Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Magdalena Cerda
Based on 16 articles published since 2010
(Why 16 articles?)
||||

Between 2010 and 2020, M. Cerdá wrote the following 16 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Brains in the city: Neurobiological effects of urbanization. 2015

Lambert, Kelly G / Nelson, Randy J / Jovanovic, Tanja / Cerdá, Magdalena. ·Department of Psychology, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA 23005, USA. Electronic address: klambert@rmc.edu. · Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. · Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ·Neurosci Biobehav Rev · Pubmed #25936504.

ABSTRACT: With a majority of humans now living in cities, strategic research is necessary to elucidate the impact of this evolutionarily unfamiliar habitat on neural functions and well-being. In this review, both rodent and human models are considered in the evaluation of the changing physical and social landscapes associated with urban dwellings. Animal models assessing increased exposure to artificial physical elements characteristic of urban settings, as well as exposure to unnatural sources of light for extended durations, are reviewed. In both cases, increased biomarkers of mental illnesses such as major depression have been observed. Additionally, applied human research emphasizing the emotional impact of environmental threats associated with urban habitats is considered. Subjects evaluated in an inner-city hospital reveal the impact of combined specific genetic vulnerabilities and heightened stress responses in the expression of posttraumatic stress disorder. Finally, algorithm-based models of cities have been developed utilizing population-level analyses to identify risk factors for psychiatric illness. Although complex, the use of multiple research approaches, as described herein, results in an enhanced understanding of urbanization and its far-reaching effects--confirming the importance of continued research directed toward the identification of putative risk factors associated with psychiatric illness in urban settings.

2 Clinical Trial Mapping concentrations of posttraumatic stress and depression trajectories following Hurricane Ike. 2016

Gruebner, Oliver / Lowe, Sarah R / Tracy, Melissa / Joshi, Spruha / Cerdá, Magdalena / Norris, Fran H / Subramanian, S V / Galea, Sandro. ·Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · Montclair State University, Department of Psychology, Montclair, NJ, USA. · University at Albany, State University of New York, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Albany, NY, USA. · University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · University of California at Davis, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA. · Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA. · Boston University, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #27558011.

ABSTRACT: We investigated geographic concentration in elevated risk for a range of postdisaster trajectories of chronic posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) and depression symptoms in a longitudinal study (N = 561) of a Hurricane Ike affected population in Galveston and Chambers counties, TX. Using an unadjusted spatial scan statistic, we detected clusters of elevated risk of PTSS trajectories, but not depression trajectories, on Galveston Island. We then tested for predictors of membership in each trajectory of PTSS and depression (e.g., demographic variables, trauma exposure, social support), not taking the geographic nature of the data into account. After adjusting for significant predictors in the spatial scan statistic, we noted that spatial clusters of PTSS persisted and additional clusters of depression trajectories emerged. This is the first study to show that longitudinal trajectories of postdisaster mental health problems may vary depending on the geographic location and the individual- and community-level factors present at these locations. Such knowledge is crucial to identifying vulnerable regions and populations within them, to provide guidance for early responders, and to mitigate mental health consequences through early detection of mental health needs in the population. As human-made disasters increase, our approach may be useful also in other regions in comparable settings worldwide.

3 Article Pathways from assaultive violence to post-traumatic stress, depression, and generalized anxiety symptoms through stressful life events: longitudinal mediation models. 2017

