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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Bizu Gelaye
Based on 13 articles published since 2010
(Why 13 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, B. Gelaye wrote the following 13 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Association of stress-related sleep disturbance with psychiatric symptoms among pregnant women. 2020

Sanchez, Sixto E / Friedman, Lauren E / Rondon, Marta B / Drake, Christopher L / Williams, Michelle A / Gelaye, Bizu. ·Asociación Civil Proyectos en Salud (PROESA), Lima, Peru; Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. · Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Wayne State University Detroit, MI, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; The Chester M. Pierce M.D. Division of Global Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. ·Sleep Med · Pubmed #32193051.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Physiological changes during pregnancy are often accompanied by reduced sleep quality, sleep disruptions, and insomnia. Studies conducted among men and non-pregnant women have documented psychiatric disorders as common comorbidities of insomnia and other sleep disorders. However, no previous study has examined the association between stress-related sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders among pregnant women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included a total of 2051 pregnant women in Peru. The Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST-S) was used to assess sleep disruptions due to stressful situations. Symptoms of antepartum depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version, respectively. High risk for psychosis was assessed using the Prodromal Questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Stress-related sleep disturbance was reported by 33.2% of women. Of all women, 24.9% had antepartum depression, 32.2% had generalized anxiety disorder, 30.9% had PTSD, and 27.6% were assessed as having a high risk of psychosis. After adjusting for confounders, women with stress-related sleep disturbances were more likely to experience antepartum depression (OR = 2.74; 95%CI: 2.22-3.38), generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 2.48; 95%CI: 2.04-3.02), PTSD (OR = 2.36; 95%CI: 1.93-2.88), and high risk for psychosis (OR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.69-2.54) as compared to women without stress-related sleep disturbances. CONCLUSIONS: Stress-related sleep disturbances during pregnancy are associated with increased odds of psychiatric disorders. Inquiring about stress related sleep disturbances during antenatal care may be beneficial for identifying and caring for women at high risk of psychiatric disorders.

2 Article Molecular genetic overlap between posttraumatic stress disorder and sleep phenotypes. 2020

Lind, Mackenzie J / Brick, Leslie A / Gehrman, Philip R / Duncan, Laramie E / Gelaye, Bizu / Maihofer, Adam X / Nievergelt, Caroline M / Nugent, Nicole R / Stein, Murray B / Amstadter, Ananda B / Anonymous4881174. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, WA. · Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, VA. · Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior in Alpert Medical School of Brown University, RI. · Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, PA. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, CA. · Department of Epidemiology and Psychiatry, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Harvard School of Medicine, MA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego and Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, VA San Diego Healthcare System, CA. · Bradley/Hasbro Children's Research Center of Rhode Island Hospital, RI. · Department of Psychiatry and Family Medicine & Public Health, University of California San Diego, CA and VA San Diego Healthcare System, CA. · Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, VA. ·Sleep · Pubmed #31802129.

ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVES: Sleep problems are common, serving as both a predictor and symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with these bidirectional relationships well established in the literature. While both sleep phenotypes and PTSD are moderately heritable, there has been a paucity of investigation into potential genetic overlap between sleep and PTSD. Here, we estimate genetic correlations between multiple sleep phenotypes (including insomnia symptoms, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and chronotype) and PTSD, using results from the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) to date of PTSD, as well as publicly available GWAS results for sleep phenotypes within UK Biobank data (23 variations, encompassing four main phenotypes). METHODS: Genetic correlations were estimated utilizing linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC), an approach that uses GWAS summary statistics to compute genetic correlations across traits, and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses were conducted to follow up on significant correlations. RESULTS: Significant, moderate genetic correlations were found between insomnia symptoms (rg range 0.36-0.49), oversleeping (rg range 0.32-0.44), undersleeping (rg range 0.48-0.49), and PTSD. In contrast, there were mixed results for continuous sleep duration and daytime sleepiness phenotypes, and chronotype was not correlated with PTSD. MR analyses did not provide evidence for casual effects of sleep phenotypes on PTSD. CONCLUSION: Sleep phenotypes, particularly insomnia symptoms and extremes of sleep duration, have shared genetic etiology with PTSD, but causal relationships were not identified. This highlights the importance of further investigation into the overlapping influences on these phenotypes as sample sizes increase and new methods to investigate directionality and causality become available.

