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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Bekh Bradley
Based on 87 articles published since 2010
(Why 87 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Bekh Bradley wrote the following 87 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4
1 Review Gene × Environment Determinants of Stress- and Anxiety-Related Disorders. 2016

Sharma, Sumeet / Powers, Abigail / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322. · McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, Massachusetts 02478, email: kressler@mclean.harvard.edu. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, US Department of Veterans Affairs, Decatur, Georgia 30033. ·Annu Rev Psychol · Pubmed #26442668.

ABSTRACT: The burgeoning field of gene-by-environment (G×E) interactions has revealed fascinating biological insights, particularly in the realm of stress-, anxiety-, and depression-related disorders. In this review we present an integrated view of the study of G×E interactions in stress and anxiety disorders, including the evolution of genetic association studies from genetic epidemiology to contemporary large-scale genome-wide association studies and G×E studies. We convey the importance of consortia efforts and collaboration to gain the large sample sizes needed to move the field forward. Finally, we discuss several robust and well-reproduced G×E interactions and demonstrate how epidemiological identification of G×E interactions has naturally led to a plethora of basic research elucidating the mechanisms of high-impact genetic variants.

2 Review The role of oxytocin in social bonding, stress regulation and mental health: an update on the moderating effects of context and interindividual differences. 2013

Olff, Miranda / Frijling, Jessie L / Kubzansky, Laura D / Bradley, Bekh / Ellenbogen, Mark A / Cardoso, Christopher / Bartz, Jennifer A / Yee, Jason R / van Zuiden, Mirjam. ·Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Arq Psychotrauma Expert Center, Diemen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: m.olff@amc.uva.nl. ·Psychoneuroendocrinology · Pubmed #23856187.

ABSTRACT: In this review we summarize the results and conclusions of five studies as presented in a symposium at the 42nd annual meeting of the International Society for Psychoneuroendocrinology, in New York in September 2012. Oxytocin administration has received increasing attention for its role in promoting positive social behavior and stress regulation, and its potential as a therapeutic intervention for addressing various aspects of psychiatric disorders. However, it has been noted that the observed effects are not uniformly beneficial. In this paper we present five new studies each concluding that contextual and interindividual factors moderate the effects of oxytocin, as well as peripheral oxytocin levels. These findings are in accordance with the recent idea that oxytocin administration may increase sensitivity to social salience cues and that the interpretation of these cues may be influenced by contextual (i.e. presence of a stranger versus friend) or interindividual factors (i.e. sex, attachment style, or the presence of psychiatric symptoms). When social cues in the environment are interpreted as "safe" oxytocin may promote prosociality but when the social cues are interpreted as "unsafe" oxytocin may promote more defensive and, in effect, "anti-social" emotions and behaviors. Likewise, oxytocin appears to promote such agonistic tendencies in individuals who are chronically pre-disposed to view the social milieu in uncertain and/or in negative terms (e.g., those with borderline personality disorder, severe attachment anxiety and/or childhood maltreatment). In all, these studies in pre-clinical animal, healthy humans and patients samples further reinforce the importance of considering both contextual and interindividual factors when trying to understand the role of oxytocin as a biological substrate underlying social bonding and stress regulatory processes and when studying the effects of oxytocin administration in particular in patients with (increased risk for) psychiatric disorders.

3 Clinical Trial Pain symptomatology and pain medication use in civilian PTSD. 2011

Phifer, Justine / Skelton, Kelly / Weiss, Tamara / Schwartz, Ann C / Wingo, Aliza / Gillespie, Charles F / Sands, Lauren A / Sayyar, Saleem / Bradley, Bekh / Jovanovic, Tanja / Ressler, Kerry J. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. justine.phifer@gmail.com ·Pain · Pubmed #21665366.

ABSTRACT: The comorbidity of pain syndromes and trauma-related syndromes has been shown to be high. However, there have been limited data, especially in civilian medical populations, on the role of trauma-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on chronic pain and pain medication use. We analyzed 647 general hospital patients in primary care and obstetrics and gynecological waiting rooms for the experience of trauma and PTSD-related stress disorders. PTSD symptoms were found to be significantly positively correlated with pain ratings (r=.282, P<0.001) and pain-related functional impairment (r=0.303, P<0.001). Those with a current PTSD diagnosis had significantly higher subjective pain and pain-related impairment ratings than those with no PTSD. Furthermore, those with a current diagnosis of PTSD were significantly more likely to have used opioid analgesics for pain control compared to those without a diagnosis of PTSD (χ(2)=8.98, P=0.011). When analyzing the separate PTSD symptom subclusters (re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal), all symptom clusters were significantly related to pain and pain-related impairment ratings, but only the avoidance cluster was significantly related to prior opioid pain medication use. We conclude that PTSD and trauma-related disorders are common in impoverished medical populations and that their presence should be examined in patients with pain syndromes. Furthermore, these data suggest that PTSD and pain may share a vulnerability pathway, including the endogenous opioid neurotransmission systems.

4 Article The role of negative affect in the association between attention bias to threat and posttraumatic stress: An eye-tracking study. 2020

Mekawi, Yara / Murphy, Lauren / Munoz, Adam / Briscione, Maria / Tone, Erin B / Norrholm, Seth D / Jovanovic, Tanja / Bradley, Bekh / Powers, Abigail. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Georgia, United States of America. Electronic address: yara.mekawi@emory.edu. · Department of Psychology, Emory University, Georgia, United States of America. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Georgia, United States of America. · Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Georgia, United States of America. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Georgia, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Georgia, United States of America. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Georgia, United States of America; Atlanta VA Medical Center, Georgia, United States of America. ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #31831200.

