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Parkinson Disease: HELP
Articles from Shanghai
Based on 329 articles published since 2008
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These are the 329 published articles about Parkinson Disease that originated from Shanghai during 2008-2019.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14
1 Review The Association Between Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Supplementation, Sunlight Exposure, and Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. 2019

Zhou, Zonglei / Zhou, Ruzhen / Zhang, Zengqiao / Li, Kunpeng. ·Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Sichuan University West China School of Public Health, Chengdu, Sichuan, China (mainland). · Department of Anorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital of Shanghai, Shanghai, China (mainland). · School of Rehabilitation Science, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China (mainland). · Department of Neurorehabilitation, Shanghai Second Rehabilitation Hospital, Shanghai, China (mainland). ·Med Sci Monit · Pubmed #30672512.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND This literature review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the association between deficiency of vitamin D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and Parkinson's disease, and whether vitamin D from supplements and sunlight improves the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS A literature review and meta-analysis were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Systematic literature review was performed using databases that included the Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase. The Jadad scale (the Oxford quality scoring system) and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. RESULTS Eight studies were included in the meta-analysis. Both 25-hydroxyvitamin D insufficiency (<30 ng/mL) (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.29-2.43; P<0.001) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) (OR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.98-3.27; P<0.001) were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease when compared with normal controls Sunlight exposure (³15 min/week) was significantly associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (OR, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.10; P<0.001). The use of vitamin D supplements was effective in increasing 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (SMD, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.40-2.18; P<0.001), but had no significant effect on motor function (MD, -1.82; 95% CI, -5.10-1.45; P=0.275) in patients with Parkinson's disease. CONCLUSIONS Insufficiency and deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and reduced exposure to sunlight were significantly associated with an increased risk of Parkinson's disease. However, vitamin D supplements resulted in no significant benefits in improving motor function for patients with Parkinson's disease.

2 Review The role of T cells in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. 2018

Chen, Zhichun / Chen, Shengdi / Liu, Jun. ·Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated with the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. · Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated with the Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address: jly0520@hotmail.com. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #30114440.

ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has shown that neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, different components of the brain's immune system may exert diverse effects on neuroinflammatory events in PD. The adaptive immune response, especially the T cell response, can trigger type 1 pro-inflammatory activities and suppress type 2 anti-inflammatory activities, eventually resulting in deregulated neuroinflammation and subsequent dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Additionally, studies have increasingly shown that therapies targeting T cells can alleviate neurodegeneration and motor behavior impairment in animal models of PD. Therefore, we conclude that abnormal T cell-mediated immunity is a fundamental pathological process that may be a promising translational therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease.

3 Review SNCA REP1 and Parkinson's disease. 2018

Shu, Li / Zhang, Yuan / Sun, Qiying / Pan, Hongxu / Guo, Jifeng / Tang, Beisha. ·Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. · Department of Geriatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China. · Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Parkinson's Disease Center of Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100069, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai 200032, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Shanghai 200438, China. · Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Department of Geriatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Changsha, Hunan 410078, China; Key Laboratory of Hunan Province in Neurodegenerative Disorders, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Center for Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China; Parkinson's Disease Center of Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100069, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai 200032, China; Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, Shanghai 200438, China. Electronic address: bstang7398@163.com. ·Neurosci Lett · Pubmed #29859327.

ABSTRACT: REP1 is a polymorphic dinucleotide repeat sequence located in the promoter region of the SNCA gene (OMIM 163890). Opinions regarding the interaction between the various REP1 alleles and Parkinson's disease (PD) or its phenotypes have been inconsistent and have thus far not been comprehensively analyzed. In this study, we searched Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases as well as the Chinese-language Wanfang and CNKI databases using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and conducted our analysis using Revman 5.3 software. Our search produced 28 articles describing REP1 alleles and their associated PD risks and 8 articles which discussed the relationship between REP1 variation and PD phenotypes. We found that the 265-, 269-, and 271-bp alleles of REP1 (using the nomenclature established by Xia et al.) increased the risk of PD (OR: 1.81, 1.05, 1.17; p: 0.0002, 0.003, 0.002) while the 267-bp allele decreased PD risk (OR: 0.86, p: <0.00001) when taking all populations into account. By ethnicity, we observed an obvious population heterogeneity in the effects of various alleles, where the 269-, 271-, and 273-bp alleles increased PD risk (OR: 1.06, 1.22, 1.89; p: 0.001, 0.003, 0.001) and the 267-bp allele decreased PD risk (OR: 0.85; p: <0.00001) in Caucasian populations, and the 263- and 265-bp alleles increased the risk of PD (OR: 2.22, 2.03; p: 0.03, 0.0002) and the 267- and 273-bp alleles decreased PD risk (OR: 0.90, 0.78; p: 0.02, 0.03) in Asian populations. We also determined that the 267-, 269-, and 271-bp alleles occurred the most frequently, although the frequency distribution varied among different ethnicities. Phenotypic analysis demonstrated that PD patients carrying the 271-bp allele were prone to early onset PD (OR: 1.75, p: 0.02) while the 267-bp had the opposite effect (OR: 0.81; p: 0.01).