3 Article Association of antepartum depression, generalized anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder with infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery. 2020

Gelaye, Bizu / Sanchez, Sixto E / Andrade, Ana / Gómez, Oswaldo / Coker, Ann L / Dole, Nancy / Rondon, Marta B / Williams, Michelle A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; The Chester M. Pierce, MD Division of Global Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital; Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. · Universidad San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru; Asociación Civil Proyectos en Salud, Lima, Peru. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USA. · Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia and Instituto Nacional Materno Perinatal, Lima, Peru. ·J Affect Disord · Pubmed #31733923.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries bear a disproportionate burden of preterm birth (PTB) and low infant birth weight (LBW) complications where affective and anxiety disorders are more common in the antepartum period than in industrialized countries. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which early pregnancy antepartum depression, generalized anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with infant birth weight and gestational age at delivery among a cohort of pregnant women in Peru. METHODS: Our prospective cohort study consisted of 4408 pregnant women. Antepartum depression, generalized anxiety, and PTSD were assessed in early pregnancy using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale-7 and PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version, respectively. Pregnancy outcome data were obtained from medical records. Multivariable linear and logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted measures of association (β coefficients and odds ratios) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: After adjusting for confounders, women with antepartum generalized anxiety (32.6% prevalence) had higher odds of LBW (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.47; 95%CI: 1.10-1.95) and were more likely to deliver small for gestational age (OR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.01-1.92) infants compared to those without anxiety. Compared to those without PTSD, women with PTSD (34.5%) had higher odds of delivering preterm (OR = 1.28; 95%CI: 1.00-1.65) yet PTSD was not associated with LBW nor gestational age at delivery. Women with antepartum depression (26.2%) were at no increased risk of delivering a preterm, low-birth-weight or small-for-gestational-age infant. LIMITATIONS: Our ability to make casual inferences from this observational study is limited; however, these findings are consistent with prior studies. CONCLUSION: Generalized anxiety disorder during pregnancy appeared to increase odds of delivering a low-birth-weight or small-for-gestational-age infant, while PTSD was associated with increased odds of delivering preterm. Our findings, and those of others, suggest antenatal care should be tailored to screen for and provide additional mental health services to patients.

4 Article International meta-analysis of PTSD genome-wide association studies identifies sex- and ancestry-specific genetic risk loci. 2019

