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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Seoul area
Based on 721 articles published since 2009
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These are the 721 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Seoul area during 2009-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Editorial Familial Parkinson's disease/parkinsonism. 2015

Tomiyama, Hiroyuki / Lesage, Suzanne / Tan, Eng-King / Jeon, Beom S. ·Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan. · Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6 UMRS 1127, Inserm U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle Épinière (ICM), Paris, France. · Department of Neurology, Singapore General Hospital and Neuroscience & Behavioral Disorders Program, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #25961036.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial GBA mutations and Parkinson disease: when genotype meets phenotype. 2015

Scholz, Sonja W / Jeon, Beom S. ·From the Department of Neurology (S.W.S.), Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore · Laboratory of Neurogenetics (S.W.S.), National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD · and Department of Neurology (B.S.J.), Seoul National University Hospital, Republic of Korea. ·Neurology · Pubmed #25653294.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Nigrosome 1 imaging: technical considerations and clinical applications. 2019

Kim, Eung Yeop / Sung, Young Hee / Lee, Jongho. ·1Department of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea. · 2Department of Neurology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, South Korea. · 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. ·Br J Radiol · Pubmed #31067082.

ABSTRACT: A pathological study by Damier et al demonstrated that nigrosome 1, a dopaminergic neuron-rich region in the substantial nigra, is the most severely affected region in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Since then, researchers have identified the location of nigrosome 1 in the dorsal aspect of the substantia nigra using susceptibility-weighted imaging in MRI. Although this observation was reconfirmed by various imaging techniques and imaging planes, non-standardized imaging methods may rather limit the generalized use of this imaging finding. The aim of this review is to revisit the anatomical definition of the nigrosome 1 region using high-spatial-resolution susceptibility map-weighted MRI in order to help the readers to determine the presence or absence of an abnormality in the nigrosome 1 region. Thereafter, we discuss the current status of nigrosome 1 imaging at 3 T and show how to improve the imaging quality for better assessment of nigrosome 1. We also illustrate the imaging findings of various patients who presented with parkinsonism, which can help the readers to learn how to use these images in practice. Lastly, we discuss potential future works with nigrosome 1 susceptibility map-weighted MRI.

4 Review Autophagy at synapses in neurodegenerative diseases. 2019

Lee, Wongyoung / Kim, Sung Hyun. ·Department of Neuroscience, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, South Korea. · Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, South Korea. sunghyunkim@khu.ac.kr. · Medical Research Center for Bioreaction to Reactive Oxygen Species and Biomedical Science Institute, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, South Korea. sunghyunkim@khu.ac.kr. ·Arch Pharm Res · Pubmed #30937842.

ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an essential process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, a critical process in all cell types. Because neurons are post-mitotic cells, maintaining cellular and functional homeostasis is more important in neurons than in other types of cells. Synapses are fundamental units needed for neural communication, and synapses with consistent protein quality are essential for neural functionality. Dysregulation of autophagy in neurons has been shown to be related to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. This review describes the role of autophagy in the maintenance of synaptic functionality and the association between synaptic autophagy and neurodegenerative diseases.

5 Review Therapeutic potentials of plant iridoids in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: A review. 2019

Dinda, Biswanath / Dinda, Manikarna / Kulsi, Goutam / Chakraborty, Ankita / Dinda, Subhajit. ·Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala, Tripura, 799 022, India. Electronic address: dindabtu@gmail.com. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, School of Medicine, Charlottesvile, 1300 Jefferson Park Ave, VA, 22908, USA. · College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151742, Republic of Korea. · Department of Chemistry, Tripura University, Suryamaninagar, Agartala, Tripura, 799 022, India. · Department of Chemistry, Dasaratha Deb Memorial College, Khowai, Tripura, 799201, India. ·Eur J Med Chem · Pubmed #30877973.