Lowe, S R / Joshi, S / Galea, S / Aiello, A E / Uddin, M / Koenen, K C / Cerdá, M. ·Department of Psychology,Montclair State University,Montclair, NJ,USA. · Department of Epidemiology,University of Minnesota,Minneapolis, MN,USA. · Departmentof Epidemiology,Boston University School of Public Health,Boston, MA,USA. · Department of Epidemiology,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Global Public Health,Chapel Hill, NC,USA. · Department of Psychology,University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Champaign, IL,USA. · Department of Epidemiology,Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health,Boston, MA,USA. · Department Emergency Medicine,University of California at Davis,Davis, CA,USA. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #28464960.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Assaultive violence events are associated with increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, including post-traumatic stress (PTS), depression, and generalized anxiety. Prior research has indicated that economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive events may explain the increased risk for adverse psychiatric outcomes, yet longitudinal studies have not adequately examined this pathway. In the current study, we aimed to address this limitation. METHODS: Participants (N = 1360) were part of a longitudinal population-based study of adults living in Detroit. At three waves, participants indicated their exposure to assaultive violence and economic, legal, and social stressors, and completed inventories of PTS, depression, and generalized anxiety. Longitudinal mediation models were used to test the hypothesized pathway from assaultive violence to each psychiatric outcome. RESULTS: The hypothesized models evidenced good fit with the data and, in each, the paths from Wave 1 (W1) assaultive violence to W2 stressors, and from W2 stressors to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.09-0.15, all p < 0.01). Additionally, the indirect paths from W1 assaultive violence to W3 symptoms were significant (range of Standardized Estimates: 0.01-0.02, all p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings illustrate that the economic, legal, and social stressors that could follow assaultive violence increase risk for a range of psychiatric symptoms. Although future research is needed, the results suggest that investment in interventions that prevent and mitigate assaultive violence survivors' exposure to such stressors may be an effective way to prevent mental illness in the aftermath of violent assaults.

4 Article The Geography of Mental Health and General Wellness in Galveston Bay After Hurricane Ike: A Spatial Epidemiologic Study With Longitudinal Data. 2016

Gruebner, Oliver / Lowe, Sarah R / Tracy, Melissa / Cerdá, Magdalena / Joshi, Spruha / Norris, Fran H / Galea, Sandro. ·1Department of Epidemiology,Mailman School of Public Health,Columbia University,New York,New York. · 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics,School of Public Health,University at Albany,State University of New York,Albany,New York. · 3Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth,Hanover,New Hampshire. · 4School of Public Health,Boston University,Boston,Massachusetts. ·Disaster Med Public Health Prep · Pubmed #26818684.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a spatial epidemiologic approach that could be used in the aftermath of disasters to (1) detect spatial clusters and (2) explore geographic heterogeneity in predictors for mental health and general wellness. METHODS: We used a cohort study of Hurricane Ike survivors (n=508) to assess the spatial distribution of postdisaster mental health wellness (most likely resilience trajectory for posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS] and depression) and general wellness (most likely resilience trajectory for PTSS, depression, functional impairment, and days of poor health) in Galveston, Texas. We applied the spatial scan statistic (SaTScan) and geographically weighted regression. RESULTS: We found spatial clusters of high likelihood wellness in areas north of Texas City and spatial concentrations of low likelihood wellness in Galveston Island. Geographic variation was found in predictors of wellness, showing increasing associations with both forms of wellness the closer respondents were located to Galveston City in Galveston Island. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors for postdisaster wellness may manifest differently across geographic space with concentrations of lower likelihood wellness and increased associations with predictors in areas of higher exposure. Our approach could be used to inform geographically targeted interventions to promote mental health and general wellness in disaster-affected communities.

5 Article To Treat or to Prevent?: Reducing the Population Burden of Violence-related Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. 2015