Nievergelt, Caroline M / Maihofer, Adam X / Klengel, Torsten / Atkinson, Elizabeth G / Chen, Chia-Yen / Choi, Karmel W / Coleman, Jonathan R I / Dalvie, Shareefa / Duncan, Laramie E / Gelernter, Joel / Levey, Daniel F / Logue, Mark W / Polimanti, Renato / Provost, Allison C / Ratanatharathorn, Andrew / Stein, Murray B / Torres, Katy / Aiello, Allison E / Almli, Lynn M / Amstadter, Ananda B / Andersen, Søren B / Andreassen, Ole A / Arbisi, Paul A / Ashley-Koch, Allison E / Austin, S Bryn / Avdibegovic, Esmina / Babić, Dragan / Bækvad-Hansen, Marie / Baker, Dewleen G / Beckham, Jean C / Bierut, Laura J / Bisson, Jonathan I / Boks, Marco P / Bolger, Elizabeth A / Børglum, Anders D / Bradley, Bekh / Brashear, Megan / Breen, Gerome / Bryant, Richard A / Bustamante, Angela C / Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas / Calabrese, Joseph R / Caldas-de-Almeida, José M / Dale, Anders M / Daly, Mark J / Daskalakis, Nikolaos P / Deckert, Jürgen / Delahanty, Douglas L / Dennis, Michelle F / Disner, Seth G / Domschke, Katharina / Dzubur-Kulenovic, Alma / Erbes, Christopher R / Evans, Alexandra / Farrer, Lindsay A / Feeny, Norah C / Flory, Janine D / Forbes, David / Franz, Carol E / Galea, Sandro / Garrett, Melanie E / Gelaye, Bizu / Geuze, Elbert / Gillespie, Charles / Uka, Aferdita Goci / Gordon, Scott D / Guffanti, Guia / Hammamieh, Rasha / Harnal, Supriya / Hauser, Michael A / Heath, Andrew C / Hemmings, Sian M J / Hougaard, David Michael / Jakovljevic, Miro / Jett, Marti / Johnson, Eric Otto / Jones, Ian / Jovanovic, Tanja / Qin, Xue-Jun / Junglen, Angela G / Karstoft, Karen-Inge / Kaufman, Milissa L / Kessler, Ronald C / Khan, Alaptagin / Kimbrel, Nathan A / King, Anthony P / Koen, Nastassja / Kranzler, Henry R / Kremen, William S / Lawford, Bruce R / Lebois, Lauren A M / Lewis, Catrin E / Linnstaedt, Sarah D / Lori, Adriana / Lugonja, Bozo / Luykx, Jurjen J / Lyons, Michael J / Maples-Keller, Jessica / Marmar, Charles / Martin, Alicia R / Martin, Nicholas G / Maurer, Douglas / Mavissakalian, Matig R / McFarlane, Alexander / McGlinchey, Regina E / McLaughlin, Katie A / McLean, Samuel A / McLeay, Sarah / Mehta, Divya / Milberg, William P / Miller, Mark W / Morey, Rajendra A / Morris, Charles Phillip / Mors, Ole / Mortensen, Preben B / Neale, Benjamin M / Nelson, Elliot C / Nordentoft, Merete / Norman, Sonya B / O'Donnell, Meaghan / Orcutt, Holly K / Panizzon, Matthew S / Peters, Edward S / Peterson, Alan L / Peverill, Matthew / Pietrzak, Robert H / Polusny, Melissa A / Rice, John P / Ripke, Stephan / Risbrough, Victoria B / Roberts, Andrea L / Rothbaum, Alex O / Rothbaum, Barbara O / Roy-Byrne, Peter / Ruggiero, Ken / Rung, Ariane / Rutten, Bart P F / Saccone, Nancy L / Sanchez, Sixto E / Schijven, Dick / Seedat, Soraya / Seligowski, Antonia V / Seng, Julia S / Sheerin, Christina M / Silove, Derrick / Smith, Alicia K / Smoller, Jordan W / Sponheim, Scott R / Stein, Dan J / Stevens, Jennifer S / Sumner, Jennifer A / Teicher, Martin H / Thompson, Wesley K / Trapido, Edward / Uddin, Monica / Ursano, Robert J / van den Heuvel, Leigh Luella / Van Hooff, Miranda / Vermetten, Eric / Vinkers, Christiaan H / Voisey, Joanne / Wang, Yunpeng / Wang, Zhewu / Werge, Thomas / Williams, Michelle A / Williamson, Douglas E / Winternitz, Sherry / Wolf, Christiane / Wolf, Erika J / Wolff, Jonathan D / Yehuda, Rachel / Young, Ross McD / Young, Keith A / Zhao, Hongyu / Zoellner, Lori A / Liberzon, Israel / Ressler, Kerry J / Haas, Magali / Koenen, Karestan C. ·University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Research Service, San Diego, CA, USA. cnievergelt@ucsd.edu. · University of California San Diego, Department of Psychiatry, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health, San Diego, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Research Service, San Diego, CA, USA. · Harvard Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, USA. · McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA, USA. · University Medical Center Goettingen, Department of Psychiatry, Göttingen, DE, Germany. · Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Boston, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Genetics Unit (PNGU), Boston, MA, USA. · Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, USA. · King's College London, Social, Genetic and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, GB, USA. · King's College London, NIHR BRC at the Maudsley, London, GB, USA. · University of Cape Town, SA MRC Unit on Risk & Resilience in Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Cape Town, Western Cape, ZA, USA. · Stanford University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford, CA, USA. · US Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Psychiatry, West Haven, CT, USA. · Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Neuroscience, New Haven, CT, USA. · VA Connecticut Healthcare Center, West Haven, CT, USA. · Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New Haven, CT, USA. · VA Boston Healthcare System, National Center for PTSD, Boston, MA, USA. · Cohen Veterans Bioscience, Cambridge, MA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Million Veteran Program, San Diego, CA, USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Psychiatry Service, San Diego, CA, USA. · Gillings School of Global Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Emory University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Department of Psychiatry, Richmond, VA, USA. · The Danish Veteran Centre, Research and Knowledge Centre, Ringsted, Sjaelland, Denmark. · University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, NO, Norway. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Mental Health Service Line, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Duke University, Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Durham, NC, USA. · Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Adolescent and Young Adult Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Brigham and Women's Hospital, Channing Division of Network Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · University Clinical Center of Tuzla, Department of Psychiatry, Tuzla, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · University Clinical Center of Mostar, Department of Psychiatry, Mostar, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · Statens Serum Institut, Department for Congenital Disorders, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, DK, Denmark. · Durham VA Medical Center, Research, Durham, NC, USA. · Duke University, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC, USA. · VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center (MIRECC), Genetics Research Laboratory, Durham, NC, USA. · Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Saint Louis, MO, USA. · Cardiff University, National Centre for Mental Health, MRC Centre for Psychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff, UK. · UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Translational Neuroscience, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · Aarhus University, Centre for Integrative Sequencing, iSEQ, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, Department of Biomedicine - Human Genetics, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Atlanta VA Health Care System, Mental Health Service Line, Decatur, GA, USA. · Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Public Health and Department of Epidemiology, New Orleans, LA, USA. · University of New South Wales, Department of Psychology, Sydney, NSW, Australia. · University of Michigan Medical School, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University