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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles by Joah L. Williams
Based on 15 articles published since 2010
(Why 15 articles?)
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Between 2010 and 2020, Joah Williams wrote the following 15 articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
1 Article Concurrent Treatment for PTSD and Prolonged Grief Disorder: Review of Outcomes for Exposure- and Nonexposure-Based Treatments. 2019

Eddinger, Jasmine R / Hardt, Madeleine M / Williams, Joah L. ·1 Department of Psychology, University of Missouri - Kansas City, MO, USA. ·Omega (Westport) · Pubmed #31194639.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

2 Article Experiential avoidance moderates the association between motivational sensitivity and prolonged grief but not posttraumatic stress symptoms. 2019

Williams, Joah L / Hardt, Madeleine M / Henschel, Aisling V / Eddinger, Jasmine R. ·Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5030 Cherry St., Rm. 310, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. Electronic address: williamsjoah@umkc.edu. · Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5030 Cherry St., Rm. 310, Kansas City, MO 64110, USA. ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #30682554.

ABSTRACT: Within the current theoretical frameworks used in grief and bereavement research, it remains unclear which individual factors confer risk for specific bereavement-related mental health problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder. The present study investigated individual differences in motivational sensitivity and self-regulatory processes in a sample of 326 bereaved individuals who experienced sudden and/or unexpected death losses. We (1) examined associations between behavioral activation system (i.e., orientation to rewarding stimuli) and behavioral inhibition system (i.e., orientation to aversive stimuli) sensitivity and bereavement-related mental health problems (i.e., PTSD and prolonged grief symptoms), and (2) explored whether experiential avoidance (i.e., effortful avoidance of internal stimuli) would moderate such associations. Results revealed PTSD was more strongly associated with behavioral inhibition system sensitivity, while prolonged grief symptoms more strongly associated with behavioral activation system sensitivity. In particular, drive sensitivity - a dimension of the behavioral activation system - appeared uniquely associated with prolonged grief symptoms, especially in those who endorsed high experiential avoidance. Findings support a theoretical reconceptualization of prolonged grief as a reward system disorder. This reconceptualization may aid in further understanding mechanisms of bereavement-related mental health problems and related risk factors.

3 Article Alcohol Use and Drinking Motives Among Suddenly Bereaved College Students. 2019

Eddinger, Jasmine R / Humiston, Tori M / Sutton, Madison L / Jobe-Shields, Lisa / Williams, Joah L. ·a Department of Psychology , University of Missouri-Kansas City , Kansas City , MO , USA. · b Department of Psychology , University of Richmond , Richmond , VA , USA. ·J Dual Diagn · Pubmed #30451601.

ABSTRACT:

4 Article Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Ideation in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Violent Loss Survivors. 2018

Williams, Joah L / Eddinger, Jasmine R / Rynearson, Edward K / Rheingold, Alyssa A. ·1 Department of Psychology, University of Missouri - Kansas City, MO, USA. · 2 Separation and Loss Services, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA. · 3 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. ·Crisis · Pubmed #29848082.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Family members grieving the traumatic death of a loved one, as in cases of homicide, suicide, and fatal accidents, are at risk for a number of trauma and bereavement-related mental health problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, prolonged grief disorder, and suicidal ideation (SI). AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of SI among a sample of 130 treatment-seeking traumatically bereaved family members. METHOD: Adults seeking treatment at two clinics on the US West Coast were assessed for SI, clinical outcomes, and death-related characteristics. RESULTS: Overall, 42% of traumatically bereaved family members endorsed some form of active or passive SI on the Beck Depression Inventory suicide item. The type of loss experienced (i.e., homicide, suicide, fatal accident) was not associated with SI. Although individuals with SI reported more severe symptoms across all clinical outcomes, avoidance (OR = 2.22) and depression (OR = 1.16) were uniquely associated with SI even after adjusting for PTSD-related intrusions and hyperarousal. LIMITATIONS: Results should be interpreted in light of limitations associated with cross-sectional data and a single-item outcome of SI. CONCLUSION: Routine screening for SI should be standard practice for providers working with traumatically bereaved families.