Cerdá, Magdalena / Tracy, Melissa / Keyes, Katherine M / Galea, Sandro. ·From the aViolence Prevention Research Program, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA; bDepartment of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA; cDepartment of Epidemiology, University at Albany School of Public Health, Rensselaer, NY; dDepartment of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY; and eSchool of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA. ·Epidemiology · Pubmed #26237744.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a prevalent and disabling psychiatric disorder in urban areas. However, the most effective allocation of resources into prevention and treatment to reduce this problem is unknown. We contrasted the impact of two interventions on violence-related PTSD: (1) a population-level intervention intended to prevent violence (i.e., hot-spot policing), and (2) an individual-level intervention intended to shorten PTSD duration (i.e., cognitive-behavioral therapy-CBT). METHODS: We used agent-based modeling to simulate violence and PTSD in New York City under four scenarios: (1) no intervention, (2) targeted policing to hot spots of violence, (3) increased access to CBT for people who suffered from violence-related PTSD, and (4) a combination of the two interventions. RESULTS: Combined prevention and treatment produced the largest decrease in violence-related PTSD prevalence: hot-spot policing plus a 50% increase in CBT for 5 years reduced the annual prevalence of violence-related PTSD from 3.6% (95% confidence interval = 3.5%, 3.6%) to 3.4% (3.3%, 3.5%). It would have been necessary to implement hot-spot policing or to increase CBT by 200% for 10 years for either intervention to achieve the same reduction in isolation. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an empirically informed demonstration that investment in combined strategies that target social determinants of mental illness and provide evidence-based treatment to those affected by psychiatric disorders can produce larger reductions in the population burden from violence-related PTSD than either preventive or treatment interventions alone. However, neither hot-spot policing nor CBT, alone or combined, will produce large shifts in the population prevalence of violence-related PTSD.

6 Article Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Predict Onset of Cardiovascular Events in Women. 2015

Sumner, Jennifer A / Kubzansky, Laura D / Elkind, Mitchell S V / Roberts, Andrea L / Agnew-Blais, Jessica / Chen, Qixuan / Cerdá, Magdalena / Rexrode, Kathryn M / Rich-Edwards, Janet W / Spiegelman, Donna / Suglia, Shakira F / Rimm, Eric B / Koenen, Karestan C. ·From Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York (J.A.S., M.S.V.E., M.C., S.F.S., K.C.K.) · Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (L.D.K., A.L.R., J.A.-B., K.C.K.) · Department of Neurology, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York (M.S.V.E.) · Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York (Q.C.) · Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (K.M.R.) · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (J.W.R.-E., D.S., E.B.R., K.C.K.) · The Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (J.W.R.-E.) · Department of Biostatistics, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (D.S.) · Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (E.B.R.) · and Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (E.B.R.). ·Circulation · Pubmed #26124186.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Psychological stress is a proposed risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the sentinel stress-related mental disorder, occurs twice as frequently in women as men. However, whether PTSD contributes to CVD risk in women is not established. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in relation to incident CVD over a 20-year period in 49 978 women in the Nurses' Health Study II. Proportional hazards models estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CVD events confirmed by additional information or medical record review (n=548, including myocardial infarction [n=277] and stroke [n=271]). Trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms were assessed by using the Brief Trauma Questionnaire and a PTSD screen. In comparison with no trauma exposure, endorsing ≥4 PTSD symptoms was associated with increased CVD risk after adjusting for age, family history, and childhood factors (hazard ratio,1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.13). Being trauma-exposed and endorsing no PTSD symptoms was associated with elevated CVD risk (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.83), although being trauma-exposed and endorsing 1 to 3 PTSD symptoms was not. After adjusting for adult health behaviors and medical risk factors, this pattern of findings was maintained. Health behaviors and medical risk factors accounted for 14% of the trauma/no symptoms-CVD association and 47% of the trauma/4+ symptoms-CVD association. CONCLUSION: Trauma exposure and elevated PTSD symptoms may increase the risk of CVD in this population of women. These findings suggest that screening for CVD risk and reducing health risk behaviors in trauma-exposed women may be promising avenues for prevention and intervention.

7 Article Mental health and general wellness in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike. 2015

Lowe, Sarah R / Joshi, Spruha / Pietrzak, Robert H / Galea, Sandro / Cerdá, Magdalena. ·Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, USA. Electronic address: srl2143@columbia.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, USA. · United States Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, USA. ·Soc Sci Med · Pubmed #25461873.

ABSTRACT: Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across multiple domains of postdisaster functioning.