Hospitals, Department of Psychiatry, Cleveland, OH, USA. · CEDOC -Chronic Diseases Research Centre, Lisbon Institute of Global Mental Health, Lisbon, PT, Portugal. · University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, Department of Neurosciences, La Jolla, CA, USA. · Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY, USA. · University Hospital of Würzburg, Center of Mental Health, Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, Würzburg, DE, Germany. · Kent State University, Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent, OH, USA. · Kent State University, Research and Sponsored Programs, Kent, OH, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Research Service Line, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Freiburg, DE, Germany. · University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, Centre for Basics in Neuromodulation, Freiburg, DE, Germany. · University Clinical Center of Sarajevo, Department of Psychiatry, Sarajevo, BA, Bosnia and Herzegovina. · University of Minnesota, Department of Psychiatry, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Center for Care Delivery and Outcomes Research (CCDOR), Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Cardiff University, National Centre for Mental Health, MRC Centre for Psychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Cardiff, South Glamorgan, GB, USA. · Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA. · Case Western Reserve University, Department of Psychological Sciences, Cleveland, OH, USA. · University of Melbourne, Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne, VIC, AU, USA. · Boston University, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · Netherlands Ministry of Defence, Brain Research and Innovation Centre, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · UMC Utrecht Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Psychiatry, Utrecht, Utrecht, NL, Netherlands. · University Clinical Centre of Kosovo, Department of Psychiatry, Prishtina, Kosovo, XK, USA. · QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. · US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, USACEHR, Fort Detrick, MD, USA. · Washington University in Saint Louis School of Medicine, Department of Genetics, Saint Louis, MO, USA. · Stellenbosch University Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Psychiatry, Cape Town, Western Cape, ZA, South Africa. · University Hospital Center of Zagreb, Department of Psychiatry, Zagreb, HR, USA. · RTI International, Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Division, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. · University of Copenhagen, Department of Psychology, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · Harvard Medical School, Department of Health Care Policy, Boston, MA, USA. · University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Mental Illness Research, Education and Clinical Center, Crescenz VAMC, Philadelphia, PA, USA. · Queensland University of Technology, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · Queensland University of Technology, School of Biomedical Sciences, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · UNC Institute for Trauma Recovery, Department of Anesthesiology, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Emory University, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Boston University, Dean's Office, Boston, MA, USA. · New York University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, New York, NY, USA. · United States Army, Command, Fort Sill, OK, USA. · University of Adelaide, Department of Psychiatry, Adelaide, South Australia, AU, Australia. · VA Boston Health Care System, GRECC/TRACTS, Boston, MA, USA. · Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Boston, MA, USA. · UNC Institute for Trauma Recovery, Department of Emergency Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · Gallipoli Medical Research Institute, PTSD Initiative, Greenslopes, Queensland, AU, Australia. · Queensland University of Technology, School of Psychology and Counseling, Faculty of Health, Kelvin Grove, QLD, AU, Australia. · Aarhus University Hospital, Psychosis Research Unit, Risskov, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, Centre for Integrated Register-based Research, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · Aarhus University, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus, DK, Denmark. · University of Copenhagen, Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark, Mental Health Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK, Denmark. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, Department of Research and Psychiatry, San Diego, CA, USA. · National Center for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Executive Division, White River Junction, San Diego, VT, USA. · Northern Illinois University, Department of Psychology, DeKalb, IL, USA. · University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Psychiatry, San Antonio, TX, USA. · University of Washington, Department of Psychology, Seattle, WA, USA. · U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, West Haven, CT, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Department of Mental Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Minneapolis VA Health Care System, Department of Psychology, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Berlin, GE, Germany. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Nursing and Department of Psychiatry, Charleston, SC, USA. · Maastricht Universitair Medisch Centrum, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht, Limburg, NL, Netherlands. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Department of Medicine, Lima, Lima, PE, USA. · University of Michigan, School of Nursing, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. · University of New South Wales, Department of Psychiatry, Sydney, NSW, AU, USA. · Columbia University Medical Center, Department of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Mental Health Centre Sct. Hans, Institute of Biological Psychiatry, Roskilde, DK, Denmark. · Oslo University Hospital, KG Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Norway Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo, NO, USA. · University of South Florida College of Public Health, Genomics Program, Tampa, FL, USA. · Uniformed Services University, Department of Psychiatry, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. · Arq, Psychotrauma Reseach Expert Group, Diemen, NH, Netherlands. · Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Leiden, ZH, NL, Netherlands. · Netherlands Defense Department, Research Center, Utrecht, UT, Netherlands. · Amsterdam UMC (location VUmc), Department of Anatomy and Neurosciences, Amsterdam, Holland, NL, Netherlands. · Amsterdam UMC (location VUmc), Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam, Holland, NL, Netherlands. · Ralph H Johnson VA Medical Center, Department of Mental Health, Charleston, SC, USA. · Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Charleston, SC, USA. · University of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen, Denmark. · James J Peters VA Medical Center, Department of Mental Health, Bronx, NY, USA. · Baylor Scott and White Central Texas, Department of Psychiatry, Temple, TX, USA. · CTVHCS, COE for Research on Returning War Veterans, Waco, TX, USA. · Yale University, Department of Biostatistics, New Haven, CT, USA. · University of Washington, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Seattle, WA, USA. · Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Boston, MA, USA. ·Nat Commun · Pubmed #31594949.