ABSTRACT: Biased processing of threatening stimuli, including attention toward and away from threat, has been implicated in the development and maintenance of PTSD symptoms. Research examining theoretically-derived mechanisms through which dysregulated processing of threat may be associated with PTSD is scarce. Negative affect, a transdiagnostic risk factor for many types of psychopathology, is one potential mechanism that has yet to be examined. Thus, the present study (n = 92) tested the indirect effect of attention bias on PTSD via negative affect using rigorous eye-tracking methodology in a sample of urban-dwelling, trauma-exposed African-American women. We found support for the hypothesis that attention bias toward threat was indirectly associated with PTSD symptoms through increased negative affect. These results suggest that negative affect may be an important etiological process through which attention bias patterns could impact PTSD symptom severity. Implications for psychological and pharmacological therapeutic interventions targeting threat-related attention biases and negative affect are discussed.

5 Article International meta-analysis of PTSD genome-wide association studies identifies sex- and ancestry-specific genetic risk loci. 2019

Nievergelt, Caroline M / Maihofer, Adam X / Klengel, Torsten / Atkinson, Elizabeth G / Chen, Chia-Yen / Choi, Karmel W / Coleman, Jonathan R I / Dalvie, Shareefa / Duncan, Laramie E / Gelernter, Joel / Levey, Daniel F / Logue, Mark W / Polimanti, Renato / Provost, Allison C / Ratanatharathorn, Andrew / Stein, Murray B / Torres, Katy / Aiello, Allison E / Almli, Lynn M / Amstadter, Ananda B / Andersen, Søren B / Andreassen, Ole A / Arbisi, Paul A / Ashley-Koch, Allison E / Austin, S Bryn / Avdibegovic, Esmina / Babić, Dragan / Bækvad-Hansen, Marie / Baker, Dewleen G / Beckham, Jean C / Bierut, Laura J / Bisson, Jonathan I / Boks, Marco P / Bolger, Elizabeth A / Børglum, Anders D / Bradley, Bekh / Brashear, Megan / Breen, Gerome / Bryant, Richard A / Bustamante, Angela C / Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas / Calabrese, Joseph R / Caldas-de-Almeida, José M / Dale, Anders M / Daly, Mark J / Daskalakis, Nikolaos P / Deckert, Jürgen / Delahanty, Douglas L / Dennis, Michelle F / Disner, Seth G / Domschke, Katharina / Dzubur-Kulenovic, Alma / Erbes, Christopher R / Evans, Alexandra / Farrer, Lindsay A / Feeny, Norah C / Flory, Janine D / Forbes, David / Franz, Carol E / Galea, Sandro / Garrett, Melanie E / Gelaye, Bizu / Geuze, Elbert / Gillespie, Charles / Uka, Aferdita Goci / Gordon, Scott D / Guffanti, Guia / Hammamieh, Rasha / Harnal, Supriya / Hauser, Michael A / Heath, Andrew C / Hemmings, Sian M J / Hougaard, David Michael / Jakovljevic, Miro / Jett, Marti / Johnson, Eric Otto / Jones, Ian / Jovanovic, Tanja / Qin, Xue-Jun / Junglen, Angela G / Karstoft, Karen-Inge / Kaufman, Milissa L / Kessler, Ronald C / Khan, Alaptagin / Kimbrel, Nathan A / King, Anthony P / Koen, Nastassja / Kranzler, Henry R / Kremen, William S / Lawford, Bruce R / Lebois, Lauren A M / Lewis, Catrin E / Linnstaedt, Sarah D / Lori, Adriana / Lugonja, Bozo / Luykx, Jurjen J / Lyons, Michael J / Maples-Keller, Jessica / Marmar, Charles / Martin, Alicia R / Martin, Nicholas G / Maurer, Douglas / Mavissakalian, Matig R / McFarlane, Alexander / McGlinchey, Regina E / McLaughlin, Katie A / McLean, Samuel A / McLeay, Sarah / Mehta, Divya / Milberg, William P / Miller, Mark W / Morey, Rajendra A / Morris, Charles Phillip / Mors, Ole / Mortensen, Preben B / Neale, Benjamin M / Nelson, Elliot C / Nordentoft, Merete / Norman, Sonya B / O'Donnell, Meaghan / Orcutt, Holly K / Panizzon, Matthew S / Peters, Edward S / Peterson, Alan L / Peverill, Matthew / Pietrzak, Robert H / Polusny, Melissa A / Rice, John P / Ripke, Stephan / Risbrough, Victoria B / Roberts, Andrea L / Rothbaum, Alex O / Rothbaum, Barbara O / Roy-Byrne, Peter / Ruggiero, Ken / Rung, Ariane / Rutten, Bart P F / Saccone, Nancy L / Sanchez, Sixto E / Schijven, Dick / Seedat, Soraya / Seligowski, Antonia V / Seng, Julia S / Sheerin, Christina M / Silove, Derrick / Smith, Alicia K / Smoller, Jordan W / Sponheim, Scott R / Stein, Dan J / Stevens, Jennifer S / Sumner, Jennifer A / Teicher, Martin H / Thompson, Wesley K / Trapido, Edward / Uddin, Monica / Ursano, Robert J / van den Heuvel, Leigh Luella / Van Hooff, Miranda / Vermetten, Eric / Vinkers, Christiaan H / Voisey, Joanne / Wang, Yunpeng / Wang, Zhewu / Werge, Thomas / Williams, Michelle A / Williamson, Douglas E / Winternitz, Sherry / Wolf, Christiane / Wolf, Erika J / Wolff, Jonathan D / Yehuda, Rachel / Young, Ross McD / Young, Keith A / Zhao, Hongyu / Zoellner, Lori A / Liberzon, Israel / Ressler, Kerry J / Haas, Magali / Koenen, Karestan C. ·University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Research Service, San Diego, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Research Service, San Diego, CA, USA. · Harvard Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, USA. · McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA. · University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Psychiatry, Göttingen, DE, Germany. · Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Boston, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU), Boston, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, USA. · King's College London, Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, GB, USA. · King's College London, NIHR BRC at the Maudsley, London, GB, USA. · University of Cape Town, SA MRC Unit on Risk & Resilience in Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Cape Town, Western Cape, ZA, USA. · Stanford University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA, USA. · US Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Psychiatry, West Haven, CT, USA. · Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Neuroscience, New Haven, CT, USA. · VA Connecticut Healthcare Center, West Haven, CT, USA. · Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, USA. · VA Boston Healthcare System, National Center for PTSD, Boston, MA, USA. · Cohen Veterans Bioscience, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Million Veteran Program, San Diego, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Psychiatry Service, San Diego, CA, USA. · Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Emory University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Richmond, VA, USA. · The Danish Veteran Centre, Research and Knowledge Centre, Ringsted, Sjaelland, Denmark. · University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, NO, Norway. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Mental Health Service Line, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Duke University, Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Durham, NC, USA. · Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Brigham and Women's Hospital, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · University Clinical Center of Tuzla, Department of Psychiatry, Tuzla, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · University Clinical Center of Mostar, Department of Psychiatry, Mostar, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · Statens Serum Institut, Department for Congenital Disorders, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, DK, Denmark. · Durham VA Medical Center, Research, Durham, NC, USA. · Duke University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC, USA. · VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Genetics Research Laboratory, Durham, NC, USA. · Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Saint Louis, MO, USA. · Cardiff University, National Centre for Mental Health, MRC Centre for Psychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff, UK. · UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · Aarhus University, Centre for Integrative Sequencing, iSEQ, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine - Human Genetics, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Atlanta VA Health Care System, Mental Health Service Line, Decatur, GA, USA. · Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health and Department of Epidemiology, New Orleans, LA, USA. · University of New South Wales, Department of Psychology, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · University of Michigan Medical School, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University Hospitals, Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland, OH, USA. · CEDOC -Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Lisbon Institute of Global Mental Health, Lisbon, PT, Portugal. · University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosciences, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY, USA. · University Hospital of Würzburg, Center of Mental Health, Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Würzburg, DE, Germany. · Kent State University, Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent, OH, USA. · Kent State University, Research and Sponsored Programs, Kent, OH, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Research Service Line, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Freiburg, DE, Germany. · University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Basics in Neuromodulation, Freiburg, DE, Germany. · University Clinical Center of Sarajevo, Department of Psychiatry, Sarajevo, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · University of Minnesota, Department of Psychiatry, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research (CCDOR), Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Cardiff University, National Centre for Mental Health, MRC Centre for Psychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff, South Glamorgan, GB, USA. · Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Case Western Reserve University, Department of Psychological Sciences, Cleveland, OH, USA. · University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne, VIC, AU, USA. · Boston University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · Netherlands Ministry of Defence, Brain Research and Innovation Centre, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, Department of Psychiatry, Prishtina, Kosovo, XK, USA. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, USACEHR, Fort Detrick, MD, USA. · Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Department of Genetics, Saint Louis, MO, USA. · Stellenbosch University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Psychiatry, Cape Town, Western Cape, ZA, South Africa. · University Hospital Center of Zagreb, Department of Psychiatry, Zagreb, HR, USA. · RTI International, Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Division, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. · University of Copenhagen, Department of Psychology, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · Harvard Medical School, Department of Health Care Policy, Boston, MA, USA. · University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Crescenz VAMC, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Queensland University of Technology, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · Queensland University of Technology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · UNC Institute for Trauma Recovery, Department of Anesthesiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Emory University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Boston University, Dean's Office, Boston, MA, USA. · New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY, USA. · United States Army, Command, Fort Sill, OK, USA. · University of Adelaide, Department of Psychiatry, Adelaide, South Australia, AU, Australia. · VA Boston Health Care System, GRECC/TRACTS, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Boston, MA, USA. · UNC Institute for Trauma Recovery, Department of Emergency Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Gallipoli Medical Research Institute, PTSD Initiative, Greenslopes, Queensland, AU, Australia. · Queensland University of Technology, School of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Health, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · Aarhus University Hospital, Psychosis Research Unit, Risskov, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Research and Psychiatry, San Diego, CA, USA. · National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Executive Division, White River Junction, San Diego, VT, USA. · Northern Illinois University, Department of Psychology, DeKalb, IL, USA. · University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Psychiatry, San Antonio, TX, USA. · University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA, USA. · U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, West Haven, CT, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Department of Mental Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Berlin, GE, Germany. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Nursing and Department of Psychiatry, Charleston, SC, USA. · Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht, Limburg, NL, Netherlands. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Department of Medicine, Lima, Lima, PE, USA. · University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University of New South Wales, Department of Psychiatry, Sydney, NSW, AU, USA. · Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Roskilde, DK, Denmark. · Oslo University Hospital, KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norway Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo, NO, USA. · University of South Florida College of Public Health, Genomics Program, Tampa, FL, USA. · Uniformed Services University, Department of Psychiatry, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Arq, Psychotrauma Reseach Expert Group, Diemen, NH, Netherlands. · Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Leiden, ZH, NL, Netherlands. · Netherlands Defense Department, Research Center, Utrecht, UT, Netherlands. · Amsterdam UMC (location VUmc), Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam, Holland, NL, Netherlands. · Amsterdam UMC (location VUmc), Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Holland, NL, Netherlands. · Ralph H Johnson VA Medical Center, Department of Mental Health, Charleston, SC, USA. · Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA. · University of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. · James J Peters VA Medical Center, Department of Mental Health, Bronx, NY, USA. · Baylor Scott and White Central Texas, Department of Psychiatry, Temple, TX, USA. · CTVHCS, COE for Research on Returning War Veterans, Waco, TX, USA. · Yale University, Department of Biostatistics, New Haven, CT, USA. · University of Washington, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Seattle, WA, USA. · Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, USA. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #31594949.

ABSTRACT: The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.