4 Review A survey of subjective constipation in Parkinson's disease patients in shanghai and literature review. 2018

Gan, Jing / Wan, Ying / Shi, Junjie / Zhou, Mingzhu / Lou, Zhiyin / Liu, Zhenguo. ·Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 20092, China. · Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Shanghai JiaoTong University, School of Medicine, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, 20092, China. liuzhenguo@xinhuamed.com.cn. ·BMC Neurol · Pubmed #29544459.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Constipation is one of the most frequent non-motor symptoms (NMS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) and the prevalence of constipation in PD patients varies among different studies. We designed this study to survey the prevalence and clinical characteristics of subjective constipation and the appearance chronology between the emergence of constipation and onset of motor symptoms in PD patients from Shanghai, China. METHODS: 268 PD patients were continuously recruited into this study. Parkinson's related clinical information of the participants was collected. A spectrum of motor and nonmotor features was assessed with scales and questionnaires. Subjective constipation was defined by ROME III criteria. RESULTS: 54.10% PD patients suffer from constipation. Among them, there was 47.59% having constipation before onset of motor symptoms. Compared with patients without constipation, patients with constipation reported lower daily water intake and less exercise, and were dominated by bradykinetic-rigid motor phenotype at onset and were prone to have anxiety, depression and insomnia. The time span between constipation and the onset of motor symptoms was (6.62 ± 9.32) years. Constipation occurred more frequently between 2 and 10 years before onset of motor symptoms. Patients suffering with constipation were then divided into two groups according to the time sequence of constipation and motor onset: 'constipation pre-motor sign' group and 'constipation post-motor sign' group. Total timespan from earliest initial symptoms to present was similar. Compared with 'constipation post-motor sign' group, the patients in 'constipation pre-motor sign' group experienced an older motor symptoms onset age, less serious motor symptoms, more serious constipation and less daily levodopa dosage. CONCLUSIONS: Our results supported that constipation could be a pre-motor symptom of PD. Different clinical characteristics were found in different constipation-loading time relative to motor symptoms. Research of constipation may be useful to better understand the early stages of PD and assessment of constipation with validated criteria may have utility as a risk factor for predicting PD in the prodromal phase.

5 Review Update on Molecular Imaging in Parkinson's Disease. 2018

Liu, Zhen-Yang / Liu, Feng-Tao / Zuo, Chuan-Tao / Koprich, James B / Wang, Jian. ·Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Ageing and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. · PET Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200235, China. · Krembil Institute, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, M5T 2S8, Canada. · Department of Neurology and National Clinical Research Center for Ageing and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China. wangjian336@hotmail.com. ·Neurosci Bull · Pubmed #29282614.

ABSTRACT: Advances in radionuclide tracers have allowed for more accurate imaging that reflects the actions of numerous neurotransmitters, energy metabolism utilization, inflammation, and pathological protein accumulation. All of these achievements in molecular brain imaging have broadened our understanding of brain function in Parkinson's disease (PD). The implementation of molecular imaging has supported more accurate PD diagnosis as well as assessment of therapeutic outcome and disease progression. Moreover, molecular imaging is well suited for the detection of preclinical or prodromal PD cases. Despite these advances, future frontiers of research in this area will focus on using multi-modalities combining positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging along with causal modeling with complex algorithms.

6 Review Beyond Deubiquitylation: USP30-Mediated Regulation of Mitochondrial Homeostasis. 2017

Hou, Jiayun / Eldeeb, Mohmmad / Wang, Xiangdong. ·Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Clinical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Shanghai Institute of Clinical Bioinformatics, Biomedical Research Center, Shanghai, China. · Department of Biochemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. · Zhongshan Hospital Institute of Clinical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai, China. xiangdong.wang@clintransmed.org. ·Adv Exp Med Biol · Pubmed #29178074.

ABSTRACT: Mutations or sequence aberrations in the Parkin gene are among the most common causes of autosomal recessive Parkinson's disorder (PD). Parkin, a cytoplasmic E3 ubiquitin ligase, is involved in mitochondrial quality control pathways, including mitochondrial fission and mitophagy by autophagy-related genes. Parkin mediates the covalent addition of ubiquitin (Ub) chains to Lys 6, Lys 11, and Lys 63 on diverse mitochondrial-related target proteins. USP30, a mitochondrial deubiquitinase, promotes mitochondrial fusion by mediating the deubiquitination of ubiquitylated forms of mitofusins, such as Mfn1 and Mfn2. USP30 preferentially mediates the removal of Ub chains from Lys 6 and Lys 11 on mitochondria-derived proteins. USP30 mediates the removal of the ubiquitin chains added by Parkin. It was demonstrated that overexpression of USP30 triggers the mitochondrial dynamic signaling toward elevated fusion and reduced fission and halts mitochondrial clearance via mitophagy. Although mounting lines of evidences reveal the pivotal role of Parkin in mitochondrial quality control pathways, the crucial role of deubiquitinases including the USP30 deubiquitinase is emerging. Herein, we review briefly the role of USP30 in the dynamic networks of mitochondrial quality control and its physiological implications.