ABSTRACT: The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.

5 Article Association Between Migraine and Suicidal Behaviors: A Nationwide Study in the USA. 2018

Friedman, Lauren E / Zhong, Qiu-Yue / Gelaye, Bizu / Williams, Michelle A / Peterlin, B Lee. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Neurology, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·Headache · Pubmed #29193052.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Recent studies show migraineurs are at an increased risk of developing suicidal behaviors, even after controlling for comorbid depression. However, previous research has not examined the impact of psychiatric mood disorders on suicidal behaviors in migraineurs within a nationally representative sample. OBJECTIVE: A cross-sectional study was used to investigate the association between migraine and suicidal behaviors and determine whether psychiatric comorbidities modify this association in a nationwide inpatient cohort. METHODS: We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of hospitalizations compiled from USA billing data. Migraine, suicidal behaviors, and psychiatric disorders were identified based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9 RESULTS: 156,172,826 hospitalizations were included, of which 1.4% had a migraine diagnosis and 1.6% had a diagnosis of suicidal behavior. Migraineurs had a 2.07-fold increased odds of suicidal behaviors (95%CI: 1.96-2.19) compared with non-migraineurs. We repeated analyses after stratifying by depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Among hospitalizations with depression, migraine was associated with a 20% reduced odds of suicidal behaviors (95%CI: 0.76-0.85). Among hospitalizations without depression, migraine was associated with 2.35-fold increased odds of suicidal behaviors (95%CI: 2.20-2.51). In stratified analyses, we noted that among hospitalizations with anxiety, migraineurs had slightly increased odds of suicidal behaviors (OR: 1.07, 95%CI: 1.02-1.13). Among hospitalizations without anxiety, migraine was associated with a 2.06-fold increased odds of suicidal behaviors (95%CI: 1.94-2.20). Similarly, in analyses stratified by PTSD, migraine was not associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviors (OR: 1.00, 95%CI: 0.94-1.07) among those with PTSD. However, the odds of suicidal behaviors were increased among hospitalizations without PTSD (OR: 1.95, 95%CI: 1.84-2.08). CONCLUSION: Chronic conditions that do not affect the current hospitalization may not have been reported. The presence of psychiatric diagnoses influences associations of suicidal behaviors with migraine in a national inpatient sample. Migraineurs with diagnosed comorbid psychiatric disorders may be receiving care that mitigates their risk for suicidal behaviors.