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders, affecting several millions of aged people globally. Among these disorders, AD is more severe, affecting about 7% of individuals aged 65 and above. AD is primarily a dementia-related disorder from progressive cognitive deterioration and memory impairment, while PD is primarily a movement disorder illness having three major kinesia or movement disorder symptoms, bradykinesia (slowness of movements), hypokinesia (reduction of movement amplitude), and akinesia (absence of normal unconscious movements) along with muscle rigidity and tremor at rest. AD is characterized by deposition of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) proteins and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins in the neurons located particularly in hippocampus and cerebral cortex regions of brain, resulting the neuronal loss, while PD is characterized by deposition of intraneuronal aggregates of mostly composed of alpha-synuclein gene as Lewy bodies (LB) in the striatal region, known as substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of brain, leading to the death of dopaminergic neurons. These are known as pathological hallmarks of these diseases. However, in some overlapping cases, known as Alzheimer with Parkinson disease or vice versa, alpha-synuclein deposition in AD and tau deposition in PD patients are found. Oxidative stress-induced glial cells activation, neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction lead to various molecular events in brain neurons causing neuronal cell death in these neurodegenerative disorders. Currently used drugs for treatment of AD and PD only reduce the symptoms of these diseases, but unable to stop the process of neurodegeneration. Therefore, innovation of new synthetic drugs or discovery of natural drugs for the treatment of AD and PD, is a challenging task of basic science and clinical medicine. Plant iridoids such as catalpol and its 10-O-trans-p-coumaroyl derivative, geniposide, harpagoside, and loganin, and seco-iridoids, oleuropein and its aglycone and oleocanthal have been found to exhibit significant neuroprotective effect and the property of slowing down the process of neurogedeneration in AD and PD. These plant metabolites have been shown to ameliorate AD by increasing the expression of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), neprilysin (NEP), PPAR-γ, and α-secretase, and decreasing the expression of β-secretase (BACE-1) to reduce the levels of Aβ oligomers (Aβ

6 Review Disease model organism for Parkinson disease: Drosophila melanogaster. 2019

Aryal, Binod / Lee, Youngseok. ·Department of Bio and Fermentation Convergence Technology, Kookmin University, BK21 PLUS Project, Seoul 02707, Korea. ·BMB Rep · Pubmed #30545438.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by selective and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Genetic and environmental risk factors are associated with this disease. The genetic factors are composed of approximately 20 genes, such as SNCA, parkin, PTEN-induced kinase1 (pink1), leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), ATP13A2, MAPT, VPS35, and DJ-1, whereas the environmental factors consist of oxidative stress-induced toxins such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), rotenone, and paraquat. The analyses of their functions and mechanisms have provided important insights into the disease process, which has demonstrated that these factors cause oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. The most invaluable studies have been performed using disease model organisms, such as mice, fruit flies, and worms. Among them, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an excellent model organism to study both environmental and genetic factors and provide insights to the pathways relevant for PD pathogenesis, facilitating development of therapeutic strategies. In this review, we have focused on the fly model organism to summarize recent progress, including pathogenesis, neuroprotective compounds, and newer approaches. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(4): 250-258].

7 Review Psychiatric Manifestation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Han, Ji Won / Ahn, Yebin D / Kim, Won-Seok / Shin, Cheol Min / Jeong, Seong Jin / Song, Yoo Sung / Bae, Yun Jung / Kim, Jong-Min. ·Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Urology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30450025.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Although its major manifestation is motor symptoms, resulting from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, hallucination, delusion, apathy and anhedonia, impulsive and compulsive behaviors, and cognitive dysfunction, may also manifest in most patients with PD. Given that the quality of life - and the need for institutionalization - is so highly dependent on the psychiatric well-being of patients with PD, psychiatric symptoms are of high clinical significance. We reviewed the prevalence, risk factors, pathophysiology, and treatment of psychiatric symptoms to get a better understanding of PD for improved management.

8 Review Magnetic Resonance-Guided Focused Ultrasound in Neurosurgery: Taking Lessons from the Past to Inform the Future. 2018

Jung, Na Young / Chang, Jin Woo. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. ·J Korean Med Sci · Pubmed #30369860.

ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is a new emerging neurosurgical procedure applied in a wide range of clinical fields. It can generate high-intensity energy at the focal zone in deep body areas without requiring incision of soft tissues. Although the effectiveness of the focused ultrasound technique had not been recognized because of the skull being a main barrier in the transmission of acoustic energy, the development of hemispheric distribution of ultrasound transducer phased arrays has solved this issue and enabled the performance of true transcranial procedures. Advanced imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance thermometry could enhance the safety of MRgFUS. The current clinical applications of MRgFUS in neurosurgery involve stereotactic ablative treatments for patients with essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, or neuropathic pain. Other potential treatment candidates being examined in ongoing clinical trials include brain tumors, Alzheimer's disease, and epilepsy, based on MRgFUS abilities of thermal ablation and opening the blood-brain barrier. With the development of ultrasound technology to overcome the limitations, MRgFUS is gradually expanding the therapeutic field for intractable neurological disorders and serving as a trail for a promising future in noninvasive and safe neurosurgical care.

9 Review Abnormal hippocampal neurogenesis in Parkinson's disease: relevance to a new therapeutic target for depression with Parkinson's disease. 2018

Lim, Juhee / Bang, Yeojin / Choi, Hyun Jin. ·College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. · College of Pharmacy and Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13488, Republic of Korea. hjchoi3@cha.ac.kr. ·Arch Pharm Res · Pubmed #30136247.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor dysfunction, including bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. Recent clinical findings recognize PD as a complex disease with diverse neuropsychiatric complications. Depression is the most frequent non-motor psychiatric symptom experienced in PD, and it is associated with poor quality of life. While the pathophysiology of PD-associated depression is not directly related to neurodegenerative processes in the substantia nigra, underlying mechanisms remain unclear and there are few symptomatic treatments. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis is considered crucial for the development and treatment of depression. In genetic animal models and human postmortem studies of PD, severely impaired adult neurogenesis has been observed, with patients showing hippocampal atrophy and disrupted hippocampal neurogenesis. Because adult newborn neurons appear to exert various functions, which relate to non-motor symptoms observed in PD, there might be a close correlation between malformation of newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus and depressive symptoms. Here, we discuss current concepts regarding impaired hippocampal neurogenesis and non-motor symptoms of PD, and review PD-associated pathophysiological factors regulating neurogenesis, including inflammatory signaling and autophagy. We present a novel framework for targeting adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which could provide a promising treatment for PD-associated depression.

10 Review Cellular phenotypes as inflammatory mediators in Parkinson's disease: Interventional targets and role of natural products. 2018

Jiang, Xu / Ganesan, Palanivel / Rengarajan, Thamaraiselvan / Choi, Dong-Kug / Arulselvan, Palanisamy. ·Department of Neurology, Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, 3 Shajing St, Baoan Qu, Shenzhen Shi, Guangdong Sheng, 518104, China. Electronic address: dr13510864406@163.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: palanivel67@gmail.com. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India. Electronic address: thamarairaj2000@gmail.com. · Nanotechnology Research Center and Department of Applied Life Science, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea; Department of Biotechnology, College of Biomedical and Health Science, Konkuk University, Chungju, 380-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: choidk@kku.ac.kr. · Scigen Research and Innovation Pvt. Ltd., Periyar Technology Business Incubator, Periyar Nagar, Thanjavur, 613403, India; Muthayammal Centre for Advanced Research, Muthayammal College of Arts and Science, Rasipuram, Namakkal, Tamilnadu, 637408, India. Electronic address: arulbio@gmail.com. ·Biomed Pharmacother · Pubmed #30119171.

ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is undoubtedly a multifactorial phenomenon, with diverse etiological agents. Pro-inflammatory mediators act as a skew that directs disease progression during neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the dynamics of inflammation and inflammatory mediators in preventing or reducing disease progression has recently gained much attention. Inflammatory neuro-degeneration is regulated via cytokines, chemokines, lipid mediators and immune cell subsets; however, individual cellular phenotypes in the Central Nervous System (CNS) acts in diverse ways whose persistent activation leads to unresolving inflammation often causing unfavorable outcomes in neurodegenerative disease like PD. Specifically, activation of cellular phenotypes like astrocytes, microglia, activation of peripheral immune cells requires different activation signals and agents like (cytokines, misfolded protein aggregates, infectious agents, pesticides like organophosphates, etc.,). However, what is unknown is how the different cellular phenotypes respond uniquely and the role of the factors they secrete alters the signal cascades in the complex neuron-microglial connections in the CNS. Hence, understanding the role of cellular phenotypes and the inflammatory mediators, the cross talk among the signals and their receptors can help us to identify the potential therapeutic target using natural products. In this review we have tried to put together the role of cellular phenotypes as a skew that favors PD progression and we have also discussed how the lack of experimental approaches and challenges that affects understanding the cellular targets that can be used against natural derivatives in alleviating PD pathophysiology. Together, this review will provide the better insights into the role of cellular phenotypes of neuroinflammation, inflammatory mediators and the orchestrating factors of inflammation and how they can be targeted in a more specific way that can be used in the clinical management of PD.

11 Review Hallmarks of Brain Aging: Adaptive and Pathological Modification by Metabolic States. 2018

Mattson, Mark P / Arumugam, Thiruma V. ·Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program, Baltimore, MD, USA; Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address: mark.mattson@nih.gov. · Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, Republic of Korea. ·Cell Metab · Pubmed #29874566.

ABSTRACT: During aging, the cellular milieu of the brain exhibits tell-tale signs of compromised bioenergetics, impaired adaptive neuroplasticity and resilience, aberrant neuronal network activity, dysregulation of neuronal Ca

12 Review Abnormal somatosensory temporal discrimination in Parkinson's disease: Pathophysiological correlates and role in motor control deficits. 2018

Lee, Myung Sik / Lee, Myung Jun / Conte, Antonella / Berardelli, Alfredo. ·Department of Neurology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslee@yuhs.ac. · Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: mslayer9@gmail.com. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: antonella.conte@uniroma1.it. · Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; IRCCS Neuromed, Pozzilli (IS), Italy. Electronic address: alfredo.berardelli@uniroma1.it. ·Clin Neurophysiol · Pubmed #29304419.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The somatosensory temporal discrimination threshold (STDT), defined as the shortest time interval required for two tactile stimuli to be perceived as separate, is longer in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we discuss STDT findings in healthy subjects and in PD patients and the relationship between altered STDT and motor disturbances. METHODS: A search was conducted on PubMed for papers dealing with PD and temporal discrimination published from January 1990 to July 2017. RESULTS: Abnormal STDT in PD correlates with disease duration, disease severity and degree of nigrostriatal dopamine loss, and responds to dopaminergic medication. In PD, a prolonged STDT does not correlate, or only marginally correlates, with clinically assessed bradykinesia of finger tapping. By contrast, a prolonged STDT correlates with the variability in amplitude and speed of finger tapping as assessed by means of neurophysiological techniques and may contribute to impaired finger dexterity in PD. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that abnormal temporal processing of sensory information in PD generates incorrect signals for the execution and control of voluntary movements. SIGNIFICANCE: This review sheds light on unsolved questions regarding the relationship between STDT alterations and motor disturbances in PD and proposes directions for future research on this topic.

13 Review Functional lesional neurosurgery for tremor: back to the future? 2018

Schreglmann, Sebastian R / Krauss, Joachim K / Chang, Jin Woo / Martin, Ernst / Werner, Beat / Bauer, Ronald / Hägele-Link, Stefan / Bhatia, Kailash P / Kägi, Georg. ·Department of Neurology, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland. · Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, UK. · Department of Neurosurgery, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany. · Department of Neurosurgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Center for Focused Ultrasound, University of Zurich, Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Neurosurgery, Kantonsspital St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland. ·J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry · Pubmed #29269505.