5 Article The Relationship Between Experiences With the Criminal Justice System and Mental Health Outcomes Among Survivors of Homicide. 2018

Milman, Evgenia / Williams, Joah L / Bountress, Kaitlin / Rheingold, Alyssa A. · ·Violence Vict · Pubmed #29609678.

ABSTRACT: Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health disorders, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief (CG). Accordingly, this survey study examined how satisfaction with the criminal justice system (CJS) was associated with depression, PTSD, and CG among 47 homicide survivors. It also examined how satisfaction with specific aspects of the CJS related to satisfaction with the overall CJS. Satisfaction with the overall CJS was uniquely associated with depression (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16, 4.66]) while satisfaction with the police department was uniquely associated with CG (OR = 2.14; 95% CI [1.02, 4.47]). Satisfaction with having input into the CJS process and satisfaction with efforts devoted by the CJS to apprehend the perpetrator were uniquely related to satisfaction with the overall CJS (β = .49, p = .003 and β = .40, p = .007, respectively).

6 Article Postconcussive Symptoms, PTSD, and Medical Disease Burden in Treatment-Seeking OEF/OIF/OND Veterans. 2017

Williams, Joah L / McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E / Murphy, James G / Crouse, Ellen M. ·Department of Psychology, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5030 Cherry Street, Room 310, Kansas City, MO 64110. · Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, 202 Psychology Building, Memphis, TN 38152. · Memphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 1030 Jefferson Avenue, Memphis, TN 38104. ·Mil Med · Pubmed #28290938.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The most common psychological and cognitive sequelae associated with deployments to Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) are mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). High rates of PTSD are often observed among Veterans with a history of mTBI, and persistent postconcussive symptoms commonly endorsed after mTBI are known to be associated with PTSD. Therefore, this study examined whether PTSD mediates relations between postconcussive symptoms and 2 indices of medical disease burden: 1) the number of disease categories positive for a diagnosis, or system disease burden, and 2) total number of physical diagnoses, or cumulative disease burden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants were 91 Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn Veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center who screened positive for mTBI and later attended a follow-up Polytrauma clinic evaluation for neuropsychiatric assessment. Medical records were reviewed for a history of mTBI, postconcussive symptoms, and physician diagnoses, which were used to derive system and cumulative disease burden variables. Mediation was tested using bootstrapping procedures. Participants provided written informed consent and all study procedures were approved by both the VA and university institutional review boards. RESULTS: Postconcussive symptoms (r = 0.53) and PTSD symptoms (r = 0.32) were both associated with cumulative disease burden. Only postconcussive symptoms were associated with system disease burden (r = 0.32). Results of our follow-up mediation analysis suggest that PTSD did not mediate relations between postconcussive symptoms and cumulative disease burden (bootstrap coefficient = -0.02, 95% confidence interval [-0.05 to 0.01]). CONCLUSION: These findings join an emerging body of literature suggesting that postconcussive symptoms have a direct impact on Veterans' health above and beyond the effects of PTSD. Strengths of this study include the use of objective, clinician-diagnosed medical conditions as an indicator of health, whereas limitations include the use of self-report measures to assess postconcussive and PTSD symptoms. This study underscores the need for more original research on the impact of mTBI on the long-term health and readjustment of returning Veterans. Furthermore, this study highlights the need for additional research on the psychosocial and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the link between mTBI and poor health.

7 Article Restorative Retelling for Violent Death: An Investigation of Treatment Effectiveness, Influencing Factors, and Durability. 2015

Rheingold, Alyssa A / Baddeley, Jenna L / Williams, Joah L / Brown, Clara / Wallace, Megan M / Correa, Fanny / Rynearson, Edward K. ·National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. · Separation and Loss Services, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, USA. ·J Loss Trauma · Pubmed #26640420.

ABSTRACT: Many adults who have lost a loved one to violent death suffer from depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and complicated grief. Limited research has examined structured group interventions for violent death survivors or characteristics (e.g., types of loss, quality and type of relationship with the deceased) that may impact response to intervention. This records review of 91 survivors examined the effectiveness of Restorative Retelling (RR), a brief structured group intervention for violent loss survivors. Participants completed depression, PTSD, and complicated grief measures at pre- and post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up for a subset of participants. Findings revealed statistically significant changes in depression and PTSD symptoms (Cohen's d values ranged from .33-.46) at post-treatment, with significant changes observed across all domains at 1-year follow-up. Treatment response appeared to be influenced by high distress, gender, and relationship with the deceased. Results imply a large-scale randomized control trial to determine treatment efficacy.