6 Article Trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. 2018

Levey, Elizabeth J / Gelaye, Bizu / Koenen, Karestan / Zhong, Qiu-Yue / Basu, Archana / Rondon, Marta B / Sanchez, Sixto / Henderson, David C / Williams, Michelle A. ·The Chester M. Pierce, MD Division of Global Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. elevey@mgh.harvard.edu. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. elevey@mgh.harvard.edu. · Institute for Juvenile Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 60608, USA. elevey@mgh.harvard.edu. · Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · The Chester M. Pierce, MD Division of Global Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, 02114, USA. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. · Department of Psychiatry, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02118, USA. · Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 02118, USA. ·Arch Womens Ment Health · Pubmed #28905129.

ABSTRACT: Women have a higher prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than men, with a peak during the reproductive years. PTSD during pregnancy adversely impacts maternal and infant health outcomes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the prevalence of antepartum PTSD symptoms in a population of pregnant Peruvian women and to examine the impact of number of traumatic events and type of trauma experienced. The Traumatic Events Questionnaire was used to collect data about traumatic exposures. The Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used to assess PTSD. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Three thousand three hundred seventy-two pregnant women were interviewed. Of the 2920 who reported experiencing one or more traumatic events, 41.8% met criteria for PTSD (PCL-C score ≥ 26). A quarter of participants had experienced four or more traumas, and 60.5% of those women had PTSD. Interpersonal trauma was most strongly associated with PTSD (aOR, 3.20; 95% CI, 2.74-3.74), followed by unspeakable trauma (aOR, 2.87; 95% CI, 2.35-3.50), and structural trauma (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.67). These findings indicate the high prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy in the Peruvian population, which is relevant to other countries suffering from terrorism, war, or high rates of violence. This underscores the importance of screening for PTSD in pregnancy.

7 Article Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women. 2017

Sanchez, Sixto E / Pineda, Omar / Chaves, Diana Z / Zhong, Qiu-Yue / Gelaye, Bizu / Simon, Gregory E / Rondon, Marta B / Williams, Michelle A. ·Asociación Civil PROESA, Lima, Peru; Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicados, Lima, Peru. · Multidisciplinary International Research Training, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA. Electronic address: bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. · Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, WA. · Department of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru. ·Ann Epidemiol · Pubmed #29079333.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). METHODS: In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health.

