Parkinson's disease. 2017

Karabiyik, Cansu / Lee, Min Jae / Rubinsztein, David C. ·Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · UK Dementia Research Institute, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge, U.K. ·Essays Biochem · Pubmed #29233880.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder typically associated with the accumulation of intracytoplasmic aggregate prone protein deposits. Over recent years, increasing evidence has led to the suggestion that the mutations underlying certain forms of PD impair autophagy. Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cytoplasmic content to lysosomes for degradation and represents a major route for degradation of aggregated cellular proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy up-regulation is a promising therapeutic strategy that is being explored for its potential to protect cells against the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe how the mutations in different subtypes of PD can affect different stages of autophagy.

13 Review Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2017

Noh, Hyeonseok / Kwon, Seungwon / Cho, Seung-Yeon / Jung, Woo-Sang / Moon, Sang-Kwan / Park, Jung-Mi / Ko, Chang-Nam / Park, Seong-Uk. ·Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: seonguk.kr@gmail.com. ·Complement Ther Med · Pubmed #28917379.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: English, Chinese, and Korean electronic databases were searched up to June 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. The methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: In total, 42 studies involving 2625 participants were systematically reviewed. Participants treated using combined acupuncture and conventional medication (CM) showed significant improvements in total Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, and the Webster scale compared to those treated using CM alone. The combination of electroacupuncture and CM was significantly superior to CM alone in total UPDRS, UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS IV. Similarly, the combination of scalp electroacupuncture, acupuncture, and CM was significantly more effective than CM alone in total UPDRS. However, our meta-analysis showed that the combination of electroacupuncture and CM was not significantly more effective than CM alone in UPDRS III, the Webster, and the Tension Assessment Scale. The results also failed to show that acupuncture was significantly more effective than placebo acupuncture in total UPDRS. Overall, the methodological quality of the RCTs was low. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: We found that acupuncture might be a safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with PD. However, because of methodological flaws in the included studies, conclusive evidence is still lacking. More rigorous and well-designed placebo-controlled trials should be conducted.

14 Review Nonmotor Effects of Conventional and Transdermal Dopaminergic Therapies in Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Kim, Ryul / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28805592.

ABSTRACT: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic therapies. In contrast, certain NMS are exacerbated or even precipitated by dopaminergic drugs and these unwanted effects may be seriously dangerous. Therefore, a dopaminergic strategy for NMS should be based on a consideration of the benefits vs the risks in individual patients with PD.

15 Review Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation. 2017

Kim, Jeongah / Jang, Sangwon / Choe, Han Kyoung / Chung, Sooyoung / Son, Gi Hoon / Kim, Kyungjin. ·Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea. · Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. · Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Scranton College, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02473, Korea. · Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI), Daegu 41068, Korea. ·Mol Cells · Pubmed #28780783.

ABSTRACT: Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor

16 Review Hallmarks of Treatment Aspects: Parkinson's Disease Throughout Centuries Including l-Dopa. 2017

Kim, Hee J / Jeon, Beom S / Jenner, Peter. ·Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. · Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Movement Disorder Center, Neuroscience Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. · Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28554412.

ABSTRACT: Deficit of striatal dopamine was first discovered in postmortem brain of patients with Parkinson's disease in 1960. This observation was the starting point for dopamine replacement therapy, and successful introduction of high dose l-dopa therapy in the 1969 revolutionized the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Since then, constant attempts have been made to enhance the efficacy of l-dopa and reduce motor complications by providing more continuous dopamine stimulation. This chapter traces the hallmarks of medical treatments for Parkinson's disease throughout centuries including the first description of antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergics, the birth of apomorphine in the 1900s, then discovery of l-dopa in the 1960s, and development of dopamine agonists since the 1970s.