8 Article Survivors of Homicide: Mental Health Outcomes, Social Support, and Service Use Among a Community-Based Sample. 2015

Rheingold, Alyssa A / Williams, Joah L. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, USA. ·Violence Vict · Pubmed #26300259.

ABSTRACT: This study aims to explore rates of bereavement-related mental health outcomes and diagnostic comorbidity along with the associations between mental health outcomes, perceived social support, knowledge of services, and service use among a diverse sample of 47 survivors 2 years post loss. Findings are consistent with prior studies in that homicide is associated with an overlapping of significant symptom presentation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and complicated grief (CG). Lack of grief-specific social support was demonstrated to be associated with PTSD and MDD but not with CG. Although a significant number of survivors reported poor mental health outcomes, a limited number were using services.

9 Article Associations between motor vehicle crashes and mental health problems: data from the National Survey of Adolescents-Replication. 2015

Williams, Joah L / Rheingold, Alyssa A / Knowlton, Alice W / Saunders, Benjamin E / Kilpatrick, Dean G. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA. ·J Trauma Stress · Pubmed #25613484.

ABSTRACT: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are a leading cause of physical injuries and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between having an MVC and mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and drug and alcohol misuse in a nationally representative sample of adolescents. A sample of 3,604 adolescents, aged 12-17 years, was assessed as part of the 2005 National Survey of Adolescents-Replication (NSA-R) study. Data were weighted according to the 2005 U.S. Census estimates. Within this sample, 10.2% of adolescents reported having at least 1 serious MVC. The prevalence of current PTSD and depression among adolescents having an MVC was 7.4% and 11.2%, respectively. Analyses revealed that an MVC among adolescents aged 15 years and younger was independently associated with depression (OR = 2.17) and alcohol abuse (OR = 2.36) after adjusting for other risk factors, including a history of interpersonal violence. Among adolescents aged 16 years and older, an MVC was associated only with alcohol abuse (OR = 2.08). This study was the first attempt to explore adverse mental health outcomes associated with MVCs beyond traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents in a nationally representative sample.

10 Article Death thoughts and images in treatment-seekers after violent loss. 2015

Baddeley, Jenna L / Williams, Joah L / Rynearson, Ted / Correa, Fanny / Saindon, Connie / Rheingold, Alyssa A. ·a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , Medical University of South Carolina , Charleston , South Carolina , USA. ·Death Stud · Pubmed #25101789.

ABSTRACT: Violent loss survivors often describe experiencing recurrent imagery about their loved one's death. The Death Imagery Scale assesses 5 kinds of imagery: reenactment, rescue, revenge, reunion, and remorse. We explored the frequency of these forms of imagery and their associations with PTSD, depression, and/or complicated grief (CG) among 130 treatment-seeking survivors who were, on average, 3.5 years postloss. Reenactment, rescue, and remorse imagery were most frequently endorsed, and all forms of imagery were associated with PTSD, depression, and CG. Bereaved parents reported more remorse and reunion imagery than others. Homicide survivors reported more revenge imagery than suicide and accident survivors.

11 Article Barriers to care and service satisfaction following homicide loss: associations with mental health outcomes. 2015

Williams, Joah L / Rheingold, Alyssa A. ·a Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences , Medical University of South Carolina , Charleston , South Carolina , USA. ·Death Stud · Pubmed #24766188.

ABSTRACT: Homicide survivors are at increased risk for mental health problems, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief. Therefore, improving access to community and mental health resources is critical for this population. The atuhors sought to examine barriers to accessing services and service satisfaction among 47 homicide survivors. Over half of the sample met criteria for a mental disorder, with depression being the most prevalent problem. Frequently endorsed barriers to care included financial barriers, inadequate information, and health-related problems. However, participants who engaged in services were generally satisfied with those services. Only depression was uniquely associated with worse overall service satisfaction.