8 Article Trauma and traumatic stress in a sample of pregnant women. 2017

Gelaye, Bizu / Zhong, Qiu-Yue / Basu, Archana / Levey, Elizabeth J / Rondon, Marta B / Sanchez, Sixto / Koenen, Karestan C / Henderson, David C / Williams, Michelle A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA; Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; The Chester M. Pierce, MD Division of Global Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · The Chester M. Pierce, MD Division of Global Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Institute for Juvenile Research, University of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA. · Department of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru; Asociación Civil PROESA, Lima, Peru. · Department of Psychiatry, Boston University Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #28843870.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine the construct validity of the 9 item Traumatic Events Questionnaire (TEQ) and to evaluate the extent to which experiences of trauma assessed using the TEQ are associated with symptoms of psychiatric disorders among 3342 pregnant women in Lima, Peru. METHODS: Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the PTSD Checklist-civilian (PCL-C) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) were used to assess symptoms of PTSD and generalized anxiety. Hierarchical logistic regression procedures were used to evaluate relations between TEQ and symptoms of psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: The majority of participants (87.8%) experienced at least one traumatic event (mean = 2.5 events). The trauma occurrence score was moderately correlated with symptoms of PTSD (PCL-C: rho = 0.38, P-value < 0.0001), depression (EPDS: rho = 0.31, P-value < 0.0001; PHQ-9: rho = 0.20, P-value < 0.0001), and GAD (GAD-7: rho = 0.29, P-value < 0.0001). Stronger correlations were observed between the trauma intensity score with symptoms of psychiatric disorders (PCL-C: rho = 0.49, P-value < 0.0001; EPDS: rho = 0.36, P-value < 0.0001; PHQ-9: rho = 0.31, P-value < 0.0001; GAD-7: rho = 0.39, P-value < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Given the high burden of trauma experiences and the enduring adverse consequences on maternal and child health, there is an urgent need for integrating evidence-based trauma informed care programs in obstetrical practices serving Peruvian patients.

9 Article Migraine and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder among a cohort of pregnant women. 2017

Friedman, Lauren E / Aponte, Christina / Perez Hernandez, Rigoberto / Velez, Juan Carlos / Gelaye, Bizu / Sánchez, Sixto E / Williams, Michelle A / Peterlin, B Lee. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K501, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. lfriedm@hsph.harvard.edu. · Multidisciplinary International Research Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. · Departamento de Rehabilitación, Hospital del Trabajador, Santiago, Chile. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K501, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Global Health and Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. · Asociación Civil PROESA, Lima, Peru. · Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA. ·J Headache Pain · Pubmed #28685258.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Individually both migraine and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence estimates are higher among women. However, there is limited data on the association of migraine and PTSD in women during pregnancy. METHODS: We examined the association between migraine and PTSD among women attending prenatal clinics in Peru. Migraine was characterized using the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD)-III beta criteria. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Of the 2922 pregnant women included, 33.5% fulfilled criteria for any migraine (migraine 12.5%; probable migraine 21.0%) and 37.4% fulfilled PTSD criteria. Even when controlling for depression, women with any migraine had almost a 2-fold increased odds of PTSD (OR: 1.97; 95% CI: 1.64-2.37) as compared to women without migraine. Specifically, women with migraine alone (i.e. excluding probable migraine) had a 2.85-fold increased odds of PTSD (95% CI: 2.18-3.74), and women with probable migraine alone had a 1.61-fold increased odds of PTSD (95% CI: 1.30-1.99) as compared to those without migraine, even after controlling for depression. In those women with both migraine and comorbid depression, the odds of PTSD in all migraine categories were even further increased as compared to those women without migraine. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of pregnant women, irrespective of the presence or absence of depression, the odds of PTSD is increased in those with migraine. Our findings suggest the importance of screening for PTSD, specifically in pregnant women with migraine.

10 Article Validity of the posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) checklist in pregnant women. 2017

Gelaye, Bizu / Zheng, Yinnan / Medina-Mora, Maria Elena / Rondon, Marta B / Sánchez, Sixto E / Williams, Michelle A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K505F, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K505F, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico City, Mexico. · Department of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru. · Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. · Asociación Civil PROESA, Lima, Peru. ·BMC Psychiatry · Pubmed #28494804.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The PTSD Checklist-civilian (PCL-C) is one of the most commonly used self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, however, little is known about its validity when used in pregnancy. This study aims to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PCL-C as a screen for detecting PTSD symptoms among pregnant women. METHODS: A total of 3372 pregnant women who attended their first prenatal care visit in Lima, Peru participated in the study. We assessed the reliability of the PCL-C items using Cronbach's alpha. Criterion validity and performance characteristics of PCL-C were assessed against an independent, blinded Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) interview using measures of sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. We tested construct validity using exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approaches. RESULTS: The reliability of the PCL-C was excellent (Cronbach's alpha =0.90). ROC analysis showed that a cut-off score of 26 offered optimal discriminatory power, with a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.92) and a specificity of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.62-0.65). The area under the ROC curve was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71-0.78). A three-factor solution was extracted using exploratory factor analysis and was further complemented with three other models using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In a CFA, a three-factor model based on DSM-IV symptom structure had reasonable fit statistics with comparative fit index of 0.86 and root mean square error of approximation of 0.09. CONCLUSION: The Spanish-language version of the PCL-C may be used as a screening tool for pregnant women. The PCL-C has good reliability, criterion validity and factorial validity. The optimal cut-off score obtained by maximizing the sensitivity and specificity should be considered cautiously; women who screened positive may require further investigation to confirm PTSD diagnosis.