17 Review Switching from an oral dopamine receptor agonist to rotigotine transdermal patch: a review of clinical data with a focus on patient perspective. 2017

Chung, Sun Ju / Asgharnejad, Mahnaz / Bauer, Lars / Benitez, Arturo / Boroojerdi, Babak / Heidbrede, Tanja / Little, Allison / Kim, Han Joon. ·a Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center , University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. · b UCB Pharma , Raleigh , NC , USA. · c UCB Pharma , Monheim am Rhein , Germany. · d UCB Pharma , São Paulo , Brazil. · e UCB Pharma , Atlanta , GA , USA. · f Seoul National University Hospital , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #28548894.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dopamine receptor agonists (DAs) are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). In certain situations, switching from oral DAs to rotigotine transdermal patch may be beneficial for the patient (e.g., optimal symptom control/side effects/perioperative management, preference for once-daily/non-oral administration, RLS augmentation treatment). Areas covered: This narrative review summarizes available data on DA dose equivalency, dose conversions, switching schedules, safety, tolerability, efficacy and patient treatment preferences of switching from oral DAs to rotigotine (and vice versa) in patients with PD/RLS. The studies were identified in a PubMed search (up to 8 November 2016) using terms ('dopamine receptor agonist' OR 'rotigotine') AND 'switch'. Expert commentary: Randomized controlled studies often do not address the challenges clinicians face in practice, e.g., switching medications within the same class when dosing is not a one-to-one ratio. The authors describe three open-label studies in PD where oral DAs were successfully switched to rotigotine, and review three studies in RLS where oral DAs/levodopa were switched to rotigotine. Finally, the authors provide a suggested tool for switching from oral DAs to rotigotine, which includes dose conversion factors and switching schedules. The authors' view is that low-dose oral DAs (equivalent to ≤8 mg/24 h rotigotine) may be switched overnight.

18 Review Deregulation of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease: Insight from epigenetic structure and transcriptional regulation of SNCA. 2017

Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu / Bok, Eugene / Evangelista, Baggio A / Kim, Yoon-Seong. ·Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA. · Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA; Kyunghee University Medical College, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address: yoon-seong.kim@ucf.edu. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #28445713.

ABSTRACT: Understanding regulation of α-synuclein has long been a central focus for Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers. Accumulation of this protein in the Lewy body or neurites, mutations in the coding region of the gene and strong association of α-synuclein encoding gene multiplication (duplication/triplication) with familial form of PD have indicated the importance of this molecule in pathogenesis of the disease. Several years of research identified many potential faulty pathways associated with accumulation of α-synuclein inside dopaminergic neurons and its transmission to neighboring ones. Concurrently, an appreciable body of research is growing to understand the epigenetic and genetic deregulation of α-synuclein that might contribute to the disease pathology. Completion of the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project and recent advancement made in the epigenetic and trans factor mediated regulation of each gene, has tremendously accelerated the need to carefully understand the epigenetic structure of the gene (SNCA) encoding α-synuclein protein in order to decipher the regulation and contribution of α-synuclein to the pathogenesis of PD. We have also analyzed the detailed epigenetic structure of this gene with knowledge from ENCODE database, which may open new avenues in α-synuclein research. Interestingly, we have found that the gene contains several transcriptionally activate histone modifications and associated potential transcription factor binding sites in the non-coding areas that strongly suggest alternative regulatory pathways. Altogether this review will provide interesting insight of α-synuclein gene regulation from epigenetic, genetic and post-transcriptional perspectives and their potential implication in the PD pathogenesis.

19 Review Role of Gasotransmitters in Oxidative Stresses, Neuroinflammation, and Neuronal Repair. 2017

Shefa, Ulfuara / Yeo, Seung Geun / Kim, Min-Sik / Song, In Ok / Jung, Junyang / Jeong, Na Young / Huh, Youngbuhm. ·Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, H & N Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea. · Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, 17 Seoae-ro 1 Gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04619, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 32 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #28386548.