ABSTRACT: For nearly a century, functional neurosurgery has been applied in the treatment of tremor. While deep brain stimulation has been in the focus of academic interest in recent years, the establishment of incisionless technology, such as MRI-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound, has again stirred interest in lesional approaches.In this article, we will discuss the historical development of surgical technique and targets, as well as the technological state-of-the-art of conventional and incisionless interventions for tremor due to Parkinson's disease, essential and dystonic tremor and tremor related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and midbrain lesions. We will also summarise technique-inherent advantages of each technology and compare their lesion characteristics. From this, we identify gaps in the current literature and derive future directions for functional lesional neurosurgery, in particularly potential trial designs, alternative targets and the unsolved problem of bilateral lesional treatment. The results of a systematic review and meta-analysis of the consistency, efficacy and side effect rate of lesional treatments for tremor are presented separately alongside this article.

14 Review Functional dissection of astrocyte-secreted proteins: Implications in brain health and diseases. 2018

Jha, Mithilesh Kumar / Kim, Jong-Heon / Song, Gyun Jee / Lee, Won-Ha / Lee, In-Kyu / Lee, Ho-Won / An, Seong Soo A / Kim, SangYun / Suk, Kyoungho. ·Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea; Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · School of Life Sciences, BK21 Plus KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. · Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Neurology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea. · Department of Pharmacology, Brain Science and Engineering Institute, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: ksuk@knu.ac.kr. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #29247683.

ABSTRACT: Astrocytes, which are homeostatic cells of the central nervous system (CNS), display remarkable heterogeneity in their morphology and function. Besides their physical and metabolic support to neurons, astrocytes modulate the blood-brain barrier, regulate CNS synaptogenesis, guide axon pathfinding, maintain brain homeostasis, affect neuronal development and plasticity, and contribute to diverse neuropathologies via secreted proteins. The identification of astrocytic proteome and secretome profiles has provided new insights into the maintenance of neuronal health and survival, the pathogenesis of brain injury, and neurodegeneration. Recent advances in proteomics research have provided an excellent catalog of astrocyte-secreted proteins. This review categorizes astrocyte-secreted proteins and discusses evidence that astrocytes play a crucial role in neuronal activity and brain function. An in-depth understanding of astrocyte-secreted proteins and their pathways is pivotal for the development of novel strategies for restoring brain homeostasis, limiting brain injury/inflammation, counteracting neurodegeneration, and obtaining functional recovery.

15 Review Understanding the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. 2018

Choi, Hojin / Koh, Seong-Ho. ·a Department of Neurology , Hanyang University College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol · Pubmed #29233065.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Levodopa (L-DOPA) is the most commonly used drug for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term use is associated with various complications, including L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Many studies have suggested that L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID are associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activation. Areas covered: LID is caused by striatal dopamine (DA) denervation in PD and pulsatile L-DOPA treatment. These factors lead to dysregulated DA transmission, abnormal intracellular signaling and transcription factors in striatal neurons, and altered gene expression and plasticity at corticostriatal synapses. The mechanisms of L-DOPA toxicity involve oxidative stress, L-DOPA oxidation to quinone, mitochondrial dysfunction, and α-synuclein. GSK-3 has been suggested to play key roles in all the mechanisms associated of L-DOPA toxicity and LID in PD. Expert opinion: GSK-3 plays critical roles in L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity, and the development of specific methods to inhibit GSK-3 function may help prevent L-DOPA neurotoxicity and LID in PD. However, balanced GSK-3 inhibition and less β-catenin degradation is essential for preventing LID, because too much GSK-3 inhibition increases β-catenin levels, which is related to cancers.

16 Review REM sleep behavior disorder portends poor prognosis in Parkinson's disease: A systematic review. 2018

Kim, Yoon / Kim, Young Eun / Park, Eun Ok / Shin, Chae Won / Kim, Han-Joon / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea. · Department of Neurology, MRC and Movement Disorder Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Parkinson Study Group, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·J Clin Neurosci · Pubmed #29102236.

