Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Nathan T. Kearns
Based on 6 articles published since 2010
(Why 6 articles?)
||||

Between 2010 and 2020, Nathan Kearns wrote the following 6 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Psychological distress among persons with upper extremity limb loss. 2019

Armstrong, Trey W / Williamson, Meredith L C / Elliott, Timothy R / Jackson, Warren T / Kearns, Nathan T / Ryan, Tiffany. ·Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA. · Department of Primary Care Medicine, College of Medicine, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Bryan, Texas, USA. · Baylor Medical Psychology Consultants, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA. · Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA. · Therapeutic Services, Advanced Arm Dynamics, Inc., Irving, Texas, USA. ·Br J Health Psychol · Pubmed #30941874.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We examined predictors of clinically significant levels of psychological distress among individuals with upper limb loss (ULL). DESIGN: A multisite, cross-sectional study completed at six prosthetic rehabilitation centres throughout the United States. METHODS: Oral administration of a brief assessment battery to 307 participants with ULL including demographic variables, injury information, screening instruments for PTSD and depression, pain interference, and activity restriction measures. Hierarchical multinomial logit models were conducted. Outcome groups were created using recommended cut-off scores on brief screening measures of depression and PTSD. Final models were assessed including relative risk ratios and marginal effects. RESULTS: Over half of the sample screened positive for depression, PTSD, or both. Eight individuals exceeded the recommended cut-off score indicative of PTSD only (2.6%), and 106 participants (34.5%) screened positive for depression only. Moreover, 64 participants (20.8%) reported co-occurring PTSD and depression. Subsequent models revealed women and ethnic minority participants were more likely to have clinically significant levels of depression and PTSD. Greater restriction in activity and increased pain interference also predicted psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a significant number of individuals with ULL experience clinically significant levels of psychological distress, and routine clinical assessment of depression and PTSD is warranted. Women and individuals from ethnic minorities may be particularly at risk, regardless of the severity and cause of ULL. Restrictions in preferred and goal-directed activities and persistent pain are also contributing factors. Psychological interventions that address these issues are indicated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Research investigating psychological reactions and adjustment after limb loss has primarily focused on lower limb loss. Little research has investigated psychological adjustment or distress following upper extremity loss. Lower extremity limb loss is more likely to be from a disease process while upper extremity limb loss is more likely to be due to traumatic injuries. Upper extremity limb loss possesses a qualitatively different experience as upper limb amputation is more readily apparent to others, impacts activities of daily living, and limits instrumental function in social and non-verbal communication. What does this study add? A significant percentage of individuals with upper limb loss report significant levels of depression, PTSD, and mixed depression and PTSD. Moreover, women and minority clients were more likely to report clinically significant levels of depression and mixed PTSD and depression. Activity restriction and pain interference's contributions in the final model helped to elucidate the clinical picture of psychological distress for persons with upper extremity limb loss. Greater activity restriction and limitations from pain interference increased the likelihood of reporting clinically significant levels of psychological distress.

2 Article Posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters and substance use among patients with upper limb amputations due to traumatic injury. 2019

Kearns, Nathan T / Powers, Mark B / Jackson, Warren T / Elliott, Timothy R / Ryan, Tiffany. ·Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA. · Division of Trauma, Critical Care, and Acute Care Surgery, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. · Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. · Therapeutic Services, Advanced Arm Dynamics, Redondo Beach, CA, USA. ·Disabil Rehabil · Pubmed #30182759.

ABSTRACT:

3 Article Posttraumatic stress disorder and cigarette smoking: A systematic review. 2018

Kearns, Nathan T / Carl, Emily / Stein, Aliza T / Vujanovic, Anka A / Zvolensky, Michael J / Smits, Jasper A J / Powers, Mark B. ·Department of Psychology, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas. · Institute of Mental Health Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. · Department of Psychology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas. · Trauma, Critical Care, and Cute Care Surgery Research, Baylor University Medical Center, Dellas, Texas. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #30192425.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous reviews of the PTSD and cigarette smoking literature showed high PTSD-smoking comorbidity and problematic smoking outcomes (Feldner et al., 2007, Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 14-45; Fu et al., 2007, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9, 1071-1084). However, past reviews also noted several prominent gaps in the literature, including a lack of etiological work examining underlying mechanisms and research on specialized PTSD-smoking treatments. The present review summarizes an extensive body of research conducted since the previous reviews targeting these areas of need. METHODS: Literature searches identified 66 empirical studies specific to smoking and PTSD. RESULTS: Smokers were approximately twice more likely to have PTSD than nonsmokers in the general population, and individuals with PTSD were approximately twice as likely to be current smokers. Smokers with PTSD evidenced more negative affect, trauma history, and comorbid psychiatric history, as well as quit attempts and higher relapse rates. PTSD symptoms were associated with expectations that smoking would reduce negative affect, which, in turn, was associated with increased smoking rate and nicotine dependence. Male sex was associated with nicotine dependence and PTSD avoidance, while the relationship between PTSD and smoking relapse due to withdrawal was stronger in females. Specialized, integrated PTSD and smoking cessation treatments showed promise in increasing quit success relative to standard care in randomized trials. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of PTSD-smoking co-occurrence remain high. Notable gains have been made in relevant epidemiological and etiological research, although more work is needed in trauma-specific subpopulations. Several promising specialized treatments for comorbid smoking-PTSD have been developed and empirically tested but require replication.