7 Review Safety and Efficacy of Rotigotine for Treating Parkinson's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials. 2017

Chen, Fei / Jin, Lingjing / Nie, Zhiyu. ·Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200065, China. ·J Pharm Pharm Sci · Pubmed #28810946.

ABSTRACT: We aimed to comprehensively analyse the safety and efficiency of rotigotine for treating Parkinson's disease (PD). We conducted systematic literature searches of Cochrane library, PubMed and Embase databases up to April 2016, with 'Rotigotine', 'Parkinson Disease ' and 'Parkinson's disease' as key searching terms. Outcomes, including Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part III and Part II scores, 'off' time, adverse events (AEs), serious AEs and discontinuation because of AEs, were compared between rotigotine and placebo groups under a fixed or random effect model. For dichotomous and continuous data, risk ratio (RR) and weighted mean difference with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were taken as the effect sizes to calculate merged results. Twelve eligible studies were included. For patients with early or advanced PD, rotigotine could significantly improve UPDRS Part III and Part II scores (p < 0.001) and it had significantly higher incidence of AEs than the placebo (p < 0.001). Regarding discontinuation because of AEs, rotigotine showed a significant advantage over placebo in patients with early PD, whereas the overall result demonstrated no statistically significant difference between the groups. Rotigotine can improve daily living and motor ability of patients with PD, although it has higher incidence of AEs. Rotigotine might be more appropriate for patients with advanced PD than for those with early PD. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.

8 Review Current Nondopaminergic Therapeutic Options for Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease. 2017

Du, Juan-Juan / Chen, Sheng-Di. ·Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. ·Chin Med J (Engl) · Pubmed #28748860.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize recent studies on nondopaminergic options for the treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). DATA SOURCES: Papers in English published in PubMed, Cochrane, and Ovid Nursing databases between January 1988 and November 2016 were searched using the following keywords: PD, nondopaminergic therapy, adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator. We also reviewed the ongoing clinical trials in the website of clinicaltrials.gov. STUDY SELECTION: Articles related to the nondopaminergic treatment of motor symptoms in PD were selected for this review. RESULTS: PD is conventionally treated with dopamine replacement strategies, which are effective in the early stages of PD. Long-term use of levodopa could result in motor complications. Recent studies revealed that nondopaminergic systems such as adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator pathways could include potential therapeutic targets for motor symptoms, including motor fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and gait disorders. Some nondopaminergic drugs, such as istradefylline and amantadine, are currently used clinically, while most such drugs are in preclinical testing stages. Transitioning of these agents into clinically beneficial strategies requires reliable evaluation since several agents have failed to show consistent results despite positive findings at the preclinical level. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting nondopaminergic transmission could improve some motor symptoms in PD, especially the discomfort of dyskinesia. Although nondopaminergic treatments show great potential in PD treatment as an adjunct therapy to levodopa, further investigation is required to ensure their success.

9 Review NR4A2 genetic variation and Parkinson's disease: Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2017

Liu, Hongmei / Liu, Hongbo / Li, Ting / Cui, Jiayi / Fu, Yingmei / Ren, Juanjuan / Sun, Xiujia / Jiang, Ping / Yu, Shunying / Li, Chunbo. ·Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China. · Department of Clinical Laboratory, Loudi Center Hospital, Loudi City 417000, China. · Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China; Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Changning Mental Health Center, Shanghai 200042, China. · College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (Sargent College), Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. · Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address: yushuny@gmail.com. · Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China; Bio-X Institutes, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address: chunbo_li@163.com. ·Neurosci Lett · Pubmed #28385514.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The homo sapiens nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A (NR4A2) genetic variation has been implicated as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, the results are inconclusive. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the impact of NR4A2 variation on the risk of PD. METHODS: All eligible case-control studies published up to June 2016 by searching Pubmed, OVID, EBSCO, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and China Academic Journals Database were identified. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to access the strength of the association in fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS: Eighteen studies reported 24 genetic variants with a total of 6150 cases and 5919 controls were included. Twelve studies for NR4A2 rs35479735 polymorphism and 4 studies for rs12803 were available for meta-analysis. A significant association was observed for rs35479735 under the homozygous model (OR=1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56, P=0.003), whereas no significant association for rs12803 was detected. In subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity, age onset and familial history, we found no significant association except one in sporadic PD subgroup under the recessive (OR=3.30, 95% CI: 1.23-8.84, P=0.02) and homozygous model (OR=3.43, 95% CI: 1.26-9.33, P=0.02) for rs35479735. CONCLUSION: The study comprehensively evaluated the association of NR4A2 variation with PD, and the results failed to demonstrate that the NR4A2 polymorphisms significantly associated with PD except for rs35479735, suggesting that more studies are needed to elucidate if NR4A2 is a risk of PD.