ABSTRACT: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia wherein a loss of REM sleep atonia manifests as dream-enactment, often violent. Aside from its significance as a predictor of PD, RBD in PD may imply more than merely screaming at night and experiencing sleep fragmentation. To probe its significance as a prognostic factor in PD, we performed a systematic literature review. Analysis of prospective studies reveals baseline RBD confers a higher risk of developing dementia and hallucinations. In cross-sectional studies, RBD is associated with the non-tremor predominant motor phenotype and autonomic dysfunction. Clinical, imaging, and autopsy studies support the presence of dense and diffuse pathology extending beyond the brainstem in PD with RBD. As RBD in PD is associated with a greater disease burden and an increased risk of mortality, we propose the RBD subtype in PD to highlight that RBD may mark a distinct subtype with relatively poor prognosis.

17 Review Breaking down autophagy and the Ubiquitin Proteasome System. 2018

Jung, Shinae / Chung, Yuhyun / Oh, Young J. ·Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. · Department of Systems Biology, Yonsei University College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Seoul 120-749, South Korea. Electronic address: yjoh@yonsei.ac.kr. ·Parkinsonism Relat Disord · Pubmed #28764914.

ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that is involved in cellular homeostasis and stress responses. Although basal levels of autophagy are essential for cellular homeostasis, dysregulated autophagy is linked to neurodegeneration. Recent studies using genetic or neurotoxin-based models of Parkinson's disease (PD) detect autophagy. We demonstrate that neurotoxins induce autophagy in dopaminergic neuronal cell line and primary cultured neurons. Based on previous reports, including ones from our laboratory, which show that elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytosolic calcium are implicated in dopaminergic neurodegeneration, we reasoned that these triggers may play critical roles in determining dysregulated autophagy. Similarly, we have demonstrated that ROS-mediated signals play an essential role in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis, whereas MPP

18 Review Autophagy impairment in Parkinson's disease. 2017

Karabiyik, Cansu / Lee, Min Jae / Rubinsztein, David C. ·Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. · Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0XY, U.K. dcr1000@cam.ac.uk minjlee@snu.ac.kr. · UK Dementia Research Institute, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Hills Road, Cambridge, U.K. ·Essays Biochem · Pubmed #29233880.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating movement disorder typically associated with the accumulation of intracytoplasmic aggregate prone protein deposits. Over recent years, increasing evidence has led to the suggestion that the mutations underlying certain forms of PD impair autophagy. Autophagy is a degradative pathway that delivers cytoplasmic content to lysosomes for degradation and represents a major route for degradation of aggregated cellular proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Autophagy up-regulation is a promising therapeutic strategy that is being explored for its potential to protect cells against the toxicity of aggregate-prone proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we describe how the mutations in different subtypes of PD can affect different stages of autophagy.

19 Review Effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. 2017

Noh, Hyeonseok / Kwon, Seungwon / Cho, Seung-Yeon / Jung, Woo-Sang / Moon, Sang-Kwan / Park, Jung-Mi / Ko, Chang-Nam / Park, Seong-Uk. ·Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. · Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Cardiology and Neurology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: seonguk.kr@gmail.com. ·Complement Ther Med · Pubmed #28917379.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: English, Chinese, and Korean electronic databases were searched up to June 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible. The methodological quality was assessed using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: In total, 42 studies involving 2625 participants were systematically reviewed. Participants treated using combined acupuncture and conventional medication (CM) showed significant improvements in total Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS), UPDRS I, UPDRS II, UPDRS III, and the Webster scale compared to those treated using CM alone. The combination of electroacupuncture and CM was significantly superior to CM alone in total UPDRS, UPDRS I, UPDRS II, and UPDRS IV. Similarly, the combination of scalp electroacupuncture, acupuncture, and CM was significantly more effective than CM alone in total UPDRS. However, our meta-analysis showed that the combination of electroacupuncture and CM was not significantly more effective than CM alone in UPDRS III, the Webster, and the Tension Assessment Scale. The results also failed to show that acupuncture was significantly more effective than placebo acupuncture in total UPDRS. Overall, the methodological quality of the RCTs was low. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: We found that acupuncture might be a safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with PD. However, because of methodological flaws in the included studies, conclusive evidence is still lacking. More rigorous and well-designed placebo-controlled trials should be conducted.