6 Article Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper "quantifies" stressors and increases male susceptibility to PTSD. 2019

Lebow, Maya A / Schroeder, Mariana / Tsoory, Michael / Holzman-Karniel, Dorin / Mehta, Divya / Ben-Dor, Shifra / Gil, Shosh / Bradley, Bekh / Smith, Alicia K / Jovanovic, Tanja / Ressler, Kerry J / Binder, Elisabeth B / Chen, Alon. ·Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel. · Department of Stress Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804, Munich, Germany. · Department of Veterinary Resources, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel. · Department of Translational Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804, Munich, Germany. · Department of Biological Services, Bioinformatics and Biological Computing Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel. · Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA. · Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100, Rehovot, Israel. alon.chen@weizmann.ac.il. · Department of Stress Neurobiology and Neurogenetics, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, 80804, Munich, Germany. alon.chen@weizmann.ac.il. ·Transl Psychiatry · Pubmed #31346158.

ABSTRACT: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) selectively develops in some individuals exposed to a traumatic event. Genetic and epigenetic changes in glucocorticoid pathway sensitivity may be essential for understanding individual susceptibility to PTSD. This study focuses on PTSD markers in the glucocorticoid pathway, spotlighting glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a transcription factor encoded by the gene Tsc22d3 on the X chromosome. We propose that GILZ uniquely "quantifies" exposure to stressors experienced from late gestation to adulthood and that low levels of GILZ predispose individuals to PTSD in males only. GILZ mRNA and methylation were measured in 396 male and female human blood samples from the Grady Trauma Project cohort (exposed to multiple traumatic events). In mice, changes in glucocorticoid pathway genes were assessed following exposure to stressors at distinct time points: (i) CRF-induced prenatal stress (

7 Article The differential effects of PTSD, MDD, and dissociation on CRP in trauma-exposed women. 2019

Powers, Abigail / Dixon, Hayley Drew / Conneely, Karen / Gluck, Rachel / Munoz, Adam / Rochat, Cleo / Mendoza, Hadrian / Hartzell, Georgina / Ressler, Kerry J / Bradley, Bekh / Pace, Thaddeus W W / Umpierrez, Guillermo E / Schwartz, Ann C / Michopoulos, Vasiliki / Gillespie, Charles F. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. Electronic address: adpower@emory.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. · Department of Human Genetics, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. · Center for Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Research, Harvard University, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, United States of America; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. · College of Nursing & College of Medicine (Psychiatry), University of Arizona, United States of America. · Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States of America; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, United States of America. ·Compr Psychiatry · Pubmed #31306866.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, has been associated with psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some research suggests that exposure to trauma can trigger increased activity in the inflammatory system. Dissociation is associated with chronic trauma exposure and may be an important factor in understanding the risk for psychiatric outcomes associated with inflammation. The main objective of the current study was to understand how CRP was related to trauma, dissociation, PTSD and MDD in a sample of 55 traumatized African American women with type 2 diabetes mellitus recruited from an urban hospital. METHOD: High sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) was assayed through blood samples; psychiatric disorders were assessed with structured clinical interviews, dissociation was assessed with the Multiscale Dissociation Inventory, and exposure to trauma in childhood and adulthood was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Traumatic Events Inventory, respectively. RESULTS: Correlational results showed a significant association between higher concentrations of hsCRP and child abuse (p < 0.05), overall dissociation severity (p < 0.001), and PTSD symptoms (p < 0.01). ANOVA results showed significantly higher levels of hsCRP in those with current MDD, current PTSD, and remitted PTSD. A hierarchical linear regression model demonstrated a significant association between dissociation symptoms and greater hsCRP levels independent of childhood abuse, PTSD, and MDD (R CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that dissociation symptoms among those with a history of trauma may be particularly associated with higher levels of inflammation.

8 Article Attentional control abnormalities in posttraumatic stress disorder: Functional, behavioral, and structural correlates. 2019

Fani, Negar / King, Tricia Z / Clendinen, Cherita / Hardy, Raven A / Surapaneni, Sindhuja / Blair, James R / White, Stuart F / Powers, Abigail / Ely, Tim D / Jovanovic, Tanja / Ressler, Kerry J / Bradley, Bekh. ·Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, United States. Electronic address: nfani@emory.edu. · Georgia State University, Department of Psychology, United States. · Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, United States. · Boystown National Research Hospital, United States. · McLean Hospital, United States. · Emory University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, United States; Atlanta VA Medical Center, United States. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #31078834.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Attentional disruptions are common in PTSD, but findings across neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies have been variable. Few PTSD studies have investigated abnormalities in attention networks using a multi-modal imaging approach and attentional tasks that include emotionally-salient images. This study combined a behavioral task that included these images (emotional Stroop) with functional and structural neuroimaging (fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging; DTI) methods to comprehensively investigate attentional control abnormalities in a highly-traumatized civilian sample. METHODS: 48 traumatized women with and without PTSD received clinical assessments, fMRI and DTI. During fMRI, the Affective Stroop (AS), an attentional control task that includes emotionally-salient distractor images (trauma-relevant, positive, neutral) and variable task demands, was administered. RESULTS: In response to more difficult AS trials, participants with PTSD demonstrated lower activation in the dorsal and rostral anterior cingulate cortex and greater activation in the insula. This group also showed comparatively poorer performance on positive AS distractor trials, even after adjusting for trauma exposure. Performance on these trials inversely correlated with structural integrity of the cingulum bundle and uncinate fasciculus. CONCLUSIONS: Even after adjusting for trauma exposure, participants with PTSD showed worse performance on an attentional control task in the context of emotional stimuli. They also showed relatively lower cognitive control network activation and greater salience network activation. Fronto-parietal and fronto-limbic white matter connectivity corresponded with AS performance. Our findings indicate that attentional control impairments in PTSD are most evident in the context of emotional cues, and are related to decrements in function and structure of cognitive control and salience networks.

9 Article Attention bias toward threatening faces in women with PTSD: eye tracking correlates by symptom cluster. 2019

Powers, Abigail / Fani, Negar / Murphy, Lauren / Briscione, Maria / Bradley, Bekh / Tone, Erin B / Norrholm, Seth D / Jovanovic, Tanja. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA. ·Eur J Psychotraumatol · Pubmed #30788062.