8 Article Addressing population health and health inequalities: the role of fundamental causes. 2014

Cerdá, Magdalena / Tracy, Melissa / Ahern, Jennifer / Galea, Sandro. ·Magdalena Cerdá, Melissa Tracy, and Sandro Galea are with the Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY. Jennifer Ahern is with the Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Berkeley. ·Am J Public Health · Pubmed #25100428.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: As a case study of the impact of universal versus targeted interventions on population health and health inequalities, we used simulations to examine (1) whether universal or targeted manipulations of collective efficacy better reduced population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization; and (2) whether experiments reduced disparities without addressing fundamental causes. METHODS: We applied agent-based simulation techniques to the specific example of an intervention on neighborhood collective efficacy to reduce population-level rates and racial/ethnic inequalities in violent victimization. The agent population consisted of 4000 individuals aged 18 years and older with sociodemographic characteristics assigned to match distributions of the adult population in New York City according to the 2000 U.S. Census. RESULTS: Universal experiments reduced rates of victimization more than targeted experiments. However, neither experiment reduced inequalities. To reduce inequalities, it was necessary to eliminate racial/ethnic residential segregation. CONCLUSIONS: These simulations support the use of universal intervention but suggest that it is not possible to address inequalities in health without first addressing fundamental causes.

9 Article Posttraumatic growth in the aftermath of a disaster: looking for the role of gender. 2014

Cerdá, Magdalena. ·Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W168th St, New York, NY, 10032, USA, mc3226@columbia.edu. ·Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol · Pubmed #25100050.

ABSTRACT: In the past 10 years, the literature on disasters and mental health has shifted from a focus on psychopathology, to an interest in documenting manifestations of resilience in the face of mass trauma. The Jin et al. study, published in this issue of the Journal, examines gender differences in the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in the aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake in China. The study suggests that the coping response to PTSD may differ between males and females, and raises interesting questions about the types of factors that contribute to the manifestation of high versus low PTG given high levels of PTSD. At the same time, this type of study highlights the need to investigate the long-term impact and meaning of PTG, and to examine whether it reflects an adaptive process with long-term benefits in the face of traumatic exposures, or an illusory type of posttraumatic response.

10 Article The weight of traumatic stress: a prospective study of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and weight status in women. 2014

Kubzansky, Laura D / Bordelois, Paula / Jun, Hee Jin / Roberts, Andrea L / Cerda, Magdalena / Bluestone, Noah / Koenen, Karestan C. ·Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York. · Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts4Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · graduate student at Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. ·JAMA Psychiatry · Pubmed #24258147.

ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicates a chronic stress reaction in response to trauma. This prevalent condition has been identified as a possible risk factor for obesity. Whether PTSD symptoms alter the trajectory of weight gain or constitute a comorbid condition has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether women who develop PTSD symptoms are subsequently more likely to gain weight and become obese relative to trauma-exposed women who do not develop PTSD symptoms or women with no trauma exposure or PTSD symptoms and whether the effects are independent of depression. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective observational study initiated in 1989 with follow-up to 2005, using a PTSD screener to measure PTSD symptoms and time of onset. We included the subsample of the Nurses' Health Study II (54 224 participants; ages 24-44 years in 1989) in whom trauma and PTSD symptoms were measured. EXPOSURES: Trauma and PTSD symptoms. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Development of overweight and obesity using body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) cut points 25.0 and 30.0, respectively; change in BMI during follow-up among women reporting PTSD symptom onset before 1989; and BMI trajectory before and after PTSD symptom onset among women who developed PTSD symptoms in 1989 or during follow-up. RESULTS: Among women with at least 4 PTSD symptoms before 1989 (cohort initiation), BMI increased more steeply (b = 0.09 [SE = 0.01]; P < .001) during the follow-up. Among women who developed PTSD symptoms in 1989 or later, BMI trajectory did not differ by PTSD status before PTSD onset. After PTSD symptom onset, women with at least 4 symptoms had a faster rise in BMI (b = 0.08 [SE = 0.02]; P < .001). The onset of at least 4 PTSD symptoms in 1989 or later was also associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese (odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.19-1.56]) among women with a normal BMI in 1989. Effects were maintained after adjusting for depression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Experience of PTSD symptoms is associated with an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese, and PTSD symptom onset alters BMI trajectories over time. The presence of PTSD symptoms should raise clinician concerns about physical health problems that may develop and prompt closer attention to weight status.