10 Review The heterozygous R1441C mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene in a Chinese patient with Parkinson disease: A five-year follow-up and literatures review. 2017

Peng, Fang / Sun, Yi-Min / Chen, Chen / Luo, Su-Shan / Li, Da-Ke / Wang, Yi-Xuan / Yang, Ke / Liu, Feng-Tao / Zuo, Chuan-Tao / Ding, Zheng-Tong / An, Yu / Wu, Jian-Jun / Wang, Jian. ·Department & Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai 200040, China. · PET Center, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 518 East Wuzhong Road, Shanghai 200235, China. · Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School, Fudan University, 131 Dongan Road, Shanghai 200032, China. · Department & Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address: wujianjun@fudan.edu.cn. · Department & Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai 200040, China. Electronic address: wangjian336@hotmail.com. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #28131193.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) was recognized associated with both familial and sporadic Parkinson Disease (PD). Seven missense mutations (G2019S, R1441C, R1441G, R1441H, Y1699C, I2020T, N1437H) of it have been confirmed disease- causing. They were common among Caucasian PD patients, but rarely reported in Asian, especially in Chinese Han population. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to identify the frequencies of these seven mutations of LRRK2 in Chinese early-onset PD (EOPD) patients and analyze the phenotypes. METHODS: One hundred and thirty seven EOPD patients were enrolled for genetic testing. The seven disease-causing mutations of LRRK2 were carried out by target sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000 Sequencer. The identified variants were further confirmed by Sanger sequence. The clinical materials were investigated retrospectively. RESULTS: Only one patient (0.73%) was found carrying pathogenetic LRRK2 mutation of R1441C. The age at onset of the female patient was 44. She manifested typical motor symptoms of PD and responded well to levodopa therapy. Longitudinal evaluation showed progression of motor symptoms and depression but no cognitive impairment. The dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging via [11C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) and Positron emission computed tomography (PET) revealed typical dopamine transporter uptake reduction. CONCLUSIONS: The LRRK2 R1441C mutation was found in a Chinese EOPD patient for the first time. The manifestations of LRRK2-R1441C carriers were indistinguishable from sporadic PD patients.

11 Review Traditional Chinese medicine for modern treatment of Parkinson's disease. 2017

Han, Lu / Xie, Yuan-Hong / Wu, Rong / Chen, Chen / Zhang, Yan / Wang, Xiao-Ping. ·Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tong-Ren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200336, China. · Department of Neurology, Shanghai Tong-Ren Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200336, China. wangxp@ustc.edu. ·Chin J Integr Med · Pubmed #28108911.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive degenerative disorder of brain commonly seen among the elderly. As conventionally medical therapy is of limited relief and potential side effects, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has attracted growing public and professional attention. Therapies such as acupuncture, musical/rhythmic therapy and deep brain stimulation have been gradually proved positively in clinic. In this review, we retrospected the scientifific or evidence-based-medicine advances of application and research for modern treatment of PD by CAM, especially traditional Chinese medicine in categories.

12 Review Oxidative stress: A major pathogenesis and potential therapeutic target of antioxidative agents in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. 2016

Jiang, Tianfang / Sun, Qian / Chen, Shengdi. ·Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. · Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurology and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Rui Jin Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China; Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Institute of Health Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Science & Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address: chen_sd@medmail.com.cn. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #27769868.

ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the overproduction and incorporation of free radicals and the dynamic ability of a biosystem to detoxify reactive intermediates. Free radicals produced by oxidative stress are one of the common features in several experimental models of diseases. Free radicals affect both the structure and function of neural cells, and contribute to a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Although the precise mechanisms that result in the degeneration of neurons and the relevant pathological changes remain unclear, the crucial role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is associated with several proteins (such as α-synuclein, DJ-1, Amyloid β and tau protein) and some signaling pathways (such as extracellular regulated protein kinases, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein Kinase B pathway and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) that are tightly associated with the neural damage. In this review, we present evidence, gathered over the last decade, concerning a variety of pathogenic proteins, their important signaling pathways and pathogenic mechanisms associated with oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Proper control and regulation of these proteins' functions and the related signaling pathways may be a promising therapeutic approach to the patients. We also emphasizes antioxidative options, including some new neuroprotective agents that eliminate excess reactive oxygen species efficiently and have a certain therapeutic effect; however, controversy surrounds some of them in terms of the dose and length of therapy. These agents require further investigation by clinical application in patients suffering Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease.