11 Article Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in pregnant women with post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression. 2016

Yang, Na / Gelaye, Bizu / Zhong, Qiuyue / Rondon, Marta B / Sanchez, Sixto E / Williams, Michelle A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K505F, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Institute of Reproductive and Child Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Peking University, Beijing, China. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, K505F, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. bgelaye@hsph.harvard.edu. · Department of Medicine, Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University, Lima, Peru. · Universidad de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. · Asociación Civil PROESA, Lima, Peru. ·Arch Womens Ment Health · Pubmed #27193345.

ABSTRACT: There is accumulating evidence for the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathophysiology of depression. However, the role of BDNF in the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains controversial, and no study has assessed BDNF concentrations among pregnant women with PTSD. We examined early-pregnancy BDNF concentrations among women with PTSD with and without depression. A total of 2928 women attending prenatal care clinics in Lima, Peru, were recruited. Antepartum PTSD and depression were evaluated using PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scales, respectively. BDNF concentrations were measured in a subset of the cohort (N = 944) using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Antepartum PTSD (37.4 %) and depression (27.6 %) were prevalent in this cohort of low-income pregnant Peruvian women. Approximately 19.9 % of participants had comorbid PTSD-depression. Median serum BDNF concentrations were lower among women with comorbid PTSD-depression as compared with women without either condition (median [interquartile range], 20.44 [16.97-24.30] vs. 21.35 [17.33-26.01] ng/ml; P = 0.06). Compared to the referent group (those without PTSD and depression), women with comorbid PTSD-depression were 1.52-fold more likely to have low (<25.38 ng/ml) BDNF concentrations (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI 1.00-2.31). We observed no evidence of reduced BDNF concentrations among women with isolated PTSD. BDNF concentrations in early pregnancy were only minimally and non-significantly reduced among women with antepartum PTSD. Reductions in BDNF concentrations were more pronounced among women with comorbid PTSD-depression.

12 Article Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature. 2015

Wosu, Adaeze C / Gelaye, Bizu / Williams, Michelle A. ·Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge, Room 500, Boston, MA, 02115, USA, awosu@hsph.harvard.edu. ·Arch Womens Ment Health · Pubmed #25380784.

ABSTRACT: The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean ± SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p < 0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p < 0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p < 0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p < 0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women.

13 Minor Letter to the Editor: Posttraumatic stress disorder has genetic overlap with cardiometabolic traits. 2017

Sumner, J A / Duncan, L E / Wolf, E J / Amstadter, A B / Baker, D G / Beckham, J C / Gelaye, B / Hemmings, S / Kimbrel, N A / Logue, M W / Michopoulos, V / Mitchell, K S / Nievergelt, C / Rothbaum, A / Seedat, S / Shinozaki, G / Vermetten, E. ·Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Medical Center,New York, NY,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,Stanford University,Stanford, CA,USA. · National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System,Boston, MA,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond, VA,USA. · Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System and Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence for Stress and Mental Health,San Diego, CA,USA. · VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center,Durham, NC,USA. · Department of Epidemiology,Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health,Boston, MA,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,Stellenbosch University,Stellenbosch,South Africa. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences,Emory University School of Medicine,Atlanta, GA,USA. · Department of Psychological Sciences,Case Western Reserve University,Cleveland, OH,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine,Iowa City, IA,USA. · Department of Psychiatry,Leiden University Medical Centre,Leiden,The Netherlands. ·Psychol Med · Pubmed #28374664.

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