20 Review Nonmotor Effects of Conventional and Transdermal Dopaminergic Therapies in Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Kim, Ryul / Jeon, Beomseok. ·Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. · Seoul National University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28805592.

ABSTRACT: Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are an integral component of Parkinson's disease (PD). Because the burden and range of NMS are key determinants of quality of life for patients and caregivers, their management is a crucial issue in clinical practice. Although a range of NMS have a dopaminergic pathophysiological basis, this fact is underrecognized, and thus, they are often regarded as dopamine unresponsive symptoms. However, substantial evidence indicates that many NMS respond to oral and transdermal dopaminergic therapies. In contrast, certain NMS are exacerbated or even precipitated by dopaminergic drugs and these unwanted effects may be seriously dangerous. Therefore, a dopaminergic strategy for NMS should be based on a consideration of the benefits vs the risks in individual patients with PD.

21 Review Implications of Circadian Rhythm in Dopamine and Mood Regulation. 2017

Kim, Jeongah / Jang, Sangwon / Choe, Han Kyoung / Chung, Sooyoung / Son, Gi Hoon / Kim, Kyungjin. ·Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu 42988, Korea. · Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea. · Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Scranton College, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea. · Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02473, Korea. · Korea Brain Research Institute (KBRI), Daegu 41068, Korea. ·Mol Cells · Pubmed #28780783.

ABSTRACT: Mammalian physiology and behavior are regulated by an internal time-keeping system, referred to as circadian rhythm. The circadian timing system has a hierarchical organization composed of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and local clocks in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral organs. The circadian clock molecular mechanism involves a network of transcription-translation feedback loops. In addition to the clinical association between circadian rhythm disruption and mood disorders, recent studies have suggested a molecular link between mood regulation and circadian rhythm. Specifically, genetic deletion of the circadian nuclear receptor

22 Review Hallmarks of Treatment Aspects: Parkinson's Disease Throughout Centuries Including l-Dopa. 2017

Kim, Hee J / Jeon, Beom S / Jenner, Peter. ·Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. · Parkinson Disease Study Group, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea; Movement Disorder Center, Neuroscience Research Institute, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: brain@snu.ac.kr. · Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. ·Int Rev Neurobiol · Pubmed #28554412.

ABSTRACT: Deficit of striatal dopamine was first discovered in postmortem brain of patients with Parkinson's disease in 1960. This observation was the starting point for dopamine replacement therapy, and successful introduction of high dose l-dopa therapy in the 1969 revolutionized the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Since then, constant attempts have been made to enhance the efficacy of l-dopa and reduce motor complications by providing more continuous dopamine stimulation. This chapter traces the hallmarks of medical treatments for Parkinson's disease throughout centuries including the first description of antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergics, the birth of apomorphine in the 1900s, then discovery of l-dopa in the 1960s, and development of dopamine agonists since the 1970s.

23 Review Switching from an oral dopamine receptor agonist to rotigotine transdermal patch: a review of clinical data with a focus on patient perspective. 2017