13 Review The heterozygous A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in a Chinese Han patient with Parkinson disease: case report and literature review. 2016

Xiong, Wei-Xi / Sun, Yi-Min / Guan, Rong-Yuan / Luo, Su-Shan / Chen, Chen / An, Yu / Wang, Jian / Wu, Jian-Jun. ·Department and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai, 200040, China. · Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Medical School, Fudan University, 131 Dongan Road, Shanghai, 200032, China. · Department and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai, 200040, China. wangjian336@hotmail.com. · Department and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Zhong Road, Shanghai, 200040, China. wujianjun@fudan.edu.cn. · Department of Neurology, Jing'an District Center Hospital of Shanghai, 259 Xikang Road, Shanghai, 20040, China. wujianjun@fudan.edu.cn. ·J Neurol · Pubmed #27393118.

ABSTRACT: The missense mutation A53T of alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA) was reported to be a rare but definite cause of sporadic and familial Parkinson disease (PD). It seemed to be restricted geographically in Greece and Italy. We aimed to identify the SNCA mutations in a Chinese PD cohort. Ninety-one early onset PD patients or familial PD probands were collected consecutively for the screening of PD-related genes. The genetic analysis was carried out by target sequencing of the exons and the corresponding flanking regions of the PD-related genes using Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencer and further confirmed by Sanger sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism. Dosage mutations of exons in these genes were carried out by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification. Among the 91 patients, we found only one heterozygous mutation of SNCA A53T, in a 23-year-old male patient with negative family history. The [(11)C]-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropan (CFT) PET and PD-related spatial covariance pattern (PDRP) via [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucos (FDG) PET confirmed a typical pattern of PD. After examining his parents, we found his mother was an asymptomatic carrier, with declined hand dexterity detected by quantitative motor tests. Reduced dopamine transporter uptake of his mother was identified by CFT PET, and abnormal PDRP pattern was found by FDG PET. Our investigation expanded the clinical and genetic spectrum of Chinese PD patients, and we suggested SNCA mutations to be screened in familial and early onset Chinese PD patients.

14 Review Human behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. 2016

Asakawa, Tetsuya / Fang, Huan / Sugiyama, Kenji / Nozaki, Takao / Kobayashi, Susumu / Hong, Zhen / Suzuki, Katsuaki / Mori, Norio / Yang, Yilin / Hua, Fei / Ding, Guanghong / Wen, Guoqiang / Namba, Hiroki / Xia, Ying. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address: asakawat1971@gmail.com. · Department of Pharmacy, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. · Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Department of Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handayama, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. · The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Soochow University School of Medicine, Changzhou, China. · Shanghai Key laboratory of Acupuncture Mechanism and Acupoint Function, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Department of Neurology, Hainan General Hospital, Haikou, Hainan, China. · Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Electronic address: Ying.Xia@uth.tmc.edu. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #27375277.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is traditionally classified as a movement disorder because patients mainly complain about motor symptoms. Recently, non-motor symptoms of PD have been recognized by clinicians and scientists as early signs of PD, and they are detrimental factors in the quality of life in advanced PD patients. It is crucial to comprehensively understand the essence of behavioral assessments, from the simplest measurement of certain symptoms to complex neuropsychological tasks. We have recently reviewed behavioral assessments in PD research with animal models (Asakawa et al., 2016). As a companion volume, this article will systematically review the behavioral assessments of motor and non-motor PD symptoms of human patients in current research. The major aims of this article are: (1) promoting a comparative understanding of various behavioral assessments in terms of the principle and measuring indexes; (2) addressing the major strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral assessments for a better selection of tasks/tests in order to avoid biased conclusions due to inappropriate assessments; and (3) presenting new concepts regarding the development of wearable devices and mobile internet in future assessments. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of improving the assessments for non-motor symptoms because of their complex and unique mechanisms in human PD brains.

15 Review Animal behavioral assessments in current research of Parkinson's disease. 2016

Asakawa, Tetsuya / Fang, Huan / Sugiyama, Kenji / Nozaki, Takao / Hong, Zhen / Yang, Yilin / Hua, Fei / Ding, Guanghong / Chao, Dongman / Fenoy, Albert J / Villarreal, Sebastian J / Onoe, Hirotaka / Suzuki, Katsuaki / Mori, Norio / Namba, Hiroki / Xia, Ying. ·Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan; Department of Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. Electronic address: asakawat1971@gmail.com. · Department of Pharmacy, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Department of Neurosurgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. · Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · The First People's Hospital of Changzhou, Soochow University School of Medicine, Changzhou, China. · Shanghai Key Laboratory of Acupuncture Mechanism and Acupoint Function, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. · Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School,Houston, TX, USA. · Functional Probe Research Laboratory, RIKEN Center for Life Science Technologies, Kobe, Japan. · Department of Psychiatry, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu-city, Shizuoka, Japan. · Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School,Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address: Y55738088@gmail.com. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #27026638.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder, is traditionally classified as a movement disorder. Patients typically suffer from many motor dysfunctions. Presently, clinicians and scientists recognize that many non-motor symptoms are associated with PD. There is an increasing interest in both motor and non-motor symptoms in clinical studies on PD patients and laboratory research on animal models that imitate the pathophysiologic features and symptoms of PD patients. Therefore, appropriate behavioral assessments are extremely crucial for correctly understanding the mechanisms of PD and accurately evaluating the efficacy and safety of novel therapies. This article systematically reviews the behavioral assessments, for both motor and non-motor symptoms, in various animal models involved in current PD research. We addressed the strengths and weaknesses of these behavioral tests and their appropriate applications. Moreover, we discussed potential mechanisms behind these behavioral tests and cautioned readers against potential experimental bias. Since most of the behavioral assessments currently used for non-motor symptoms are not particularly designed for animals with PD, it is of the utmost importance to greatly improve experimental design and evaluation in PD research with animal models. Indeed, it is essential to develop specific assessments for non-motor symptoms in PD animals based on their characteristics. We concluded with a prospective view for behavioral assessments with real-time assessment with mobile internet and wearable device in future PD research.