12 Article The Relationship Between Post-Deployment Factors and PTSD Severity in Recent Combat Veterans. 2014

Possemato, Kyle / McKenzie, Shannon / McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E / Williams, Joah / Ouimette, Paige. ·Center for Integrated Healthcare, VA Healthcare Network Upstate New York. · University of Memphis, Memphis VA Medical Center. ·Mil Psychol · Pubmed #25892847.

ABSTRACT: Combat traumas precipitate PTSD, however non-traumatic deployment and post-deployment factors may also contribute to PTSD severity. The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory was used to investigate pre, peri and post-deployment factors associated with current PTSD severity in 150 recent combat veterans with PTSD and hazardous alcohol use. Hierarchal linear regression analyzed what factors independently predicted PTSD severity when controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and combat specific variables. Four post-deployment factors independently predicted PTSD severity: unemployment, alcohol use, social support, stressful (non-traumatic) life events. The centrality of trauma in the maintenance of PTSD and clinical implications for treatment providers are discussed.

13 Article Randomized controlled trial of two brief alcohol interventions for OEF/OIF veterans. 2014

McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E / Murphy, James G / Williams, Joah L / Monahan, Christopher J / Bracken-Minor, Katherine L / Fields, Jordan A. ·Department of Psychology, The University of Memphis. ·J Consult Clin Psychol · Pubmed #24773573.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of 2 brief interventions for alcohol misuse in a sample of combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHOD: Participants were 68 combat veterans (91.2% male; 64.7% White, 27.9% Black) with a mean age of 32.31 years (SD = 8.84) who screened positive for hazardous drinking in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center primary care clinic using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (Babor, Higgins-Biddle, Saunders, & Monteiro, 2001). More than half of the sample (57.4%) met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; based on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale; Blake et al., 1995). Eligible veterans who elected to participate completed a baseline assessment and were randomized to receive 1 of 2 interventions (personalized feedback delivered with or without a motivational interviewing counseling session). Both interventions included information on hazardous drinking, PTSD symptoms, depression, and coping. Follow-up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. RESULTS: Both conditions resulted in statistically significant reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol use as well as frequency of binge drinking and alcohol-related consequences. Within-group effect sizes (ds) were in the small to medium range (.21-.55) for quantity and frequency of alcohol use. There were no statistically significant Condition × Time interactions, suggesting that both interventions were similarly effective. PTSD and non-PTSD veterans responded equally well to both interventions, but veterans with PTSD assigned to feedback plus motivational interviewing reported greater reductions in weekly drinking at the 6-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that brief interventions for alcohol misuse may be effective for reducing drinking, even in an Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veteran population with a high degree of PTSD.

14 Article Factor Structure of the PTSD Checklist in a Sample of OEF/OIF Veterans Presenting to Primary Care: Specific and Nonspecific Aspects of Dysphoria. 2011

Williams, Joah L / Monahan, Christopher J / McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E. ·Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, 202 Psychology Building, Memphis, TN 38152, USA. ·J Psychopathol Behav Assess · Pubmed #25214708.

ABSTRACT: Although

15 Article PTSD symptoms, hazardous drinking, and health functioning among U.S.OEF and OIF veterans presenting to primary care. 2010

McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E / Williams, Joah L / Bracken, Katherine L / Fields, Jordan A / Monahan, Christopher J / Murphy, James G. ·Department of Psychology, University of Memphis and Memphis Veterans' Affairs Medical Center, Memphis, TN 38152, USA. mmcdvttm@memphis.edu ·J Trauma Stress · Pubmed #20104586.

ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol abuse both are negatively associated with health, and alcohol misuse may mediate the relationship between PTSD and functional health outcomes. The present study tested for such mediation using self-report measures of PTSD symptoms, hazardous alcohol use, and health functioning in 151 U.S. veterans (136 men and 15 women) of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan recruited from a Veterans Affairs primary care clinic. Based on established cut scores, 39.1% screened positive for PTSD and 26.5% screened positive for hazardous drinking. PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking were significantly correlated with each other and with health functioning. Hazardous drinking was found to partially mediate the relationship between PTSD and functional mental health, but not physical health.