Chung, Sun Ju / Asgharnejad, Mahnaz / Bauer, Lars / Benitez, Arturo / Boroojerdi, Babak / Heidbrede, Tanja / Little, Allison / Kim, Han Joon. ·a Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center , University of Ulsan College of Medicine , Seoul , South Korea. · b UCB Pharma , Raleigh , NC , USA. · c UCB Pharma , Monheim am Rhein , Germany. · d UCB Pharma , São Paulo , Brazil. · e UCB Pharma , Atlanta , GA , USA. · f Seoul National University Hospital , Seoul , South Korea. ·Expert Rev Neurother · Pubmed #28548894.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Dopamine receptor agonists (DAs) are commonly used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome (RLS). In certain situations, switching from oral DAs to rotigotine transdermal patch may be beneficial for the patient (e.g., optimal symptom control/side effects/perioperative management, preference for once-daily/non-oral administration, RLS augmentation treatment). Areas covered: This narrative review summarizes available data on DA dose equivalency, dose conversions, switching schedules, safety, tolerability, efficacy and patient treatment preferences of switching from oral DAs to rotigotine (and vice versa) in patients with PD/RLS. The studies were identified in a PubMed search (up to 8 November 2016) using terms ('dopamine receptor agonist' OR 'rotigotine') AND 'switch'. Expert commentary: Randomized controlled studies often do not address the challenges clinicians face in practice, e.g., switching medications within the same class when dosing is not a one-to-one ratio. The authors describe three open-label studies in PD where oral DAs were successfully switched to rotigotine, and review three studies in RLS where oral DAs/levodopa were switched to rotigotine. Finally, the authors provide a suggested tool for switching from oral DAs to rotigotine, which includes dose conversion factors and switching schedules. The authors' view is that low-dose oral DAs (equivalent to ≤8 mg/24 h rotigotine) may be switched overnight.

24 Review Deregulation of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease: Insight from epigenetic structure and transcriptional regulation of SNCA. 2017

Guhathakurta, Subhrangshu / Bok, Eugene / Evangelista, Baggio A / Kim, Yoon-Seong. ·Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA. · Burnett School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, 6900 Lake Nona Blvd, Orlando, FL 32827, USA; Kyunghee University Medical College, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address: yoon-seong.kim@ucf.edu. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #28445713.

ABSTRACT: Understanding regulation of α-synuclein has long been a central focus for Parkinson's disease (PD) researchers. Accumulation of this protein in the Lewy body or neurites, mutations in the coding region of the gene and strong association of α-synuclein encoding gene multiplication (duplication/triplication) with familial form of PD have indicated the importance of this molecule in pathogenesis of the disease. Several years of research identified many potential faulty pathways associated with accumulation of α-synuclein inside dopaminergic neurons and its transmission to neighboring ones. Concurrently, an appreciable body of research is growing to understand the epigenetic and genetic deregulation of α-synuclein that might contribute to the disease pathology. Completion of the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project and recent advancement made in the epigenetic and trans factor mediated regulation of each gene, has tremendously accelerated the need to carefully understand the epigenetic structure of the gene (SNCA) encoding α-synuclein protein in order to decipher the regulation and contribution of α-synuclein to the pathogenesis of PD. We have also analyzed the detailed epigenetic structure of this gene with knowledge from ENCODE database, which may open new avenues in α-synuclein research. Interestingly, we have found that the gene contains several transcriptionally activate histone modifications and associated potential transcription factor binding sites in the non-coding areas that strongly suggest alternative regulatory pathways. Altogether this review will provide interesting insight of α-synuclein gene regulation from epigenetic, genetic and post-transcriptional perspectives and their potential implication in the PD pathogenesis.

25 Review Role of Gasotransmitters in Oxidative Stresses, Neuroinflammation, and Neuronal Repair. 2017

Shefa, Ulfuara / Yeo, Seung Geun / Kim, Min-Sik / Song, In Ok / Jung, Junyang / Jeong, Na Young / Huh, Youngbuhm. ·Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Otorhinolaryngology, H & N Surgery, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea. · Department of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility and Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cheil General Hospital, Dankook University College of Medicine, 17 Seoae-ro 1 Gil, Jung-gu, Seoul 04619, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. · Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, 32 Daesingongwon-ro, Seo-gu, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea. · Department of Biomedical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #28386548.

ABSTRACT: To date, three main gasotransmitters, that is, hydrogen sulfide (H

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