16 Review Nurr1-Based Therapies for Parkinson's Disease. 2016

Dong, Jie / Li, Song / Mo, Jing-Lin / Cai, Huai-Bin / Le, Wei-Dong. ·The Center for Translational Research on Neurological Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China. · Laboratory of Neurogenetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. · Institute of Health Science, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China. ·CNS Neurosci Ther · Pubmed #27012974.

ABSTRACT: Previous studies have documented that orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 (also known as NR4A2) plays important roles in the midbrain dopamine (DA) neuron development, differentiation, and survival. Furthermore, it has been reported that the defects in Nurr1 are associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, Nurr1 might be a potential therapeutic target for PD. Emerging evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies has recently demonstrated that Nurr1-activating compounds and Nurr1 gene therapy are able not only to enhance DA neurotransmission but also to protect DA neurons from cell injury induced by environmental toxin or microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Moreover, modulators that interact with Nurr1 or regulate its function, such as retinoid X receptor, cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, and Wnt/β-catenin pathway, have the potential to enhance the effects of Nurr1-based therapies in PD. This review highlights the recent progress in preclinical studies of Nurr1-based therapies and discusses the outlook of this emerging therapy as a promising new generation of PD medication.

17 Review Diagnostic Accuracy of Transcranial Sonography of the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. 2016

Li, Dun-Hui / He, Ya-Chao / Liu, Jun / Chen, Sheng-Di. ·Department of Neurology &Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200025 China. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #26878893.

ABSTRACT: A large number of articles have reported substantia nigra hyperechogenicity in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of transcranial sonography (TCS); however, the conclusions are discrepant. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis aims to consolidate the available observational studies and provide a comprehensive evaluation of the clinical utility of TCS in PD. Totally, 31 studies containing 4,386 participants from 13 countries were included. A random effects model was utilized to pool the effect sizes. Meta-regression and sensitivity analysis were performed to explore potential heterogeneity. Overall diagnostic accuracy of TCS in differentiating PD from normal controls was quite high, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.81-0.85) and a pooled specificity of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.85-0.88). The positive likelihood ratio, the negative likelihood ratio and diagnostic odds ratio were calculated 6.94 (95% CI: 5.09-9.48), 0.19 (95% CI: 0.16-0.23), and 42.89 (95% CI: 30.03-61.25) respectively. Our systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis suggest that TCS has high diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis of PD when compared to healthy control.

18 Review TCM, brain function and drug space. 2016

Tang, Chunping / Ye, Yang / Feng, Yunjiang / Quinn, Ronald J. ·Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia. r.quinn@griffith.edu.au and State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. · State Key Laboratory of Drug Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China and Eskitis-SIMM Joint Laboratory for Drug Discovery, Australia. · Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University, Brisbane, QLD 4111, Australia. r.quinn@griffith.edu.au and Eskitis-SIMM Joint Laboratory for Drug Discovery, Australia. ·Nat Prod Rep · Pubmed #26583936.

ABSTRACT: Covering: up to 2015. Traditional Chinese medicine has played a significant role in the mainstream healthcare system in China for thousands of years. Here, we summarize 84 major compounds from 15 selected herbal medicines targeting neurodegenerative diseases. We present a perspective based on the analysis of physicochemical properties of these TCM compounds, and comparison with current drugs and candidates for the treatment of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. The results demonstrate that traditional Chinese medicines contain compounds possessing physicochemical properties that have excellent overlap with developed western medicines.