11 Article Immediate and longer-term stressors and the mental health of Hurricane Ike survivors. 2013

Lowe, Sarah R / Tracy, Melissa / Cerdá, Magdalena / Norris, Fran H / Galea, Sandro. ·Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York, USA. ·J Trauma Stress · Pubmed #24343752.

ABSTRACT: Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2-5 months (Wave 1), 5-9 months (Wave 2) and 14-18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors.

12 Article Effect of the 2010 Chilean earthquake on posttraumatic stress: reducing sensitivity to unmeasured bias through study design. 2013

Zubizarreta, José R / Cerdá, Magdalena / Rosenbaum, Paul R. ·Department of Statistics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6340 , USA. josezubi@wharton.upenn.edu ·Epidemiology · Pubmed #23222557.

ABSTRACT: In 2010, a magnitude 8.8 earthquake hit Chile, devastating parts of the country. Having just completed its national socioeconomic survey, the Chilean government reinterviewed a subsample of respondents, creating unusual longitudinal data about the same persons before and after a major disaster. The follow-up evaluated posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) using Davidson's Trauma Scale. We use these data with two goals in mind. Most studies of PTSS after disasters rely on recall to characterize the state of affairs before the disaster. We are able to use prospective data on preexposure conditions, free of recall bias, to study the effects of the earthquake. Second, we illustrate recent developments in statistical methodology for the design and analysis of observational studies. In particular, we use new and recent methods for multivariate matching to control 46 covariates that describe demographic variables, housing quality, wealth, health, and health insurance before the earthquake. We use the statistical theory of design sensitivity to select a study design with findings expected to be insensitive to small or moderate biases from failure to control some unmeasured covariate. PTSS were dramatically but unevenly elevated among residents of strongly shaken areas of Chile when compared with similar persons in largely untouched parts of the country. In 96% of exposed-control pairs exhibiting substantial PTSS, it was the exposed person who experienced stronger symptoms (95% confidence interval = 0.91-1.00).

13 Article Psychopathology in the aftermath of the Haiti earthquake: a population-based study of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression. 2013

Cerdá, Magdalena / Paczkowski, Magdalena / Galea, Sandro / Nemethy, Kevin / Péan, Claude / Desvarieux, Moïse. ·Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. mc3226@columbia.edu ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #23124841.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In the first population-based study of psychopathology conducted in Haiti, we documented earthquake-related experiences associated with risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) 2-4 months following the 2010 Haiti earthquake. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted of 1,323 survivors randomly selected from the general nondisplaced community, internally displaced persons camps, and a community clinic. Respondents were from the Nazon area of Port-au-Prince, ∼20 miles from the epicenter. RESULTS: Respondents (90.5%) reported at least one relative/close friend injured/killed, 93% saw dead bodies, and 20.9% lost their job post-earthquake. The prevalence of PTSD (24.6%) and MDD (28.3%) was high. History of violent trauma was associated with risk of PTSD and MDD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-1.9; AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.3, 2.2, respectively). Low social support (AOR, 1.7, 95% CI 1.2, 2.3; AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, respectively) increased risk of PTSD and MDD among women. Suffering damage to the home increased risk of MDD in males (AOR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5, 5.5). Associations between being trapped in rubble, major damage to house, job loss, and PTSD; and participation in rescue/recovery, friends/family injured/killed, and MDD varied based on prior history of violent trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing mental health in a post-earthquake setting such as Haiti will require focusing resources on screening and treatment of identified vulnerable groups while targeting improvement of post-earthquake living conditions. Investment in sources of social support for women may make help mitigate the vulnerability of women to PTSD and MDD.

