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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Lindsey J. Noble
Based on 4 articles published since 2010
(Why 4 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, L. Noble wrote the following 4 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Review Vagus nerve stimulation as a tool for enhancing extinction in exposure-based therapies. 2019

Noble, Lindsey J / Souza, Rimenez R / McIntyre, Christa K. ·School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX, 75080, USA. · School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX, 75080, USA. christa.mcintyre@utdallas.edu. ·Psychopharmacology (Berl) · Pubmed #30091004.

ABSTRACT: RATIONALE: Emotionally traumatic experiences can lead to maladaptive memories that are enduring and intrusive. The goal of exposure-based therapies is to extinguish conditioned fears through repeated, unreinforced exposures to reminders of traumatic events. The extinction of conditioned fear depends upon the consolidation of new memories made during exposure to reminders. An impairment in extinction recall, observed in certain patient populations, can interfere with progress in exposure-based therapies, and the drive to avoid thoughts and reminders of the trauma can undermine compliance and increase dropout rate. Effective adjuncts to exposure-based therapies should improve the consolidation and maintenance of the extinction memory or improve the tolerability of the therapy. Under stressful conditions, the vagus nerve responds to elevations in epinephrine and signals the brain to facilitate the storage of new memories while, as part of the parasympathetic nervous system, it slows the sympathetic response. OBJECTIVE: Here, we review studies relevant to fear extinction, describing the anatomical and functional characteristics of the vagus nerve and mechanisms of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)-induced memory enhancement and plasticity. RESULTS: We propose that stimulation of the left cervical vagus nerve during exposure to conditioned cues signals the brain to store new memories just as epinephrine or emotional arousal would do, but bypasses the peripheral sympathetic "fight-or-flight" response. CONCLUSIONS: In support of this hypothesis, we have found that VNS accelerates extinction and prevents reinstatement of conditioned fear in rats. Finally, we propose future studies targeting the optimization of stimulation parameters and the search for biomarkers of VNS effectiveness that may improve exposure therapy outcomes.

2 Review Using the Single Prolonged Stress Model to Examine the Pathophysiology of PTSD. 2017

Souza, Rimenez R / Noble, Lindsey J / McIntyre, Christa K. ·Texas Biomedical Device Center, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, RichardsonTX, United States. · Cognition and Neuroscience Program, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas, RichardsonTX, United States. ·Front Pharmacol · Pubmed #28955225.

ABSTRACT: The endurance of memories of emotionally arousing events serves the adaptive role of minimizing future exposure to danger and reinforcing rewarding behaviors. However, following a traumatic event, a subset of individuals suffers from persistent pathological symptoms such as those seen in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite the availability of pharmacological treatments and evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy, a considerable number of PTSD patients do not respond to the treatment, or show partial remission and relapse of the symptoms. In controlled laboratory studies, PTSD patients show deficient ability to extinguish conditioned fear. Failure to extinguish learned fear could be responsible for the persistence of PTSD symptoms such as elevated anxiety, arousal, and avoidance. It may also explain the high non-response and dropout rates seen during treatment. Animal models are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of the disorder and the development of new treatments. This review examines studies in a rodent model of PTSD with the goal of identifying behavioral and physiological factors that predispose individuals to PTSD symptoms. Single prolonged stress (SPS) is a frequently used rat model of PTSD that involves exposure to several successive stressors. SPS rats show PTSD-like symptoms, including impaired extinction of conditioned fear. Since its development by the Liberzon lab in 1997, the SPS model has been referred to by more than 200 published papers. Here we consider the findings of these studies and unresolved questions that may be investigated using the model.

3 Article The M-Maze task: An automated method for studying fear memory in rats exposed to protracted aversive conditioning. 2018

Souza, Rimenez R / Robertson, Nicole M / Pruitt, David T / Noble, Lindsey / Meyers, Eric C / Gonzales, Phillip A / Bleker, Nathaniel P / Carey, Holle L / Hays, Seth A / Kilgard, Michael P / McIntyre, Christa K / Rennaker, Robert L. ·Texas Biomedical Device Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States. Electronic address: rimenezrs@gmail.com. · Texas Biomedical Device Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States. · Texas Biomedical Device Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science. The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States. · Texas Biomedical Device Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; School of Behavioral Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States. · Texas Biomedical Device Center, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States; Erik Jonsson School of Engineering and Computer Science. The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, United States. ·J Neurosci Methods · Pubmed #29452180.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system that measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior. The apparatus consists of an M-shaped maze where rats are trained to alternate nose poking at two pellet dispensers. Proximity sensors measure the animal's locomotion, as well as the latencies and number of operant behaviors. Here we also describe the protracted aversive conditioning (PAC), a rat model of severe fear that induces resistant extinction following a 4-day conditioning protocol that combines delay, unpredictable, and short- and long-trace conditioning. RESULTS: An intense one-day auditory FC protocol induced a sharp elevation in transit time and suppression of nose pokes by conditioned cues, but in contrast to what is found in PTSD patients, fear extinction was rapidly observed. On the other hand, PAC alone or in combination with exposure to single prolonged stress induced persistent extinction impairments in M-Maze tests, as well as enhanced anxiety, and social withdrawal. COMPARISON WITH OTHER EXISTING METHODS: The M-Maze task is fully automated and allows multiple animals to be tested simultaneously in long-term experiments. Moreover, PAC training can be an alternative approach to study extinction-resistant fear. CONCLUSIONS: The M-Maze task allows rapid and unbiased measurements of fear-induced suppression. We suggest that long-term assessment of extinction impairments would lead to a better understanding of the neurobiology of persistent fear and the screening for new therapies.

4 Article Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on extinction of conditioned fear and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in rats. 2017

Noble, L J / Gonzalez, I J / Meruva, V B / Callahan, K A / Belfort, B D / Ramanathan, K R / Meyers, E / Kilgard, M P / Rennaker, R L / McIntyre, C K. ·Behavior and Brain Sciences, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, USA. ·Transl Psychiatry · Pubmed #28892066.

ABSTRACT: Exposure-based therapies help patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to extinguish conditioned fear of trauma reminders. However, controlled laboratory studies indicate that PTSD patients do not extinguish conditioned fear as well as healthy controls, and exposure therapy has high failure and dropout rates. The present study examined whether vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) augments extinction of conditioned fear and attenuates PTSD-like symptoms in an animal model of PTSD. To model PTSD, rats were subjected to a single prolonged stress (SPS) protocol, which consisted of restraint, forced swim, loss of consciousness, and 1 week of social isolation. Like PTSD patients, rats subjected to SPS show impaired extinction of conditioned fear. The SPS procedure was followed, 1 week later, by auditory fear conditioning (AFC) and extinction. VNS or sham stimulation was administered during half of the extinction days, and was paired with presentations of the conditioned stimulus. One week after completion of extinction training, rats were given a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety, arousal and avoidance. Results indicated that rats given SPS 1 week prior to AFC (PTSD model) failed to extinguish the freezing response after eleven consecutive days of extinction. Administration of VNS reversed the extinction impairment and attenuated reinstatement of the conditioned fear response. Delivery of VNS during extinction also eliminated the PTSD-like symptoms, such as anxiety, hyperarousal and social avoidance for more than 1 week after VNS treatment. These results provide evidence that extinction paired with VNS treatment can lead to remission of fear and improvements in PTSD-like symptoms. Taken together, these findings suggest that VNS may be an effective adjunct to exposure therapy for the treatment of PTSD.