ABSTRACT: To date, three main gasotransmitters, that is, hydrogen sulfide (H

20 Review Synapses in neurodegenerative diseases. 2017

Bae, Jae Ryul / Kim, Sung Hyun. ·Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. · Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea. ·BMB Rep · Pubmed #28270301.

ABSTRACT: Synapse is the basic structural and functional component for neural communication in the brain. The presynaptic terminal is the structural and functionally essential area that initiates communication and maintains the continuous functional neural information flow. It contains synaptic vesicles (SV) filled with neurotransmitters, an active zone for release, and numerous proteins for SV fusion and retrieval. The structural and functional synaptic plasticity is a representative characteristic; however, it is highly vulnerable to various pathological conditions. In fact, synaptic alteration is thought to be central to neural disease processes. In particular, the alteration of the structural and functional phenotype of the presynaptic terminal is a highly significant evidence for neural diseases. In this review, we specifically describe structural and functional alteration of nerve terminals in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease (HD). [BMB Reports 2017; 50(5): 237-246].

21 Review Clinical effectiveness of acupuncture on Parkinson disease: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Lee, Sook-Hyun / Lim, Sabina. ·aDepartment of Applied Korean Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University bResearch Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-West Medical Research Institute cDepartment of Meridian and Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Medicine (Baltimore) · Pubmed #28099340.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second-most-common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disease. The long-term use of levodopa leads to a loss of efficacy and to complications. Therefore, many patients with PD have turned to complementary therapies to help relieve their symptoms. Acupuncture is most commonly used as a complementary therapy in patients with PD. This paper presents a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of acupuncture for patients with PD. This study was performed to summarize and evaluate evidence regarding the effectiveness of acupuncture in the relief of PD symptoms. METHODS: Seven databases, namely, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], and three Korean medical databases, were searched from their inception through August 2015 without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they contained reports of acupuncture compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone or acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone for PD symptoms. Assessments were performed with the unified PD rating scales (UPDRS) I, II, III, and IV and the total score, the Webster scale, and effectiveness rating. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the Cochrane risk of bias (ROB). RESULTS: In all, 982 potentially relevant articles were identified; 25 RCTs met our inclusion criterion, 19 of 25 RCTs were high-quality studies (i.e., a score of 6 or higher). The included RCTs showed favorable results for acupuncture plus conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone in the UPDRS II, III, and IV and the total score. Acupuncture was effective in relieving PD symptoms compared with no treatment and conventional treatment alone, and acupuncture plus conventional treatment had a more significant effect than conventional treatment alone. CONCLUSIONS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the use of acupuncture for relief of PD symptoms and found that acupuncture has significant positive effects. Acupuncture can be considered as a combination treatment with conventional treatment for patients with PD. Further studies on this topic should be carried out according to rigorous methodological designs in both the East and the West.

22 Review A Meta-Analysis of Nonpharmacological Interventions for People With Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Lee, JuHee / Choi, MoonKi / Yoo, Yonju. ·1 Yonsei University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, Korea. · 2 University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA. ·Clin Nurs Res · Pubmed #27318243.

ABSTRACT: Nonpharmacological interventions are important in providing care for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, there is limited evidence related to their impacts on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We aimed to examine the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for improving the HRQOL of PD patients. Articles published in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2015 were searched through electronic searching, computerized author searching, and footnote chasing. A meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 program. Overall, effect size for the studies ( n = 18) was -4.17 with 95% confidence interval (CI) from -7.63 to -0.70 ( Z = 2.36, p = .02), indicating positive effects of nonpharmacological interventions on HRQOL. In subgroup analysis regarding the intervention types, the effect size of exercise programs was -5.73 with 95% CI of -11.36 to -0.10 ( Z = 2.00, p = .05). Thus, nonpharmacological interventions, and particularly exercise programs, were effective in improving the HRQOL of PD patients.

