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Prostatic Neoplasms: HELP
Articles from Hungary
Based on 104 articles published since 2009

These are the 104 published articles about Prostatic Neoplasms that originated from Hungary during 2009-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5
1 Editorial New Insights into Diagnosis and Treatment of Renal Cell Carcinoma, Bladder Cancer, and Prostate Cancer. 2017

Chlosta, Piotr L / Golabek, Tomasz / Nyirády, Péter. ·Department of Urology, Jagiellonian University in Krakow, ul. Grzegorzecka 18, 31-531 Krakow, Poland. · Department of Urology and Centre for Urooncology, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 78/b, Budapest 1082, Hungary. ·Biomed Res Int · Pubmed #28386561.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Editorial Cancer and thrombosis: a fresh look at an old story. 2015

Bagoly, Zsuzsa. ·Division of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, University of Debrecen, Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen, Hungary. Electronic address: bagoly@med.unideb.hu. ·Thromb Res · Pubmed #25971660.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

3 Review Molecular Mechanisms and Bioavailability of Polyphenols in Prostate Cancer. 2019

Costea, Teodora / Nagy, Péter / Ganea, Constanța / Szöllősi, János / Mocanu, Maria-Magdalena. ·Department of Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Phytotherapy, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania. teodora.costea@umfcd.ro. · Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary. nagyp@med.unideb.hu. · Department of Biophysics, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania. constanta.ganea@gmail.com. · Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary. szollo@med.unideb.hu. · MTA-DE Cell Biology and Signaling Research Group, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, 4032 Debrecen, Hungary. szollo@med.unideb.hu. · Department of Biophysics, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 020021 Bucharest, Romania. magda.mocanu@umfcd.ro. ·Int J Mol Sci · Pubmed #30823649.

ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among men over the age of 50. Several lines of evidence support the observation that polyphenols have preventive and therapeutic effects in prostate cancer. Moreover, prostate cancer is ideal for chemoprevention due to its long latency. We propose here an equilibrated lifestyle with a diet rich in polyphenols as prophylactic attempts to slow down the progression of localized prostate cancer or prevent the occurrence of the disease. In this review, we will first summarize the molecular mechanisms of polyphenols in prostate cancer with a focus on the antioxidant and pro-oxidant effects, androgen receptors (AR), key molecules involved in AR signaling and their transactivation pathways, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis, metastasis, genetic aspects, and epigenetic mechanisms. The relevance of the molecular mechanisms is discussed in light of current bioavailability data regarding the activity of polyphenols in prostate cancer. We also highlight strategies for improving the bioavailability of polyphenols. We hope that this review will lead to further research regarding the bioavailability and the role of polyphenols in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

4 Review [Modern treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer]. 2018

Küronya, Zsófia / Bíró, Krisztina / Géczi, Lajos / Maráz, Anikó. ·"C" Belgyógyászati, Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet Budapest, Ráth Gy. u. 7-9., 1122. · Onkoterápiás Klinika, Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Szeged. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #30295043.

ABSTRACT: The treatment of metastatic prostate cancer can be divided into two pathophysiological phases: hormone-sensitive and castration-resistant phases. Huggins' observation in the year 1941, which was awarded with the Nobel Prize in 1966, has a key role in treatment during the hormone-sensitive phase, stating that if the testicles are removed, the size of the prostate cancer decreases. Inducing androgen deprivation, i.e., testosterone depletion is the basic treatment of metastatic prostate cancer that patients have to receive life-long. In the past eight years, five new agents have been approved besides docetaxel in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, and radium-223. With the sequential application of these agents, significant improvement can be achieved in survival. Besides the latest developments, the hormone-sensitive phase has become the focus of attention, especially in the treatment of patients with de novo metastases and poor prognosis. Many studies have proven the outstanding efficacy of adding early docetaxel and abiraterone to androgen deprivation therapy. The authors give a detailed overview of clinical studies leading to a paradigm change in treatment during the hormone-sensitive phase, and call attention to the difficulties encountered in Hungarian practice. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(41): 1664-1671.