19 Review Cognitive motor intervention for gait and balance in Parkinson's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. 2016

Wang, Xue-Qiang / Pi, Yan-Ling / Chen, Bing-Lin / Wang, Ru / Li, Xin / Chen, Pei-Jie. ·Sport Medicine & Rehabilitation Center, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China. · Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Shanghai Punan Hospital, Shanghai, China. · Sport Medicine & Rehabilitation Center, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China chenpeijie@sus.edu.cn. ·Clin Rehabil · Pubmed #25872519.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of cognitive motor intervention (CMI) on gait and balance in Parkinson's disease. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, PEDro, and China Biology Medicine disc. METHODS: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non RCTs. Two reviewers independently evaluated articles for eligibility and quality and serially abstracted data. A standardized mean difference ± standard error and 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated for each study using Hedge's g to quantify the treatment effect. RESULTS: Nine trials with 181 subjects, four randomized controlled trials, and five single group intervention studies were included. The pooling revealed that cognitive motor intervention can improve gait speed (Hedge's g = 0.643 ± 0.191; 95% CI: 0.269 to 1.017, P = 0.001), stride time (Hedge's g = -0.536 ± 0.167; 95% CI: -0.862 to -0.209, P = 0.001), Berg Balance Scale (Hedge's g = 0.783 ± 0.289; 95% CI: 0.218 to 1.349, P = 0.007), Unipedal Stance Test (Hedge's g = 0.440 ± 0.189; 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.81, P =0.02). CONCLUSIONS: The systematic review demonstrates that cognitive motor intervention is effective for gait and balance in Parkinson's disease. However, the paper is limited by the quality of the included trials.

20 Review Human induced pluripotent stem cells in Parkinson's disease: A novel cell source of cell therapy and disease modeling. 2015

Li, Wen / Chen, Shengdi / Li, Jia-Yi. ·Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025, China; Neural Plasticity and Repair Unit, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, BMC A10, 221 84 Lund, Sweden. · Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No. 197, Rui Jin Er Road, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address: chen_sd@medmail.com.cn. · Institute of Neuroscience, College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang, China; Neural Plasticity and Repair Unit, Wallenberg Neuroscience Center, Lund University, BMC A10, 221 84 Lund, Sweden. Electronic address: jia-yi.li@med.lu.se. ·Prog Neurobiol · Pubmed #26408505.

ABSTRACT: Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are two novel cell sources for studying neurodegenerative diseases. Dopaminergic neurons derived from hiPSCs/hESCs have been implicated to be very useful in Parkinson's disease (PD) research, including cell replacement therapy, disease modeling and drug screening. Recently, great efforts have been made to improve the application of hiPSCs/hESCs in PD research. Considerable advances have been made in recent years, including advanced reprogramming strategies without the use of viruses or using fewer transcriptional factors, optimized methods for generating highly homogeneous neural progenitors with a larger proportion of mature dopaminergic neurons and better survival and integration after transplantation. Here we outline the progress that has been made in these aspects in recent years, particularly during the last year, and also discuss existing issues that need to be addressed.

21 Review Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression in Parkinson disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. 2015

Xie, Cheng-Long / Chen, Jie / Wang, Xiao-Dan / Pan, Jia-Lin / Zhou, Yi / Lin, Shi-Yi / Xue, Xiao-Dong / Wang, Wen-Wen. ·The center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 325027, Wenzhou, China. · Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to the Medical School of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, 200092, Shanghai, China. · Department of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital North Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 201801, Shanghai, China. · The Center of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 325027, Wenzhou, China. · Department of Neurology, Cang Nan County Hospital, 325027, Wenzhou, China. · The center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, 325027, Wenzhou, China. www15968766812@163.com. ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #26209930.

ABSTRACT: The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson disease in order to arrive at qualitative and quantitative conclusions about the efficacy of rTMS. We included randomized controlled trials examining the effects of rTMS compared with sham-rTMS or selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The quality of included studies was strictly evaluated. Data analyses were performed using the RevMan5.1 software. Eight studies including 312 patients met all inclusion criteria. The results showed that rTMS could evidently improve the HRSD score compared with sham-rTMS (p < 0.00001). However, we found similar antidepressant efficacy between rTMS and SSRIs groups in terms of HRSD and BDI score (p = 0.65; p = 0.75, respectively). Furthermore, patients who received rTMS could evidently show improvement on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), ADL score, and UPDRS motor score compared with sham-rTMS or SSRIs (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively). The subgroup analysis by frequency of rTMS evidenced that the efficacy of low-frequency rTMS was superior to sham-rTMS (p < 0.0001) in terms of the outcome measure according to HAMD scale. Meanwhile, the high-frequency rTMS has the same antidepressant efficacy as SSRIs (p = 0.94). The current meta-analysis provided evidence that rTMS was superior to sham-rTMS and had similar antidepressant efficacy as SSRIs, and may have the additional advantage of some improvement in motor function.

22 Review Epigenetic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. 2015

Feng, Ya / Jankovic, Joseph / Wu, Yun-Cheng. ·Department of Neurology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, PR China. · Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic, Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. · Department of Neurology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200080, PR China. Electronic address: yunchw@medmail.com.cn. ·J Neurol Sci · Pubmed #25553963.

ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disease, but its pathogenesis is not fully understood. The selective neuronal cell death in PD has been considered to result from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors, but the nature of the relationship between the two chief modifiers remains to be elucidated. There is a growing body of evidence supporting the role of epigenetics in the development and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases including PD. Epigenetic modification refers to changes in gene expression or function without changes in DNA sequence, which mainly includes DNA methylation, post-modifications of histone, and non-coding RNAs. In this review, we will focus on the abnormal epigenetic modifications involved in the pathogenesis of PD and their implications for the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

23 Review Continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS)-based treatment in Parkinson's disease patients with motor complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2014

Xie, Cheng-long / Wang, Wen-Wen / Zhang, Su-Fang / Gan, Jing / Liu, Zhen-Guo. ·Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to the Medical School of Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200092, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai, China. · The center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the second affiliated hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou 325027, China. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #25113733.

ABSTRACT: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify randomized trials involving continuous dopaminergic stimulation (CDS) in PD patients with motor complications. Difference between n groups was assessed by partitioning heterogeneity and using the χ2 distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom, where n equals the number of groups. We looked for publication bias using funnel plotting, Egger's test and Begg's test. Twenty Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were included. The results showed that CDS could evidently improve the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II (p < 0.0001), part III (P < 0.00001) and UPDRS total score (p < 0.00001). There was also a statistical discrepancy in off time reduction (p < 0.00001) and prolongation of on time (p < 0.00001) by the CDS therapy compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the results of this study showed obvious side effects in the CDS therapy compared with the placebo, especially at the expense of increased dyskinesia (23.4% vs 11.7%). The present study showed that CDS was beneficial in the treatment of PD patients with motor complications. But the incidence of the side events is more common than placebo.

24 Review The association between the LRRK2 G2385R variant and the risk of Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis based on 23 case-control studies. 2014

Xie, Cheng-Long / Pan, Jia-Lin / Wang, Wen-Wen / Zhang, Yu / Zhang, Su-Fang / Gan, Jing / Liu, Zhen-Guo. ·Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. ·Neurol Sci · Pubmed #25027012.

ABSTRACT: Clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is essential but misdiagnosis of PD-like diseases is quite common. LRRK2 G2385R variants have been extensively examined for the association to the risk of Parkinson's disease. However, results from different studies are inconsistent. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between the LRRK2 G2385R variants and the risk of PD. A systematic literature search was performed for 6 databases up to January of 2014 to identify case-control studies involving LRRK2 G2385R variants and the risk of PD. A total of 12,915 cases and 12,451 controls in 23 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results indicated that the variant A allele carriers (GA + AA) increased risk of PD when compared with the homozygote GG (GA + AA vs. GG: OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.97 to 2.92, P < 0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, increased risks were identified among Chinese (OR = 2.69, 95 % CI = 2.1-3.45, P < 0.00001) as well as in non-Chinese (OR = 2.17, 95 % CI 1.75-2.69, P < 0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by age of onset, significant associations were found in both later-onset PD (LOPD) and early-onset PD (EOPD) cases. And there was no significant difference of the allele frequency between patients with LOPD and EOPD (OR = 1.18, 95 % CI = 0.77-1.80, P = 0.45). Our results suggest that the LRRK2 G2385R variants contribute to the susceptibility of PD especially in Chinese PD. Meanwhile, it is possible that age is not the risk factor to facilitate G2385R gene mutation.

25 Review Quantified self and human movement: a review on the clinical impact of wearable sensing and feedback for gait analysis and intervention. 2014

Shull, Pete B / Jirattigalachote, Wisit / Hunt, Michael A / Cutkosky, Mark R / Delp, Scott L. ·State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address: pshull@sjtu.edu.cn. · Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. · Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. · Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. ·Gait Posture · Pubmed #24768525.

ABSTRACT: The proliferation of miniaturized electronics has fueled a shift toward wearable sensors and feedback devices for the mass population. Quantified self and other similar movements involving wearable systems have gained recent interest. However, it is unclear what the clinical impact of these enabling technologies is on human gait. The purpose of this review is to assess clinical applications of wearable sensing and feedback for human gait and to identify areas of future research. Four electronic databases were searched to find articles employing wearable sensing or feedback for movements of the foot, ankle, shank, thigh, hip, pelvis, and trunk during gait. We retrieved 76 articles that met the inclusion criteria and identified four common clinical applications: (1) identifying movement disorders, (2) assessing surgical outcomes, (3) improving walking stability, and (4) reducing joint loading. Characteristics of knee and trunk motion were the most frequent gait parameters for both wearable sensing and wearable feedback. Most articles performed testing on healthy subjects, and the most prevalent patient populations were osteoarthritis, vestibular loss, Parkinson's disease, and post-stroke hemiplegia. The most widely used wearable sensors were inertial measurement units (accelerometer and gyroscope packaged together) and goniometers. Haptic (touch) and auditory were the most common feedback sensations. This review highlights the current state of the literature and demonstrates substantial potential clinical benefits of wearable sensing and feedback. Future research should focus on wearable sensing and feedback in patient populations, in natural human environments outside the laboratory such as at home or work, and on continuous, long-term monitoring and intervention.

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