23 Review Pathogenic Role of Serine Protease HtrA2/Omi in Neurodegenerative Diseases. 2017

Goo, Hui-Gwan / Rhim, Hyangshuk / Kang, Seongman. ·Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Medical Life Sciences, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701, Korea. · Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, 1, 5ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701, Korea. ·Curr Protein Pept Sci · Pubmed #26965693.

ABSTRACT: High-temperature-requirement A2 (HtrA2)/Omi/PARK13 is a serine protease with extensive homology to the Escherichia coli HtrAs that are required for bacterial survival at high temperatures. The HtrA2 protein is a key modulator of mitochondrial molecular quality control but under stressful conditions it is released into the cytosol, where it promotes cell death by various pathways, including caspase-dependent pathway and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. Recently, the HtrA2 protein has received great attention for its potential role in neurodegeneration. Here, we review the current knowledge and pathophysiological functions of the HtrA2 protein in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.

24 Review Sex differences in acupuncture effectiveness in animal models of Parkinson's disease: a systematic review. 2016

Lee, Sook-Hyun / van den Noort, Maurits / Bosch, Peggy / Lim, Sabina. ·Department of Applied Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-west Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, 6525 HR, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. · Department of Applied Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. · Research Group of Pain and Neuroscience, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, East-west Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. · Department of Meridian & Acupoint, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 130-70102447, Republic of Korea. lims@khu.ac.kr. ·BMC Complement Altern Med · Pubmed #27809909.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many animal experimental studies have been performed to investigate the efficacy of acupuncture in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sex differences are a major issue in all diseases including PD. However, to our knowledge, there have been no reviews investigating sex differences on the effectiveness of acupuncture treatment for animal PD models. The current study aimed to summarize and analyze past studies in order to evaluate these possible differences. METHOD: Each of 7 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 3 Korean medical databases, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure) was searched from its inception through March 2015 without language restrictions. RESULTS: We included studies of the use of acupuncture treatment in animal models of PD. A total of 810 potentially relevant articles were identified, 57 of which met our inclusion criteria. C57/BL6 mice were used most frequently (42 %) in animal PD models. Most of the studies were carried out using only male animals (67 %); only 1 study (2 %) was performed using solely females. The further 31 % of the studies used a male/female mix or did not specify the sex. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our review suggest that acupuncture is an effective treatment for animal PD models, but there is insufficient evidence to determine whether sex differences exist. Future studies of acupuncture treatment for PD should use female animal models because they reflect the physiological characteristics of both males and females to fully evaluate the effect and the safety of the treatment for each sex.

25 Review Toxin-Induced Experimental Models of Learning and Memory Impairment. 2016

More, Sandeep Vasant / Kumar, Hemant / Cho, Duk-Yeon / Yun, Yo-Sep / Choi, Dong-Kug. ·Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. sandeepbcp@gmail.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. hemantbhave@gmail.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. ejrdus1026@naver.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. aaa003132@naver.com. · Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju 27478, Korea. choidk@kku.ac.kr. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #27598124.

ABSTRACT: Animal models for learning and memory have significantly contributed to novel strategies for drug development and hence are an imperative part in the assessment of therapeutics. Learning and memory involve different stages including acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval and each stage can be characterized using specific toxin. Recent studies have postulated the molecular basis of these processes and have also demonstrated many signaling molecules that are involved in several stages of memory. Most insights into learning and memory impairment and to develop a novel compound stems from the investigations performed in experimental models, especially those produced by neurotoxins models. Several toxins have been utilized based on their mechanism of action for learning and memory impairment such as scopolamine, streptozotocin, quinolinic acid, and domoic acid. Further, some toxins like 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amyloid-β are known to cause specific learning and memory impairment which imitate the disease pathology of Parkinson's disease dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia. Apart from these toxins, several other toxins come under a miscellaneous category like an environmental pollutant, snake venoms, botulinum, and lipopolysaccharide. This review will focus on the various classes of neurotoxin models for learning and memory impairment with their specific mechanism of action that could assist the process of drug discovery and development for dementia and cognitive disorders.

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