ABSTRACT: Maladaptive patterns of attention to emotional stimuli are a common feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with growing evidence supporting sustained attention to threatening stimuli across trauma samples. However, it remains unclear how different PTSD symptom clusters are associated with attentional bias patterns, particularly in urban civilian settings with high rates of trauma exposure and PTSD. The present study examined associations among these variables in 70 traumatized primarily African American women. PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, and eye tracking was used to measure patterns of attention as participants engaged in an attention bias (dot probe) task to emotional faces; average initial fixation (1 s) and dwell duration (overall time spent looking at emotional face versus neutral face across the 5 s task) were used to assess attention bias patterns toward emotional faces. Women with PTSD showed significantly longer dwell duration toward angry faces than women without PTSD (

10 Article Affect, inflammation, and health in urban at-risk civilians. 2018

Lin, Cliff / Michopoulos, Vasiliki / Powers, Abigail / Wingo, Aliza P / Schwartz, Ann / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J / Gillespie, Charles F. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, Georgia. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, Georgia; Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Atlanta, GA, Georgia. Electronic address: vmichop@emory.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, Georgia; Mental Health Service Line, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, Georgia. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, Georgia; McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA. ·J Psychiatr Res · Pubmed #29920418.

ABSTRACT: Positive and negative affect are both associated with health outcomes. Using validated measures, we examined associations between affect, self-reported measures of health, and objective measures of systemic inflammation in a cross-sectional sample of outpatient subjects recruited from an urban county hospital. Participants (n = 1055) recruited from the Grady Trauma Project in Atlanta, GA underwent standardized interviews including self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms and physical health. A subset (n = 246) consented to an assay of serum C-reactive protein (CRP). Regression models including positive affect as the predictor variable with covariates of age, gender, income, trauma load, depression and PTSD symptoms, were significantly associated with physical health domain scales of the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) of general health (R

11 Article Developmental timing of trauma exposure and emotion dysregulation in adulthood: Are there sensitive periods when trauma is most harmful? 2018

Dunn, Erin C / Nishimi, Kristen / Gomez, Stephanie H / Powers, Abigail / Bradley, Bekh. ·Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States. Electronic address: dunnreprints@gmail.com. · Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Department of Social and Behavioral Science, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States. · Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States; Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, United States. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #29254068.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine whether there were sensitive periods when a first exposure to trauma was most associated with emotion dysregulation symptoms in adulthood. METHODS: Adult participants came from a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA (n = 1944). Lifetime trauma exposure was assessed using the Traumatic Events Inventory (TEI). Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the association between the developmental timing of first trauma exposure, classified as early childhood (ages 0-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), adolescence (ages 11-18), and adulthood (ages 19+), on adult emotion dysregulation symptoms, measured using the abbreviated Emotion Dysregulation Scale. RESULTS: Participants exposed to trauma at any age had higher emotion dysregulation scores than their unexposed peers. However, participants first exposed to child maltreatment or interpersonal violence during middle childhood had higher emotion dysregulation scores relative to those first exposed during other developmental stages; these developmental timing differences were detected even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, exposure to other trauma, and frequency of exposure to trauma. Further, after controlling for current psychiatric symptoms, the effect of other interpersonal trauma exposure in middle childhood was diminished and first exposure to other interpersonal violence in early childhood was associated with significantly lower emotion dysregulation symptoms. LIMITATIONS: Limitations of this study include the use of retrospective reports and absence of complete information about trauma severity or duration. CONCLUSION: These findings should be replicated in other population-based samples with prospective designs to confirm the importance of developmental timing of trauma on later emotion dysregulation.

12 Article Problematic alcohol use associates with sodium channel and clathrin linker 1 (SCLT1) in trauma-exposed populations. 2018

Almli, Lynn M / Lori, Adriana / Meyers, Jacquelyn L / Shin, Jaemin / Fani, Negar / Maihofer, Adam X / Nievergelt, Caroline M / Smith, Alicia K / Mercer, Kristina B / Kerley, Kimberly / Leveille, Jennifer M / Feng, Hao / Abu-Amara, Duna / Flory, Janine D / Yehuda, Rachel / Marmar, Charles R / Baker, Dewleen G / Bradley, Bekh / Koenen, Karestan C / Conneely, Karen N / Ressler, Kerry J. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA. · Center for Advanced Brain Imaging, Georgia State University/Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, USA. · Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Human Genetics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Steven and Alexandra Cohen Veterans Center for Posttraumatic Stress and Traumatic Brain Injury, Department of Psychiatry, New York University, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, MSSM/James J. Peters Veterans Administration Medical Center, New York, NY, USA. · Psychiatry Services, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, USA. · Mental Health Service Line, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA. ·Addict Biol · Pubmed #29082582.

ABSTRACT: Excessive alcohol use is extremely prevalent in the United States, particularly among trauma-exposed individuals. While several studies have examined genetic influences on alcohol use and related problems, this has not been studied in the context of trauma-exposed populations. We report results from a genome-wide association study of alcohol consumption and associated problems as measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) in a trauma-exposed cohort. Results indicate a genome-wide significant association between total AUDIT score and rs1433375 [N = 1036, P = 2.61 × 10

13 Article Trauma exposure, PTSD, and parenting in a community sample of low-income, predominantly African American mothers and children. 2018