14 Article The course of posttraumatic stress symptoms and functional impairment following a disaster: what is the lasting influence of acute versus ongoing traumatic events and stressors? 2013

Cerdá, M / Bordelois, P M / Galea, S / Norris, F / Tracy, M / Koenen, K C. ·Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University, University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W168th St, 10032, New York, NY, USA, mc3226@columbia.edu. ·Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol · Pubmed #22878832.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Ongoing traumatic events and stressors, rather than acute sources of trauma, may shape long-term post-disaster mental health. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of acute hurricane-related exposures and ongoing post-hurricane exposures on the short- and long-term course of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and functional impairment (FI). METHODS: A random sample of adults (n = 658) in Galveston and Chambers Counties, Texas, was selected 2-6 months after Hurricane Ike and interviewed 3 times over 18 months. Hurricane-related exposures included traumatic events such as death of a family member due to the hurricane and stressors such as loss/damage to personal property due to the hurricane. Post-hurricane exposures included traumatic events such as sexual assault and stressors such as divorce or serious financial problems. RESULTS: Experiencing an acute hurricane-related traumatic event or stressor was associated with initial post-hurricane PTSS [RR = 1.92 (95% CI = 1.13-3.26) and RR = 1.62 (1.36-1.94), respectively] and FI [RR = 1.76; (1.05-2.97) and RR = 1.74 (1.46-2.08)], respectively, and acute hurricane-related stressors were associated with a higher rate of increase in FI over time [RR = 1.09; (1.01-1.19)]. In contrast, ongoing post-hurricane daily stressors were not associated within initial PTSS and FI, but were associated with PTSS and FI at the second and third interviews. CONCLUSIONS: While immediate postdisaster interventions may influence short-term mental health, investment in the prevention of ongoing stressors may be instrumental to manage long-term mental health status.

15 Article Posttraumatic stress disorder across two generations: concordance and mechanisms in a population-based sample. 2012

Roberts, Andrea L / Galea, Sandro / Austin, S Bryn / Cerda, Magdalena / Wright, Rosalind J / Rich-Edwards, Janet W / Koenen, Karestan C. ·Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA. aroberts@hsph.harvard.edu ·Biol Psychiatry · Pubmed #22521146.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Research conducted using small samples of persons exposed to extreme stressors has documented an association between parental and offspring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unknown whether this association exists in the general population and whether trauma exposure mediates this association. We sought to determine whether mothers' posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with PTSD in their young adult children and whether this association was mediated by higher trauma exposure in children of women with PTSD. METHODS: Using data from a cohort of mothers (n = 6924) and a cohort of their children (n = 8453), we calculated risk ratios (RR) for child's PTSD and examined mediation by trauma exposure. RESULTS: Mother's lifetime posttraumatic stress symptoms were associated with child's PTSD in dose-response fashion (mother's 1-3 symptoms, child's RR = 1.2; mother's 4-5 symptoms, RR = 1.3; mother's 6-7 symptoms, RR = 1.6, compared with children of mothers with no symptoms, p < .001 for each). Mother's lifetime symptoms were also associated with child's trauma exposure in dose-response fashion. Elevated exposure to trauma substantially mediated elevated risk for PTSD in children of women with symptoms (mediation proportion, 74%, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Intergenerational association of PTSD is clearly present in a large population-based sample. Children of women who had PTSD were more likely than children of women without PTSD to experience traumatic events; this suggests, in part, why the disorder is associated across generations. Health care providers who treat mothers with PTSD should be aware of the higher risk for trauma exposure and PTSD in their children.

16 Minor Response to Letter Regarding Article, "Trauma Exposure and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Predict Onset of Cardiovascular Events in Women". 2016

Sumner, Jennifer A / Kubzansky, Laura D / Elkind, Mitchell S V / Roberts, Andrea L / Agnew-Blais, Jessica / Chen, Qixuan / Cerdá, Magdalena / Rexrode, Kathryn M / Rich-Edwards, Janet W / Spiegelman, Donna / Suglia, Shakira F / Rimm, Eric B / Koenen, Karestan C. ·Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NYDepartment of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. · Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, Department of Neurology, Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY. · Social Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. · Department of Biostatistics, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY. · Department of Emergency Medicine, UC Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA. · Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, The Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY. · Department of Epidemiology, Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit and Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MAStanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA. ·Circulation · Pubmed #26884627.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --