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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Ruby Charak
Based on 11 articles published since 2010
(Why 11 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Ruby Charak wrote the following 11 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Polyvictimization, Emotion Dysregulation, Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Behavioral Health Problems among Justice-Involved Youth: a Latent Class Analysis. 2019

Charak, Ruby / Ford, Julian D / Modrowski, Crosby A / Kerig, Patricia K. ·Department of Psychological Science, ELABN 361, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, Texas, USA. ruby.charak@utrgv.edu. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA. · Department of Psychology, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. ·J Abnorm Child Psychol · Pubmed #29654539.

ABSTRACT: Among the 90% of adolescents involved in juvenile justice who have experienced traumatic victimization, a sub-group may be at highest risk due to histories of multiple types of interpersonal and non-interpersonal trauma, termed polyvictims. Latent class analyses (LCA) have identified polyvictimized subgroups in several studies of adolescents and adults, but only one study of traumatic victimization has been conducted with justice-involved youth (Ford et al. 2013). The current investigation replicates and extends that study's findings using LCA to assess a wider range of victimization- and nonvictimization-related adversities and emotion dysregulation, DSM-5 symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and behavioral health problems, such as substance use, anger, depression, somatic complaints, and suicide ideation. In a sample of juvenile detainees three latent classes were identified: mixed adversity (MA; n = 327), violent environment (VE; n = 337), and polyvictimization (PV; n = 145). In contrast to MA youth, PV youth were more likely to report exposure to all forms of adversity, and in contrast to both MA and VE youth, exposure to maltreatment and family violence, and higher levels of emotion dysregulation, PTSD, and depression/anxiety symptoms, somatic complaints, and suicidality. VE youth (vs. MA youth) were more likely to report exposure to violence and non-interpersonal traumas, and were higher on some forms of emotion dysregulation, PTSD symptoms, anger and substance use. Findings suggest that most justice-involved youth have experienced substantial adversity, with almost one in five identified as a polyvictim having experienced multiple adversities, including impaired caregivers, and evidencing the most severe problems in emotion dysregulation and PTSD, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms.

2 Article PTSD and dissociation symptoms as mediators of the relationship between polyvictimization and psychosocial and behavioral problems among justice-involved adolescents. 2018

Ford, Julian D / Charak, Ruby / Modrowski, Crosby A / Kerig, Patricia K. ·a Department of Psychiatry , University of Connecticut Health Center , Farmington , CT , USA. · b Department of Psychological Science , University of Texas Rio Grande Valley , Edinburg , TX , USA. · c Department of Psychology , University of Utah , Salt Lake City , UT , USA. ·J Trauma Dissociation · Pubmed #29547076.

ABSTRACT: Polyvictimization (PV) has been shown to be associated with psychosocial and behavioral impairment in community and high risk populations, including youth involved in juvenile justice. However, the mechanisms accounting for these adverse outcomes have not been empirically delineated. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation are documented sequelae of PV and are associated with a wide range of behavioral/emotional problems. This study used a cross-sectional research design and bootstrapped multiple mediation analyses with self-report measures completed by a large sample of justice-involved youth (N = 809, ages 12-19 years old, 27% female, 46.5% youth of color) to test the hypothesis that PTSD and dissociation symptoms mediate the relationship between PV and problems with anger, depression/anxiety, alcohol/drug use, and somatic complaints after controlling for the effects of exposure to violence and adversities related to juvenile justice involvement. As hypothesized, PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship of PV with all outcomes except alcohol/drug use problems (which had an unmediated direct association with PV). Partially supporting study hypotheses, dissociation symptoms mediated the relationship between PV and internalizing problems (i.e., depression anxiety; suicide ideation). Implications are discussed for prospective research demarcating the mechanisms linking PV and adverse outcomes in juvenile justice and other high risk populations.

3 Article The relationship between distress tolerance regulation, counterfactual rumination, and PTSD symptom clusters. 2018

Erwin, Meredith Claycomb / Mitchell, Melissa A / Contractor, Ateka A / Dranger, Paula / Charak, Ruby / Elhai, Jon D. ·Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, MS #948, Toledo, OH 43606, United States. · Summa Health Traumatic Stress Center, St. Thomas Campus, 444 North Main Street, Akron, OH 44310, United States. · Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, 1155 Union Circle #311280, Denton, TX 76203, United States. · Counseling Services, and Sexual Assault Awareness and Facilitative Education Office (SAAFE), Valparaiso University, 1602 LaPorte Ave., Valparaiso, IN 46383, United States. · Department of Psychological Science, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, ELABN 361, 1201 West University Drive, Edinburg, TX 78539, United States. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, MS #948, Toledo, OH 43606, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, 3000 Arlington Avenue, Toledo, OH 43606, United States. ·Compr Psychiatry · Pubmed #29477706.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Article Assessing the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and cumulative effect of abuse and neglect on mental health among adolescents in conflict-affected Burundi. 2017

Charak, Ruby / de Jong, J T V M / Berckmoes, Lidewyde H / Ndayisaba, Herman / Reis, Ria. ·Department of Psychological Science, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX 78539, USA. Electronic address: ruby.charak@utrgv.edu. · Amsterdam Institute for Social Science, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Boston University School of Medicine, USA. · Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, The Netherlands. · Transcultural Psychosocial Organisation, Burundi. · Amsterdam Institute for Social Science, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University, The Netherlands; The Children's Institute, University of Cape Town, South Africa. ·Child Abuse Negl · Pubmed #28917188.

ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to examine the factor structure of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), highlight rates of abuse and neglect among Burundian adolescents, compare these rates with those found in high-income nations, and examine the cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect on depression and PTSD symptoms. Participants were 231 adolescents and youth (M=14.9, SD=1.99, 58.4% female) from five provinces of Burundi, a country in Central Africa affected by war and political violence. Translation and back-translation of the CTQ was carried out to obtain an adaptation of CTQ in Kirundi, the native language of Burundi. With the exception of one item on 'molestation' in the factor of sexual abuse, the five-factor structure of CTQ was obtained comprising latent factors, namely emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect. The rate of abuse and neglect ranged from 14.7-93.5% with more than 37% reporting 4 or more types of abuse and neglect experiences. Emotional abuse and neglect, and physical neglect were 2-3 times higher among Burundian adolescents when compared with studies from high-income countries using the CTQ. A cumulative effect of multiple types of abuse and neglect was found, such that, those with 4 or more types of maltreatment were higher on symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Findings highlight the need for culturally sensitive, standardized, and validated measures and norms for gauging childhood maltreatment in Burundi and related need for preventative interventions on childhood maltreatment.

5 Article The 7-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and alcohol consumption and consequences in a national sample of trauma-exposed veterans. 2017

Claycomb Erwin, Meredith / Charak, Ruby / Durham, Tory A / Armour, Cherie / Lv, Xin / Southwick, Steven M / Elhai, Jon D / Pietrzak, Robert H. ·Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States. · Department of Psychological Science, University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley, Edinburg, TX, United States. · Psychology Research Institute, Ulster University, Northern Ireland, UK. · U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Clinical Neurosciences Division, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, United States; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States. Electronic address: contact@jon-elhai.com. ·J Anxiety Disord · Pubmed #28843574.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to investigate associations between the 7-factor hybrid model of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, which includes intrusions, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, anxious arousal, and dysphoric arousal symptoms, and alcohol consumption and consequences. A nationally representative sample of 916 trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans were administered the Trauma History Screen, PTSD Checklist-5, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to determine associations between the 7-factor hybrid model of PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and consequences. Results revealed that lifetime dysphoric arousal (r=0.31), negative affect (r=0.30), and anhedonia (r=0.29) symptom clusters were most strongly associated with past-year alcohol consequences. No significant associations were observed for alcohol consumption. While the cross-sectional study design does not allow one to ascertain causative associations between PTSD factors and alcohol consumption and consequences, results generally align with the self-medication hypothesis, as PTSD factors reflecting internalizing were most strongly related to alcohol-related consequences. These results underscore the importance of assessing for alcohol use problems in veterans who score highly on PTSD symptoms reflecting internalizing symptomatology.

6 Article Latent classes of childhood poly-victimization and associations with suicidal behavior among adult trauma victims: Moderating role of anger. 2016

Charak, Ruby / Byllesby, Brianna M / Roley, Michelle E / Claycomb, Meredith A / Durham, Tory A / Ross, Jana / Armour, Cherie / Elhai, Jon D. ·Department of Psychological Science, The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, TX, United States. Electronic address: ruby.charak@utrgv.edu. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, OH, United States. · Department of Psychiatry, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, OH, United States. · Psychology Research Institute, Ulster University, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. · Department of Psychology and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, OH, United States. ·Child Abuse Negl · Pubmed #27780110.

ABSTRACT: The aims of the present study were first to identify discrete patterns of childhood victimization experiences including crime, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, sexual violence, and witnessing violence among adult trauma victims using latent class analysis; second, to examine the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior, and third to investigate the differential role of dispositional anger on the association between class-membership and suicidal behavior. We hypothesized that those classes with accumulating exposure to different types of childhood victimization (e.g., poly-victimization) would endorse higher suicidal behavior, than the other less severe classes, and those in the most severe class with higher anger trait would have stronger association with suicidal behavior. Respondents were 346 adults (N=346; M

7 Article Validation of the factor structure of the adolescent dissociative experiences scale in a sample of trauma-exposed detained youth. 2016

Kerig, Patricia K / Charak, Ruby / Chaplo, Shannon D / Bennett, Diana C / Armour, Cherie / Modrowski, Crosby A / McGee, Andrew B. ·Department of Psychology, University of Utah. · Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. · Department of Psychology, University of Ulster, Coleraine. ·Psychol Trauma · Pubmed #27100173.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The inclusion of a dissociative subtype in the METHOD: A sample of 784 youth (73.7% boys) recruited from a detention center completed self-report measures of trauma exposure and the A-DES, a subset of whom (n = 212) also completed a measure of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analyses revealed a best fitting 3-factor structure comprised of depersonalization or derealization, amnesia, and loss of conscious control, with configural and metric invariance across gender. Logistic regression analyses indicated that the depersonalization or derealization factor effectively distinguished between those youth who did and did not likely meet criteria for a diagnosis of PTSD as well as those with PTSD who did and did not likely meet criteria for the dissociative subtype. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide support for the multidimensionality of the construct of posttraumatic dissociation and contribute to the understanding of the dissociative subtype of PTSD among adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

8 Article Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder Symptom Domains Relate Differentially to PTSD and Depression: A Study of War-Exposed Bosnian Adolescents. 2016

Claycomb, Meredith A / Charak, Ruby / Kaplow, Julie / Layne, Christopher M / Pynoos, Robert / Elhai, Jon D. ·Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Mail Stop #948, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH, 43606, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 213 Burnett Hall, Lincoln, NE, 68588-0308, USA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 1941 East Rd, Houston, TX, 77054, USA. · UCLA/Duke University National Center for Child Traumatic Stress, and Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California, 11150 W. Olympic Blvd., Suite 650, Los Angeles, CA, 90064, USA. · Department of Psychology and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Mail Stop #948, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH, 43606, USA. contact@jon-elhai.com. ·J Abnorm Child Psychol · Pubmed #26695010.

ABSTRACT: Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder (PCBD) is a newly proposed diagnosis placed in the Appendix of the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as an invitation for further research. To date, no studies have examined the dimensionality of PCBD or explored whether different PCBD criteria domains relate in similar, versus differential, ways to other psychological conditions common to war-exposed bereaved youth, including symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. We evaluated the dimensionality of proposed PCBD B and C symptom domains, and their respective relations with measures of PTSD and depression, in 1142 bereaved Bosnian adolescents exposed to the 1992-1995 Bosnian civil war. Instruments included the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, the Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the UCLA Grief Screening Scale (a prototype measure of PCBD symptoms). We investigated potential differences in grief, PTSD, and depression scores as a function of cause of death. We then examined hypothesized differential relations between PCBD B and C symptom domain subscales and selected external correlates, specifically measures of depression and the four-factor emotional numbing model of PTSD. Results of both analyses provide preliminary evidence of a multidimensional structure for PCBD in this population, in that the PCBD Criterion C subscale score covaried more strongly with each of the four PTSD factors and with depression than did PCBD Criterion B. We conclude by discussing theoretical, methodological, clinical, and policy-related implications linked to the ongoing study of essential features of PCBD.

9 Article Dimensional structure of DSM-5 posttraumatic stress symptoms: support for a hybrid Anhedonia and Externalizing Behaviors model. 2015

Armour, Cherie / Tsai, Jack / Durham, Tory A / Charak, Ruby / Biehn, Tracey L / Elhai, Jon D / Pietrzak, Robert H. ·Psychology Research Institute, University of Ulster, Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK. Electronic address: armour.cherie@gmail.com. · United States Department of Veterans Affairs New England Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, West Haven, CT, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; United States Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Clinical Neurosciences Division, VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA. ·J Psychiatr Res · Pubmed #25479765.

ABSTRACT: Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD's tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.

10 Article Factor structure of PTSD, and relation with gender in trauma survivors from India. 2014

Charak, Ruby / Armour, Cherie / Elklit, Ask / Angmo, Disket / Elhai, Jon D / Koot, Hans M. ·Department of Developmental Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Psychology, University of Jammu, Jammu, India. · School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Coleraine, UK; armour.cherie@gmail.com. · The National Centre for Psychotraumatology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. · Government Eliezer Joldan Memorial College, Leh, India. · Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA. · Department of Developmental Psychology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. ·Eur J Psychotraumatol · Pubmed #25413575.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been extensively studied in Western countries. Some studies have assessed its factor structure in Asia (China, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia), but few have directly assessed the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian adult sample. Furthermore, in a largely patriarchal society in India with strong gender roles, it becomes imperative to assess the association between the factors of PTSD and gender. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the factor structure of PTSD in an Indian sample of trauma survivors based on prevailing models of PTSD defined in the DSM-IV-TR (APA, 2000), and to assess the relation between PTSD factors and gender. METHOD: The sample comprised of 313 participants (55.9% female) from Jammu and Kashmir, India, who had experienced a natural disaster (N=200) or displacement due to cross-border firing (N=113). RESULTS: Three existing PTSD models-two four-factor models (Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria), and a five-factor model (Dysphoric Arousal)-were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis with addition of gender as a covariate. The three competing models had similar fit indices although the Dysphoric Arousal model fit significantly better than Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. Gender differences were found across the factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that the Dysphoric Arousal model of PTSD was the best model; albeit the fit indices of all models were fairly similar. Compared to males, females scored higher on factors of Re-experiencing and Anxious arousal. Gender differences found across two factors of PTSD are discussed in light of the social milieu in India.

11 Article Relations between PTSD and distress dimensions in an Indian child/adolescent sample following the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. 2014

Contractor, Ateka A / Mehta, Panna / Tiamiyu, Mojisola F / Hovey, Joseph D / Geers, Andrew L / Charak, Ruby / Tamburrino, Marijo B / Elhai, Jon D. ·Department of Psychology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA, atscon60@hotmail.com. ·J Abnorm Child Psychol · Pubmed #24390471.

ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder's (PTSD) four-factor dysphoria model has substantial empirical support (reviewed in Elhai & Palmieri, Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 849-854, 2011; Yufik & Simms, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119, 764-776, 2010). However, debatable is whether the model's dysphoria factor adequately captures all of PTSD's emotional distress (e.g., Marshall et al., Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(1), 126-135, 2010), which is relevant to understanding the assessment and psychopathology of PTSD. Thus, the present study assessed the factor-level relationship between PTSD and emotional distress in 818 children/adolescents attending school in the vicinity of the 2008 Mumbai terrorist attacks. The effective sample had a mean age of 12.85 years (SD = 1.33), with the majority being male (n = 435, 53.8 %). PTSD and emotional distress were measured by the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI) and Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18) respectively. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) assessed the PTSD and BSI-18 model fit; Wald tests assessed hypothesized PTSD-distress latent-level relations; and invariance testing examined PTSD-distress parameter differences using age, gender and direct exposure as moderators. There were no moderating effects for the PTSD-distress structural parameters. BSI-18's depression and somatization factors related more to PTSD's dysphoria than PTSD's avoidance factor. The results emphasize assessing for specificity and distress variance of PTSD factors on a continuum, rather than assuming dysphoria factor's complete accountability for PTSD's inherent distress. Additionally, PTSD's dysphoria factor related more to BSI-18's depression than BSI-18's anxiety/somatization factors; this may explain PTSD's comorbidity mechanism with depressive disorders.