Cross, Dorthie / Vance, L Alexander / Kim, Ye Ji / Ruchard, Andrew L / Fox, Nathan / Jovanovic, Tanja / Bradley, Bekh. ·Department of Psychology, Georgia Southern University. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine. · Department of Teaching and Learning Services, Morgridge College of Education, University of Denver. · Department of Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland. · Atlanta VA Medical Center. ·Psychol Trauma · Pubmed #28481561.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with problematic parenting and incidence of trauma and PTSD in children of affected parents. In communities impacted by frequent trauma, parenting may be particularly important to children's PTSD risk. The authors examined relationships among maternal and child trauma and mental health, as well as problematic parenting. METHOD: The authors recruited 112 mother-child dyads (50 girls, 62 boys; ages 8-12 years old) from a community sample of low-income, primarily African American families. They examined rates of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in mothers and children, the association of maternal trauma and PTSD with self-reported child abuse potential and parenting stress (i.e., parental distress, dysfunctional parent-child interactions, and perceived child difficulty), and the impact of maternal trauma, PTSD, and parenting on child trauma and PTSD. RESULTS: Rates of trauma and PTSD symptoms were relatively high for mothers and children and included community and family violence. Maternal trauma and PTSD predicted child abuse potential, but only maternal PTSD predicted parental distress. Neither maternal trauma nor PTSD predicted parent-reported dysfunctional parent-child interactions or child difficulty. Maternal child abuse potential and child self-reported trauma, but not maternal trauma or PTSD, significantly predicted child self-reported PTSD. Parenting stress was not associated with child PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma and PTSD in parents may impact parental distress and child abuse potential, potentially increasing children's risk for not only the experience of child abuse, but also PTSD. Child and family interventions should consider child and parental trauma and PTSD as important factors to address. (PsycINFO Database Record

14 Article A putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and posttraumatic stress disorder. 2017

Polimanti, Renato / Amstadter, Ananda B / Stein, Murray B / Almli, Lynn M / Baker, Dewleen G / Bierut, Laura J / Bradley, Bekh / Farrer, Lindsay A / Johnson, Eric O / King, Anthony / Kranzler, Henry R / Maihofer, Adam X / Rice, John P / Roberts, Andrea L / Saccone, Nancy L / Zhao, Hongyu / Liberzon, Israel / Ressler, Kerry J / Nievergelt, Caroline M / Koenen, Karestan C / Gelernter, Joel / Anonymous1870928. ·Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare Center, 116A2, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA. renato.polimanti@yale.edu. · Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Department of Medicine, Biomedical Genetics Division, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Fellow Program and Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Division RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine and VISN 4 MIRECC, Crescenz VAMC, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. · Department of Biostatistics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. · VA Ann Arbor Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Center for Human Genetic Research, and Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. · Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine and VA CT Healthcare Center, 116A2, 950 Campbell Avenue, West Haven, CT, 06516, USA. · Departments of Neuroscience and of Genetics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ·Genome Med · Pubmed #29178946.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The nature and underlying mechanisms of the observed increased vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women are unclear. METHODS: We investigated the genetic overlap of PTSD with anthropometric traits and reproductive behaviors and functions in women. The analysis was conducted using female-specific summary statistics from large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a cohort of 3577 European American women (966 PTSD cases and 2611 trauma-exposed controls). We applied a high-resolution polygenic score approach and Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate genetic correlations and causal relationships. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association of PTSD with genetically determined anthropometric traits related to body shape, independent of body mass index (BMI). The top association was related to BMI-adjusted waist circumference (WC CONCLUSIONS: There is a putative causal relationship between genetically determined female body shape and PTSD, which could be mediated by evolutionary mechanisms involved in human sexual behaviors.

15 Article Differential predictors of DSM-5 PTSD and ICD-11 complex PTSD among African American women. 2017

Powers, Abigail / Fani, Negar / Carter, Sierra / Cross, Dorthie / Cloitre, Marylene / Bradley, Bekh. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GAUSA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, GAUSA. ·Eur J Psychotraumatol · Pubmed #28649302.

ABSTRACT:

16 Article Neural correlates and structural markers of emotion dysregulation in traumatized civilians. 2017

Powers, Abigail / Stevens, Jennifer S / van Rooij, Sanne J H / Ely, Timothy D / Fani, Negar / Jovanovic, Tanja / Ressler, Kerry J / Bradley, Bekh. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. · McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA. ·Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci · Pubmed #28158800.

ABSTRACT: Emotion dysregulation (ED) reflects deficits in understanding and managing negative emotions and may serve as a transdiagnostic mechanism of risk for trauma-related psychiatric disorders. Therefore, understanding neurobiological substrates of ED in traumatized individuals is critical. The present study examined associations between ED and baseline structural differences and patterns of functional activity during an emotional task in a sample of African American women (n = 136) recruited from an urban hospital. Participants engaged in a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) session. A subsample (n = 92) also viewed emotional face stimuli during functional MRI. ED was related to greater dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) surface area (Pcorr < 0.05) and increased dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventromedial PFC activation to fearful stimuli (Pcorr < 0.05), independent of the trauma and psychiatric symptoms. DMPFC activation was also associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and depression symptoms. Mediation analyses showed a significant mediation effect of ED on the relation between dmPFC activation and psychiatric symptoms. These findings are important since dACC and dmPFC play central roles in fear expression and attention to emotional stimuli. Future longitudinal research is needed to help solidify a model of risk for how such neural substrates may be impacted by traumatic experiences to create ED.

17 Article Psychological resilience is associated with more intact social functioning in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. 2017

Wingo, Aliza P / Briscione, Maria / Norrholm, Seth D / Jovanovic, Tanja / McCullough, S Ashley / Skelton, Kelly / Bradley, Bekh. ·Atlanta VA Medical Center, Trauma Recovery Program, 1670 Clairmont Road Decatur, GA 30033, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Room 4339, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Room 4339, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Trauma Recovery Program, 1670 Clairmont Road Decatur, GA 30033, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Trauma Recovery Program, 1670 Clairmont Road Decatur, GA 30033, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 101 Woodruff Circle, Room 4339, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: bekh.bradley@va.gov. ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #28119173.

ABSTRACT: Patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), common sequelae among individuals exposed to stressful or traumatic events, often report impairment in social functioning. Resilience is a multidimensional construct that enables adaptive coping with life adversity. Relationship between resilience and social functioning among veterans with depression and PTSD is not entirely clear and is the focus of this report. Resilience was assessed in 264 veterans using the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, PTSD with the PTSD Symptom Scale, depression with the Beck Depression Inventory, and social functioning with the Short Form Health Survey. Higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning after PTSD and depression severity, childhood maltreatment, physical health, gender, education, marital status, and employment were simultaneously adjusted for. Childhood maltreatment, gender, marital status, education, and employment did not predict social functioning; however, greater severity of PTSD, depression, or physical health problems was each significantly associated with more impaired social functioning. Our findings suggest that higher resilience was associated with more intact social functioning regardless of the severity of PTSD and depression. Given the importance of social functioning in depression and/or PTSD recovery, studies are needed to examine if enhancing resilience presents a complementary approach to alleviating impaired social functioning.

18 Article Is developmental timing of trauma exposure associated with depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adulthood? 2017

Dunn, Erin C / Nishimi, Kristen / Powers, Abigail / Bradley, Bekh. ·Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Simches Research Building, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, 401 Park Drive, 2 West, Room 305, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, The Ted and Vada Stanley Building, 75 Ames Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address: http://www.thedunnlab.com. · Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, 185 Cambridge St, Simches Research Building, Boston, MA 02114, USA; Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: kmn920@mail.harvard.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 201 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: abigail.d.powers@emory.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 201 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Atlanta VA Medical Center, 1670 Clairmont Road, Decatur, GA 30033, USA. Electronic address: rbradl2@emory.edu. ·J Psychiatr Res · Pubmed #27728852.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Trauma exposure is a known risk factor for psychopathology. However, the impact of the developmental timing of exposure remains unclear. This study examined the effect of age at first trauma exposure on levels of adult depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. METHODS: Lifetime trauma exposure (including age at first exposure and frequency), current psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic information were collected during interviews with adults participating in a study at a public urban hospital in Atlanta, GA. Multiple linear regression models assessed the association between timing of first trauma exposure, classified as early childhood (ages 0-5), middle childhood (ages 6-10), adolescence (ages 11-18), and adulthood (ages 19+), on adult psychopathology in 2892 individuals. RESULTS: Participants exposed to trauma (i.e., child maltreatment, other interpersonal violence, non-interpersonal violence, and other events) at any age had higher depressive and PTSD symptoms compared to their unexposed peers. However, participants first exposed to child maltreatment during early childhood had depression and PTSD symptoms that were about twice as high as those exposed during later developmental stages. This association was detected even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to other trauma types, and frequency of exposure. Participants first exposed during middle childhood to other interpersonal violence also had depressive symptoms scores that were about twice as high as those first exposed during adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma exposure at different ages may differentially impact depressive and PTSD symptoms in adulthood. More detailed examination of timing of trauma exposure is warranted to aid in identifying sensitive periods in development.

19 Article Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Inner City Females. 2017

Goldstein, Brittany / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J / Powers, Abigail. ·Emory University School of Medicine. · Atlanta VA Medical Center. ·J Clin Psychol · Pubmed #27467499.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine how emotion dysregulation (ED) might help explain the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms in females. METHOD: Participants included 260 women from primary, diabetes, and gynecological clinics of an urban public hospital. This is a primarily African American sample (96.9%), including individuals reporting exposure to at least 1 traumatic event. We examined the associations and predictability patterns between severity of PTSD symptoms, ED, and AD symptoms. RESULTS: Using linear regression analyses, PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms and ED were significant predictors of AD symptoms. When looking at specific dimensions of ED, one's inability to engage in goal-directed behavior under strong emotional influences showed a full indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms and AD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that having poor emotion regulation skills may help explain why females with PTSD become dependent on alcohol.

20 Article Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons. 2016

Cross, Dorthie / Kim, Ye Ji / Vance, L Alexander / Robinson, Gabriella / Jovanovic, Tanja / Bradley, Bekh. ·a Department of Psychology , Georgia Southern University , Statesboro , Georgia. · b Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta , Georgia. · c Atlanta VA Medical Center , Decatur , Georgia. ·J Child Sex Abus · Pubmed #27874726.

ABSTRACT: Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

21 Article Exposure to Childhood Abuse and Later Substance Use: Indirect Effects of Emotion Dysregulation and Exposure to Trauma. 2016

Mandavia, Amar / Robinson, Gabriella G N / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J / Powers, Abigail. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. · McLean Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. adpower@emory.edu. ·J Trauma Stress · Pubmed #27622844.

ABSTRACT: Little is known about how emotion dysregulation (ED) and trauma exposure differentially affect the relationship between abuse in childhood and adult substance use. We examined associations between child abuse, trauma exposure, ED, and current substance use in an already existing dataset. Participants (N = 2,014 adults, 90% African American) had been recruited from an urban hospital for a parent study. Analyses showed that drug and alcohol use was significantly positively correlated with child abuse (emotional, physical, and sexual), later trauma exposure, and ED (all ps < .001). Linear regression showed that exposure to abuse when older than a child was significantly associated with drug and alcohol use independent of child abuse and demographic variables (R

22 Article Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms associate with violence in inner city civilians. 2016

Gillikin, Cynthia / Habib, Leah / Evces, Mark / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J / Sanders, Jeff. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 4000 Woodruff Memorial Bldg., Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 4000 Woodruff Memorial Bldg., Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, 4000 Woodruff Memorial Bldg., Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. Electronic address: jeff.d.sanders@emory.edu. ·J Psychiatr Res · Pubmed #27518177.

ABSTRACT: Understanding whether a history of psychological trauma is associated with perpetrating aggressive and violent behavior is of critical importance to public health. This relationship is especially important to study within urban areas where violence is prevalent. In this paper we examined whether a history of trauma or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in inner city civilians was associated with violent behavior. Data were collected from over 1900 primary care patients at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. Childhood trauma history was assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and adult trauma history with the Traumatic Events Inventory (TEI). PTSD symptoms were measured with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS) and violent behaviors were measured with the Behavior Questionnaire (BQ). Using these measures we studied violent behavior in the inner city and its association with childhood or adult trauma history or PTSD. Trauma, PTSD and violence were all prevalent in this at-risk urban cohort. Perpetrating interpersonal violence was associated with a history childhood and adult trauma history, and with PTSD symptoms and diagnosis. An association between violent behavior and PTSD diagnosis was maintained after controlling for other pertinent variables such as demographics and presence of depression. Our findings point to a dysregulation of aggressive and violent behavior that may be a consequence of trauma and PTSD. These data indicate that more effective PTSD screening and treatment may help to reduce urban violence.

23 Article Childhood trauma, PTSD, and psychosis: Findings from a highly traumatized, minority sample. 2016

Powers, Abigail / Fani, Negar / Cross, Dorthie / Ressler, Kerry J / Bradley, Bekh. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States. Electronic address: adpower@emory.edu. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States; Division of Depression and Anxiety, Harvard University, United States. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, United States. ·Child Abuse Negl · Pubmed #27371800.

ABSTRACT: Trauma, especially early life trauma, is a risk factor for the development of both posttraumatic stress disorder and psychosis. The goal of the present study was to determine specific associations between exposure to childhood abuse, PTSD symptoms, and current psychotic disorder. Subjects were recruited from a public, urban hospital (N=328, >90% African American). Psychotic disorders were measured using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, PTSD was measured using the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, child abuse was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and lifetime trauma exposure was measured with the Traumatic Events Inventory. Logistic regression analyses showed that both child abuse and current PTSD were statistically significant predictors of psychotic disorder beyond the effects of lifetime trauma load. When PTSD symptom clusters were examined, avoidance and numbing symptoms showed unique association with psychotic disorder independent of demographic variables and trauma exposure. Using bootstrapping techniques, we found a full indirect effect of PTSD on the association between child abuse and, suggesting a particularly important role of PTSD symptoms in relation to psychotic disorder in the presence of early life trauma. Because this is a cross-sectional study, continued research is needed to determine causality of such models. Identifying co-occurring psychosis and PTSD, particularly in populations with high levels of trauma exposure, is critical and will likely aid in more successful treatment interventions.

24 Article Baseline psychophysiological and cortisol reactivity as a predictor of PTSD treatment outcome in virtual reality exposure therapy. 2016

Norrholm, Seth Davin / Jovanovic, Tanja / Gerardi, Maryrose / Breazeale, Kathryn G / Price, Matthew / Davis, Michael / Duncan, Erica / Ressler, Kerry J / Bradley, Bekh / Rizzo, Albert / Tuerk, Peter W / Rothbaum, Barbara O. ·Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mental Health Service Line, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, USA. Electronic address: seth.norrholm@va.gov. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Vermont, USA. · Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mental Health Service Line, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, USA. · Institute for Creative Technologies, Department of Psychiatry and School of Gerontology, University of Southern California, USA. · Ralph H. Johnson VAMC, Charleston, SC, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, USA. ·Behav Res Ther · Pubmed #27183343.

ABSTRACT: Baseline cue-dependent physiological reactivity may serve as an objective measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Additionally, prior animal model and psychological studies would suggest that subjects with greatest symptoms at baseline may have the greatest violation of expectancy to danger when undergoing exposure based psychotherapy; thus treatment approaches which enhanced the learning under these conditions would be optimal for those with maximal baseline cue-dependent reactivity. However methods to study this hypothesis objectively are lacking. Virtual reality (VR) methodologies have been successfully employed as an enhanced form of imaginal prolonged exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD. Our goal was to examine the predictive nature of initial psychophysiological (e.g., startle, skin conductance, heart rate) and stress hormone responses (e.g., cortisol) during presentation of VR-based combat-related stimuli on PTSD treatment outcome. Combat veterans with PTSD underwent 6 weeks of VR exposure therapy combined with either d-cycloserine (DCS), alprazolam (ALP), or placebo (PBO). In the DCS group, startle response to VR scenes prior to initiation of treatment accounted for 76% of the variance in CAPS change scores, p < 0.001, in that higher responses predicted greater changes in symptom severity over time. Additionally, baseline cortisol reactivity was inversely associated with treatment response in the ALP group, p = 0.04. We propose that baseline cue-activated physiological measures will be sensitive to predicting patients' level of response to exposure therapy, in particular in the presence of enhancement (e.g., DCS).

25 Article CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT PREDICTS REDUCED INHIBITION-RELATED ACTIVITY IN THE ROSTRAL ANTERIOR CINGULATE IN PTSD, BUT NOT TRAUMA-EXPOSED CONTROLS. 2016

Stevens, Jennifer S / Ely, Timothy D / Sawamura, Takehito / Guzman, Dora / Bradley, Bekh / Ressler, Kerry J / Jovanovic, Tanja. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. · Ominato Medical Service Unit, Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, Japan. · Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, Georgia. · Division of Depression and Anxiety, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts. · Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #27062552.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A deficit in the ability to inhibit fear has been proposed as a biomarker of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research indicates that individuals with PTSD show reduced inhibition-related activation in rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). The goal of the current study was to investigate differential influences of an early environmental risk factor for PTSD-childhood maltreatment-on inhibition-related brain function in individuals with PTSD versus trauma-exposed controls. METHODS: Individuals with PTSD (n = 37) and trauma-exposed controls (n = 53) were recruited from the primary care waiting rooms of an urban public hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participants completed an inhibition task during fMRI, and reported childhood and adult traumatic experiences. The groups were matched for adult and child trauma load. RESULTS: We observed an interaction between childhood maltreatment severity and PTSD status in the rACC (P < .05, corrected), such that maltreatment was negatively associated with inhibition-related rACC activation in the PTSD group, but did not influence rACC activation in the TC group. Rostral ACC activation was associated with inhibition-related task performance in the TC group but not the PTSD group, suggesting a possible contribution to stress resilience. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight individual differences in neural function following childhood trauma, and point to inhibition-related activation in rostral ACC as a risk factor for PTSD.

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