4 Article Posttraumatic stress severity is associated with coping motives for alcohol use among in-patient and community recruited adolescents. 2018

Cloutier, Renee M / Schuler, Keke L / Kearns, Nathan / Ruggero, Camilo J / Lewis, Sarah F / Blumenthal, Heidemarie. ·a Department of Psychology, Teen Stress and Alcohol Research Laboratory , University of North Texas , Denton , USA. · b Center for Research, Assessment, and Treatment Efficacy (CReATE) , Asheville , USA. ·Anxiety Stress Coping · Pubmed #29996679.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A growing body of work suggests individuals with more severe post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) are at higher risk for developing problematic alcohol use outcomes. Extending work from the adult literature, the present study was the first to examine the extent to which PTSS is related to drinking motives for alcohol use in both clinical and non-clinical samples of adolescents. DESIGN: Hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict coping motives for alcohol use from PTSS, above and beyond demographic variables, alcohol use frequency, and other alcohol use motives. METHODS: Trauma-exposed adolescents before entering treatment (Sample 1 n = 41) and recruited from the local community (Sample 2 n = 55) self-reported on PTSS and alcohol use motives. RESULTS: PTSS positively predicted coping motives for alcohol use after controlling for age, gender, and alcohol use frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The current study highlights the need to consider both PTSS severity, as well as underlying cognitive mechanisms (e.g., motives), to better understand the etiology of problematic alcohol use among trauma-exposed youth. Future work focused on clarifying the trajectory of alcohol use motives and problems as a function of PTSS is needed.

5 Article Differences in level of upper limb loss on functional impairment, psychological well-being, and substance use. 2018

Kearns, Nathan T / Jackson, Warren T / Elliott, Timothy R / Ryan, Tiffany / Armstrong, Trey W. ·Department of Psychology, University of North Texas. · Baylor Medical Psychology Consultants, Baylor University Medical Center. · Department of Educational Psychology, Texas A&M University. · Therapeutic Services, Advanced Arm Dynamics, Inc. ·Rehabil Psychol · Pubmed #29553789.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: The present study examines associations between levels of limb loss (partial hand vs. higher levels of limb loss) and eight clinically relevant measures of functional impairment, psychological well-being, and substance use. Research Method/Design: A cross-sectional, multisite study conducted at seven prosthetic rehabilitation centers across the United States. A total of 305 participants with upper limb loss (Mage = 44.28, SD = 15.45; 68.5% male; 70.5% white) completed orally administered self-assessments of pain interference, perceived activity restrictions, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, emotional reaction to their physical condition, problematic alcohol use, prescription medication overuse, and illicit drug use. RESULTS: Results showed individuals with partial hand loss were at significantly greater odds of endorsing pain interference and screening positive for PTSD. Results also showed level of limb loss was significantly associated with emotional reaction to their physical condition, such that participants with partial hand loss scored significantly above those with higher level limb loss. Conclusions/Implication: The current study highlights level of limb loss as an important correlate of several functional impairments and psychological measures among individuals with upper limb loss. These findings may inform clinicians and occupational therapists in their development of treatment and rehabilitation. In particular, practitioners should be cognizant of their patient's level of limb loss, as individuals with partial hand loss may be more susceptible to greater emotional reactions to their physical condition and increased psychological distress due to pain interfering with their work and elevated posttraumatic stress symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record

6 Article Alcohol and drug toxicology screens at time of hospitalization do not predict PTSD or depression after traumatic injury. 2017

McLaughlin, Cory / Kearns, Nathan T / Bennett, Monica / Roden-Foreman, Jacob W / Roden-Foreman, Kenleigh / Rainey, Evan Elizabeth / Funk, Geoffrey / Powers, Mark B / Warren, Ann Marie. ·Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. · University of North Texas, Denton, TX, USA. Electronic address: NathanKearns@my.unt.edu. · University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. ·Am J Surg · Pubmed #28683894.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for the development of PTSD and depression is critical for intervention and recovery after injury. Given research linking toxicology screens and substance use and the evidenced relationship between substance misuse and distress, the current study aimed to gauge the predictive value of toxicology testing on PTSD and depression. METHODS: Patients admitted to a Level I Trauma Center (N = 379) completed the PC-PTSD, PCL-C, and PHQ-8 at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. RESULTS: Results showed 52% of tested patients had a positive toxicology test, 51% screened for PTSD, and 54% screened for depression. Positive drug or alcohol toxicology tests were not significantly associated with PTSD or depression. CONCLUSIONS: Toxicology testing may not meaningful predict depression or PTSD in traumatic injury patients. Future research using validated measures of problematic substance use is needed to better understand how misuse may influence the development of psychological distress.