5 Review The Colorful Palette of Neuroendocrine Neoplasms in the Genitourinary Tract. 2018

Pósfai, Boglárka / Kuthi, Levente / Varga, Linda / Laczó, Ibolya / Révész, János / Kránicz, Réka / Maráz, Anikó. ·Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Department of Pathology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary. · Pándy Kálmán Hospital Gyula, Gyula, Hungary. · Institute of Radiotherapy and Clinical Oncology, Borsod County Hospital and University Academic Hospital, Miskolc, Hungary. · Department of Oncotherapy, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary dr.aniko.maraz@gmail.com. ·Anticancer Res · Pubmed #29848671.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine neoplasms include a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors. Primary neuroendocrine tumors in the genitourinary tract are rare, comprising approximately 1-2% of genitourinary malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An extensive search was performed for publications between 2000 and 2018 regarding neuroendocrine tumors of the genitourinary tract. Epidemiological, clinical, histopathological, prognostic and therapeutic data were evaluated. RESULTS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the kidneys are exceedingly rare, mostly well-differentiated. 0.5-1% of all primary bladder malignancies are small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas. Characteristically, prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation occurs in androgen receptor-independent/castrate-resistant cancer. Small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas are the most aggressive tumors in each location. CONCLUSION: Due to the rarity and poor prognosis of these tumors, proper pathological diagnosis and early therapy are important. Therapeutic guidelines are not available. Surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy are possible treatment options; somatostatin analogs are used as standard therapy in case of well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors.

6 Review Cost-effectiveness analysis of intensity-modulated radiation therapy with normal and hypofractionated schemes for the treatment of localised prostate cancer. 2018

Zemplényi, A T / Kaló, Z / Kovács, G / Farkas, R / Beöthe, T / Bányai, D / Sebestyén, Z / Endrei, D / Boncz, I / Mangel, L. ·Institute for Health Insurance, University of Pécs, Mária u. 5-7., Pécs, Hungary. · Department of Health Policy and Economics, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/a., Budapest, Hungary. · Syreon Research Center, Thököly út 119., Budapest, Hungary. · Medical Center of the University of Pécs, Oncology Center, Édesanyák útja 17., Pécs, Hungary. · Medical Center of the University of Pécs, Urology Clinic, Munkácsy M. u. 2., Pécs, Hungary. · Urology Clinic, Medical Center of the University of Pécs, Munkácsy M. u. 2., Pécs, Hungary. ·Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) · Pubmed #26782759.

ABSTRACT: The aim of our analysis was to compare the cost-effectiveness of high-dose intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (HF-IMRT) versus conventional dose three-dimensional radiation therapy (3DCRT) for the treatment of localised prostate cancer. A Markov model was constructed to calculate the incremental quality-adjusted life years and costs. Transition probabilities, adverse events and utilities were derived from relevant systematic reviews. Microcosting in a large university hospital was applied to calculate cost vectors. The expected mean lifetime cost of patients undergoing 3DCRT, IMRT and HF-IMRT were 7,160 euros, 6,831 euros and 6,019 euros respectively. The expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 5.753 for 3DCRT, 5.956 for IMRT and 5.957 for HF-IMRT. Compared to 3DCRT, both IMRT and HF-IMRT resulted in more health gains at a lower cost. It can be concluded that high-dose IMRT is not only cost-effective compared to the conventional dose 3DCRT but, when used with a hypofractionation scheme, it has great cost-saving potential for the public payer and may improve access to radiation therapy for patients.

7 Review [The role of steroids in oncological practice]. 2017

Küronya, Zsófia / Géczi, Lajos / Gyergyay, Fruzsina / Bíró, Krisztina. ·"C" Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet Budapest, Ráth Gy. u. 7-9., 1122. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #29037061.

ABSTRACT: Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced and disengage in the adrenal cortex. Traditionally natural and synthetic corticosteroids are used for diagnosing and treating dysfunctions of the adrenal cortex and treating inflammatory and immunological diseases. Their use is also widespread in oncological practice. Corticosteroids are indispensable in palliative care, in certain urgent oncological cases, as premedication of some chemotherapies and last but not least they have a key role in the secondary hormonal manipulations of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. The purpose of our review is to describe and compare the effects of different agents in oncological practice, to give a detailed account of the above mentioned indications and would also like to draw attention to the possible side effects of a long-term steroid treatment. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(42): 1651-1657.

8 Review [Androgen receptor-mediated processes in castrate-resistant metastatic prostate cancer]. 2017

Küronya, Zsófia / Bíró, Krisztina / Gyergyay, Fruzsina / Géczi, Lajos. ·"C" Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet Budapest, Ráth György u. 7-9., 1122. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #28088885.

ABSTRACT: In the past six years, five new drugs have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. While the disease itself still remains incurable, the sequential use of these drugs can significantly prolong survival while maintaining good quality of life. Research from the past decade made it clear that androgen receptor-mediated processes play a central part in the progression of the disease. Hormonal mechanisms related to androgen-receptors can remain active until late stages of the disease. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms has led to the introduction of new endocrine therapies, which resulted in a change of the nomenclature. The identification and remodelling of androgen receptor mutations that are responsible for primary and secondary resistance developing during the new therapies can pave the way to new and more efficient androgen receptor inhibitor treatments. The aim of the review is to present the pathophysiology of the androgen receptor signaling axis at the receptor level, to review FDA-approved drugs and to draw attention to the most promising developments in the treatment of this disease. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 42-49.

9 Review [Novelties in diagnostics and treatment of prostate cancer]. 2016

Riesz, Péter / Nyírádi, Péter. ·Urológiai Klinika és Uroonkológiai Centrum, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Budapest, Üllői út 78/B, 1082. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #26947089.

ABSTRACT: Similarly to earlier years, a vast majority of novel findings were published on prostate cancer, which is the most common urological cancer. Clinical trials with long-term follow-up and promising observational studies were published. In this paper the author reviews the relevant novelties including the diagnostic use of magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography as well as active surveillance, cytoreductive prostatectomy and medical treatment.

10 Review [Diagnostic problems and prognostic factors in prostate cancer]. 2016

Tarján, Miklós. ·Multidiszciplináris Orvostudományok Doktori Iskola, Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Szeged, Hungary. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #26934354.

ABSTRACT: We aimed to refine the methodology for discriminating ductal (DAP) and acinar adenocarcinomas (AAP) of the prostate preoperatively with a high degree of accuracy, and confirm that prostate carcinoma of ductal origin is a more aggressive subtype. Moreover, we intended to evaluate the clinical utility of transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic sextant or octant biopsies in prediction of extracapsular extension (ECE) at radical prostatectomy. A blinded retrospective analysis of 3-dimensional histology specimens from 110 consecutive radical prostatectomy (RP) cases operated between 2000 and 2006 was carried out (average follow-up: 5.1 years). The samples were also analyzed for 9 different biomarkers. We performed a retrospective analysis of 84 cases of patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic sextant (in 60 cases) or octant (in 24 cases) biopsy. The presence of ECE was correlated to the number of positive biopsies on each side of the prostate by chi-square analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated for both positive (two or three positive biopsies per side) and negative (no or only one positive biopsy per side) test results. The number of positive cores was thereafter combined with two other parameters: prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Gleason score. 3-dimensional and conventional histology classified 97 cases of AAP and 13 cases of DAP. DAP cases had a significantly greater frequency of pT3a and more advanced cancers (p<0.0001), >20 mm tumor focus (p=0.0020), highgrade PIN (p=0.0079), Gleason score ≥7 (p<0.0001), positive surgical margin (p=0.0219), ECE (p<0.0001), vascular invasion (p=0.0033), seminal vesicle infiltration (p=0.0213), biochemical/local recurrence (p=0.0015), regional lymph node metastases and distant metastases (p<0.0001). Three biomarkers in combination (chromogranine A, EGFR, p53) distinguished DAP from AAP with an accuracy of 94% (AUC 0.94; 95% CI: 0.88-0.99). ECE was evidenced at RP in 24% (20/84) of the patients. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the number of positive biopsies and presence of ECE. Analysis of the 168 prostate sides and dominant sides revealed that systematic needle biopsies had a positive predictive value of 46.7% and 37% and a negative predictive value of 89%, and 94%, respectively. Combination of parameters (biopsy Gleason score ≥7 vs. <7, PSA >10 ng/ml vs. ≤10 ng/ml and more than one positive cores vs. 0 or 1 positives) identified patients at high or low risk of ECE, respectively. On the extremes, with only lowrisk parameters none of the 10 patients, while 77% of those with high-risk group had ECE at RP. Both 3-dimensional histology and the three selected biomarkers can accurately distinguish DAP from AAP. This discriminatory ability offers AAP cases less radical treatment regimens and emphasizes the need to develop more effective treatment regimens for DAP cases. The probability of ECE at radical prostatectomy can be accurately predicted based on the number of positive sextant and octant biopsies, solely or in combination with other parameters.

11 Review [Immunotherapy in the treatment of genitourinary cancers]. 2016

Géczi, Lajos / Ladányi, Andrea / Vajdics, Tímea / Küronya, Zsófia / Bíró, Krisztina / Gyergyay, Fruzsina / Martin, Tamás / Nagyiványi, Krisztián. ·Kemoterápia C Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. gelajos@oncol.hu. · Sebészeti és Molekuláris Patológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #26934350.

ABSTRACT: In this clinical review we provide information regarding advance and main achievements in the immunotherapy of genitourinary, particularly renal cell and prostate cancer. Nivolumab treatment became the new standard of care in locally advanced or metastatic renal cell cancer after failure on tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Sipuleucel-T prolonged survival in patients with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer but had no effect on progression-free survival. Based on the results of phase I/II trials anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies are a new hope in the treatment of urothelial bladder cancer. Regarding germ cell tumors basic research is ongoing.

12 Review Current State of ERG as Biomarker in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma. 2015

Acs, Balazs / Szarvas, Tibor / Szekely, Nora / Nyirady, Peter / Szasz, A Marcell. ·2nd Department of Pathology, Semmelweis University Budapest, 93 Ulloi ut, Budapest 1091, Hungary. cac@korb2.sote.hu. ·Curr Cancer Drug Targets · Pubmed #26452381.

ABSTRACT: In this review we briefly discuss the possible biomarkers of prostate cancer among them we focus and analyze the relevance of TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene in line with ERG expression in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Starting at diagnosis and genetic alterations in prostate carcinomas, we examine the incidence and detection of the most common genetic aberration in this tumor and its protein product as well. We also examined the correlation of clinicopathological factors and prognosis with ERG and the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion oncogene and ERG expression as predictive markers.

13 Review [Treatment strategies for advanced prostate cancer]. 2015

Küronya, Zsófia / Bíró, Krisztina / Géczi, Lajos / Németh, Hajnalka. ·C Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #26339912.

ABSTRACT: There has been dramatic improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer recently. The treatment of localized disease became more successful with the application of new, sophisticated techniques available for urologic surgeons and radiotherapists. Nevertheless a significant proportion of patients relapses after the initial local treatment or is diagnosed with metastatic disease at the beginning. In the past five years, six new drugs became registered for the treatment of metastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, such as sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, the α-emitting radionuclide alpharadin and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand inhibitor denosumab. The availability of these new treatment options raises numerous questions. In this review we present the standard of care of metastatic prostate cancer by disease stage (hormone naive/ hormone sensitive metastatic prostate cancer, non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, oligometastatic/multimetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer) and the emerging treatment modalities presently assessed in clinical trials. We would also like to give advice on debatable aspects of the management of metastatic prostate cancer.

14 Review [New trends and novel possibilities in the management of oncologic patients: clinical uses of PET/MRI]. 2015

Borbély, Katalin. ·PET/CT Ambulancia, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. katalin.borbely@oncol.hu. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25763908.

ABSTRACT: The most recent multimodality technique, the hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) combines two very different technologies, which is a great result of human creativity. The combined PET/MRI has significant potentials in clinical oncology providing new perspectives of functional and anatomical information. PET/MRI offers simultaneous measurements of multifunctional data such as PET mapping by different specific tracers or MRI morphologic, MR molecular (MR spectroscopy, MRS), or MR functional (fMR) information of a living system.

15 Review [New challenges and earlier approved methods in the laboratory diagnosis of prostate cancer]. 2014

Kovács, Gábor L. ·Laboratóriumi Medicina Intézet és Szentágothai János Kutatóintézet, Pécsi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Pécs, Hungary. kovacs.l.gabor@pte.hu. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25517448.

ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is usually a disease of elderly men, however, over 40 years of age the tumor can appear at any times. PSA is a protein molecule synthesized by prostate cells. Measurement of serum PSA has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. However, PSA is not sufficiently specific for the detection of prostate cancer, since serum PSA might also be elevated in benign prostate diseases, as well as following physical stimulation of the gland (digital rectal examination, biopsy, catheterization, or even ejaculation). To increase the specificity of PSA, different derivative parameters have been developed i.e. PSA density (ratio of PSA to prostate volume), PSA velocity (change of PSA over a time period) or age-specific reference ranges. 65-95% of circulating PSA is bound to different proteins, while the rest of PSA circulates in a non-bound form (free PSA, fPSA). In addition to fPSA, the prostate health index [phi; (-2)proPSA/fPSA×√PSA] is increasingly used to differentiate between carcinoma-induced and non-carcinoma-induced increase in PSA. PCA3 is a non-coding messenger RNA, which is 60-70-fold overexpressed by cancer cells in the prostate. Measurement of urine PCA3 appears to be more sensitive than %tPSA, and is independent of prostate volume, age or tPSA. The author reviews laboratory biomarkers related to prostate cancer, used either in the routine clinical practice, or in research. Laboratory biomarkers seem to be useful tools to reduce the incidence of advanced stage, or metastatic prostate cancer, and the cancer-related death rate. A promising perspective for the future is the detection of circulating prostate cancer cells and the profiling of microRNAs, especially on the field of tumor prognosis.

16 Review [Novelties and new possibilities in radiological diagnostics of tumors of the prostate, seminal vesicle, testicle and penis]. 2014

Baranyai, Tibor. ·Röntgen és Izotópdiagnosztikai Osztály, Soproni Erzsébet Oktató Kórház és Rehabilitációs Intézet, Sopron, Hungary. baranyai.tibor@sopronigyogykozpont.hu. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25517447.

ABSTRACT: This review analyses the opportunities granted by diagnostic imaging of cancers of the urinary bladder, prostate gland, seminal vesicle, testicle and penis. The author discusses in details the value and role of the various procedures in early detection, characterization of tumors and in determination of the exact tumor staging. All these support the selection of the optimal patient-specific treatment, then the assessment of the efficacy of therapy.

17 Review [Bone-targeted treatment in prostate cancer]. 2014

Géczi, Lajos / Sinkovics, István. ·Kemoterápia C Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. gelajos@oncol.hu. · Nukleáris Medicina Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25260084.

ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men. In case of metastatic disease, bone manifestation is presented in 85-90% of the patients. The new targeted treatments are the denosumab RANK-ligand monoclonal antibody and Ra-223-chloride radioisotope therapy. This paper summarizes the treatment possibilities of bone metastasis and presents the results of phase III trials of denosumab and Ra-223-chloride. The upcoming change in financial support underlines the actuality of this paper.

18 Review [Clinical efficacy and safety of enzalutamide in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis]. 2014

Brodszky, Valentin / Péntek, Márta / Baji, Petra / Rencz, Fanni / Géczi, Lajos / Szûcs, Miklós / Berczi, Csaba / Gulácsi, László. ·Egészségügyi Közgazdaságtan Tanszék, Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary. valentin.brodszky@uni-corvinus.hu. · Klinikai Orvostudományok Doktori Iskola, Semmelweis Egyetem, Budapest, Hungary. · C Belgyógyászati-Onkológiai és Klinikai Farmakológiai Osztály, Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. · Urológiai Klinika és Uroonkológiai Centrum, Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Budapest, Hungary. · Urológiai Klinika, Debreceni Egyetem Orvos- és Egészségtudományi Centrum, Debrecen, Hungary. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25260083.

ABSTRACT: Enzalutamide, abiraterone-acetate, and cabazitaxel are licensed post-docetaxel treatments of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in Hungary. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy and safety of post-docetaxel enzalutamide treatment and to compare it with abiraterone and with cabazitaxel, using Medline-based systematic literature search, and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT). Overall 3 RCTs were included, one for each substance. Compared to placebo, enzalutamide proved significant efficacy in each primary and secondary endpoint. Enzalutamide extended median overall survival by 4.8 months. Due to lack of a common comparator in the cabazitaxel trial, only enzalutamide and abiraterone were involved in an indirect comparison. No significant difference was identified either in the primary endpoint (overall survival) (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.75-1.25) or in frequencies of adverse events between these two treatments. However, enzalutamide was significantly more efficacious than abiraterone in 3 secondary endpoints: time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression (HR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.31-0.59), radiographic progression-free survival (HR: 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.72), and PSA response rate (RR: 7.48, 95% CI: 2.83-19.72). Enzalutamide therapy proved clinical efficacy and safety in patients with post-docetaxel mCRPC. In the indirect comparison, efficacy and safety of abiraterone and enzalutamide were found to be similar.

19 Review [Molecular classification of urogenital cancers]. 2014

Tímár, József. ·2. Sz. Patológiai Intézet, Semmelweis Egyetem, Klinikai Központ, Budapest, Hungary. jtimar@gmail.com. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #25260078.

ABSTRACT: The molecular genetic dogma is valid that the histological variants of a given cancer represent genetic variants. Basis of this subclassification is known in clear cell renal cancer but still a mistery in prostate or bladder cancers. Meanwhile another genetic dogma developed recently that a given histological variant of a cancer can further be subdivided based on molecular characteristics. Best examples are clear cell renal cancer, adenocarcinoma of the prostate or transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. This new knowledge helps in the differential diagnostics of cancer, and in determining prognosis, but also provides an opportunity to better tailor existing therapies even to consider novel target agents. Discovery of the molecular subtypes of cancers (such as leukemia or lung adenocarcinoma) contributed significantly to the extension of the progression-free or overall survival of cancer patients, and it is expected that it could lead to similar effects in case of urogenital cancers.

20 Review Sexually transmitted infections and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 2014

Caini, Saverio / Gandini, Sara / Dudas, Maria / Bremer, Viviane / Severi, Ettore / Gherasim, Alin. ·Unit of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute for Cancer Research and Prevention (ISPO), Italy. Electronic address: saverio.caini@gmail.com. · Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy. · Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, National Center for Epidemiology, Budapest, Hungary. · Division for HIV/AIDS, STI and Blood-Borne Infections, Department for Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany. · South East Regional Epidemiology Unit, Health Protection Agency, London, UK. · Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, Solna, Sweden. ·Cancer Epidemiol · Pubmed #24986642.

ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PC) is the second most incident cancer and the sixth cause of death by cancer in men worldwide. Despite extensive research efforts, no modifiable risk factors have been consistently identified for PC risk. A number of studies have focused on possible relationships between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and PC. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between infection caused by Neisseria gonorrheae, Treponema pallidum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Herpes Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Human Herpes Virus 8 and Cytomegalovirus, and PC. We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of medical literature to identify relevant studies. We calculated summary relative risk (SRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between each STI and PC through random effect models. Subgroup, meta-regression and sensitivity analyses were carried out to detect between-study heterogeneity and bias. We included 47 studies published between 1971 and 2011. Men who reported having ever had any STI in lifetime had an increased PC (SRR 1.49, 95% CI 1.19-1.92). We found a significantly increased PC risk in men having had gonorrhoea (SRR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37). No other single STI was significantly associated with PC. Due to high incidence of both STIs and PC worldwide, prevention of STIs may help preventing a considerable number of PC cases.

21 Review [The economic burden of prostate cancer. A systematic literature overview of registry-based studies]. 2014

Rencz, Fanni / Brodszky, Valentin / Varga, Péter / Gajdácsi, József / Nyirády, Péter / Gulácsi, László. ·Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem Egészségügyi Közgazdaságtan Tanszék Budapest Fővám tér 8. 1093 Semmelweis Egyetem Klinikai Orvostudományok Doktori Iskola Budapest. · Semmelweis Egyetem Klinikai Orvostudományok Doktori Iskola Budapest. · Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár Elemzési, Orvosszakértői és Szakmai Ellenőrzési Főosztály Budapest. · Országos Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár Budapest. · Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Urológiai Klinika és Uroonkológiai Centrum Budapest. · Budapesti Corvinus Egyetem Egészségügyi Közgazdaságtan Tanszék Budapest Fővám tér 8. 1093. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #24659744.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer, the most frequent malignant disease in males in Europe, accounts for a great proportion of health expenditures. AIM: A systematic review of registry-based studies about the cost-of-illness and related factors of prostate cancer, published in the last 10 years. METHOD: A MEDLINE-based literature review was carried out between January 1, 2003 and October 1, 2013. RESULTS: Fifteen peer-reviewed articles met the criteria of interest. In developed countries radiotherapy, surgical treatment and hormone therapy account for the greatest per capita costs. In Europe early stage tumours (4-7000 €, 2006), while in the USA metastatic prostate cancer (19 900-25 500 $, 2004) was associated with highest per capita expenses. In Europe the greatest costs incurred within the initial treatment (6400 €/6 months, 2008), while in the USA within the end-of-life care (depending on age: 62 200-93 400 $, 2010). CONCLUSIONS: Despite public health importance of prostate cancer, the cost-of-illness literature from Europe is relatively small.

22 Review [Management of bone metastases]. 2014

Nagykálnai, Tamás / Landherr, László. ·Nyírő Gyula Kórház Budapest. · Uzsoki utcai Kórház Budapest. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #24486845.

ABSTRACT: The skeleton is the most common site to be affected by advanced breast, prostatic, lung, kidney, thyroid and other solid tumors (in addition to myeloma multiplex). Bone metastases cause significant morbidity with nearly always fatal outcome. Over 600 000 new patients diagnosed in the developed countries yearly. On average every 4-6 months patients suffer from series of severe skeletal complications such as pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, hypercalcemic events, etc., besides the permanent pain. Local external beam radiotherapy, systemic radioisotope-, endocrine-, and chemotherapy, oral and i.v. bisphosphonates and recently s.c. denosumab are the mainstays of treatment, in addition to pain-killers and other usual "classical" interventions. The modern treatments singificantly reduce the probability of skeletal complications and improve the patients' quality of life and, sometimes, they extend the survival as well. The authors briefly summarize the available treatment options.

23 Review [Why is PET/CT essential in urooncology?]. 2013

Borbély, Katalin / Géczi, Lajos / Kásler, Miklós. ·Országos Onkológiai Intézet, Budapest, Hungary. katalin.borbely@oncol.hu. ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #24353995.

ABSTRACT: The wide use of molecular positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging in the tumor diagnostics has been playing an important role recently. The clinical role of hybrid imaging (PET/CT, single photon ECT/CT (SPECT/CT)) is growing continuously due to the simultaneous imaging of anatomy and function. Regarding oncology the role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET is proved in several clinical questions, including urooncology. Urologic cancers are associated with low or slightly significant uptake of FDG, due to their more benign behaviour. However, alternative PET tracers have been developed which show promising clinical results and hopefully, in the near future the combination of different tracers are awaited. Additionally, in the future the use of multiparametric measurements, multitracer techniques, and the multimodal PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) technology is going to have a crucial clinical role.

24 Review [Is physical activity an elixir?]. 2013

Lacza, Gyöngyvér / Radák, Zsolt. ·Semmelweis Egyetem Testnevelési és Sporttudományi Kar Budapest Alkotás út 44. 1123. ·Orv Hetil · Pubmed #23666022.

ABSTRACT: Physical exercise has systemic effects, and it can regulate all the organs. The relative maximal aerobic oxygen uptake (VO2max) could have been important in the evolution of humans, since higher VO2max meant better hunting abilities for the Stone Age man. However, it appears that high level of VO2max is also important today, in the 21st century to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. High level of VO2max is not just preventive against a wide spectrum of diseases, but it associated with better function of many organs. Relevant data suggest that high level of VO2max is a key factor in prevention of diseases and survival even at the modern civilized world.

25 Review [The treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer]. 2012

Petrányi, Ágota. ·Onkológiai Osztály, Egyesített Szent István és Szent László Kórház, Budapest, Hungary. apetranyi@laszlokorház.hu ·Magy Onkol · Pubmed #23236591.

ABSTRACT: The last several years have seen extraordinary progress in the management of patients with castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although metastatic prostate cancer remains an incurable disease, substantial advances have been made in therapeutic options. Development of novel agents that modulate the androgen receptor pathway, growth factor signalling pathways, and immune function and bone targeting pathways has been the focus of therapeutic strategies because of its significance in the biology of prostate cancer progression. In 2004, docetaxel/prednisone was the first therapy shown to prolong survival. For the next 6 years, no substantial progress was made in prolonging survival, but the latest 2 years have marked the beginning of a new and exciting era for the treatment of mCRPC. Based on phase III clinical trials cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, sipuleucel-T and denosumab represent available therapeutic options in this setting, radium-223 chloride and MDV3100 demonstrated a survival advantage in phase III trials and the road for their introduction in clinical practice is rapidly ongoing. Results are also awaited for phase III studies currently underway or planned with new drugs given as monotherapy (TAK-700, cabozantinib, tasquinimod, PROSTVAC-VF, ipilimumab) or in combination with docetaxel (custirsen, aflibercept, dasatinib, zibotentan), while other emerging molecules have shown hopeful results. The aim of this review is to summarize the most important new findings for metastatic CRPC (mCRPC) according to the different molecular pathways and to discuss their potential influence on future management of this disease.