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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders: HELP
Articles from Miscellaneous cities in New Jersey
Based on 48 articles published since 2010
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These are the 48 published articles about Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic that originated from Miscellaneous cities in New Jersey during 2010-2020.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2
1 Review Posttraumatic Stress and Depression in the Aftermath of Environmental Disasters: A Review of Quantitative Studies Published in 2018. 2019

Lowe, Sarah R / Bonumwezi, Jessica L / Valdespino-Hayden, Zerbrina / Galea, Sandro. ·Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, 60 College St., New Haven, CT, 06510, USA. sarah.lowe@yale.edu. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ·Curr Environ Health Rep · Pubmed #31487033.

ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As interest in the mental health consequences of environmental disasters increases, this review aimed to summarize peer-reviewed studies published in 2018 on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms after such events. RECENT FINDINGS: Notable trends in the past year of research included studies focusing on vulnerable populations (e.g., persons with preexisting physical health conditions), assessing the cumulative impact of exposure to multiple disasters, exploring pathway leading to PTSD and depression symptoms, and evaluating the effectiveness of post-disaster interventions. Over 100 articles were identified, focused on 40 disasters that occurred between 1982 and 2017. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0 to 70.51% for PTSD and 1.9 to 59.5% for depression. Consistent predictors of adverse outcomes included female gender, socioeconomic disadvantage, high disaster exposure, and low psychosocial resources. Further research that expands upon recent advances in the literature is critical given the large proportion of the world's population exposed to disasters and the increasing incidence of such events.

2 Review Can Anhedonia Be Considered a Suicide Risk Factor? A Review of the Literature. 2019

Bonanni, Luca / Gualtieri, Flavia / Lester, David / Falcone, Giulia / Nardella, Adele / Fiorillo, Andrea / Pompili, Maurizio. ·Psychiatry Residency Training Program, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy. · Psychology Program, Stockton University, Galloway, NJ 08205, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, 80138 Naples, Italy. · Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant'Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 00189 Rome, Italy. maurizio.pompili@uniroma1.it. ·Medicina (Kaunas) · Pubmed #31405085.

ABSTRACT:

3 Review A Study Space Analysis and Narrative Review of Trauma-Informed Mediators of Dating Violence. 2018

Cascardi, Michele / Jouriles, Ernest N. ·1 Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ, USA. · 2 Department of Psychology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, USA. ·Trauma Violence Abuse · Pubmed #27470578.

ABSTRACT: Research linking child maltreatment and dating violence in adolescence and emerging adulthood has proliferated in the past two decades; however, the precise mechanisms by which these experiences are related remain elusive. A trauma-informed perspective suggests four particularly promising mediators: maladaptive attachment, emotion regulation difficulties, emotional distress, and hostility. The current article characterizes the status of the empirical literature examining these four mediators using a study space analysis and a narrative review of existing research. An extensive literature search identified 42 papers (44 studies) that met the following criteria: (1) at least one measure of child maltreatment (emotional, physical, sexual, neglect, or exposure to intimate partner violence); (2) a measure of one of the four mediator variables; (3) a measure of dating violence perpetration or victimization; and (4) a sample of adolescents or young adults. The study space analysis suggested several important observations about the research on this topic, including a dearth of studies examining hostility as a mediator and little research using prospective designs or clinical samples. There are also limitations with the conceptualization and measurement of dating violence, child maltreatment, and some of the mediator variables. In addition, few studies examined more than one mediator variable in the same study. The narrative review suggested that maladaptive attachment (specifically insecure attachment styles), emotion regulation difficulties (specifically regulation of the emotion of anger), and emotional distress construed broadly represent promising mediators of the association between child maltreatment and dating violence, but conclusions about mediation must remain tentative given the state of the literature. The discussion offers recommendations for improved theoretical and empirical rigor to advance future research on mechanisms linking child maltreatment and dating violence.

4 Review The Unique Health Needs of Post-9/11 U.S. Veterans. 2017

Waszak, Daria L / Holmes, Aline M. ·1 Felician University. · 2 New Jersey Hospital Association. ·Workplace Health Saf · Pubmed #28849739.

ABSTRACT: This article applies a hazard-based approach to the identification of physical, mental, and psychosocial health needs of post-9/11 veterans. The weaponry, survival, and population of servicemen and women by the military have evolved over time, particularly during the post-9/11 era. It is evident that military hazards and potential exposures vary depending on not only the deployment era but also the specific location and role. Many individual factors may affect the development of health problems. Recent evidence-based literature about post-9/11 veterans' long-term complex health issues is summarized, so occupational health nurses can advocate for the provision of veteran-sensitive care.

5 Review Mechanisms of developing post-traumatic stress disorder: new targets for drug development and other potential interventions. 2014

Wimalawansa, Sunil J. ·Cardio-Metabolic Institute, Somerset, NJ 08873, USA. suniljw@hotmail.com. ·CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets · Pubmed #25012621.

ABSTRACT: The post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is defined as a severe anxiety disorder that develops after exposure to an event with actual, threatened, or perceived death or serious injury, or a threat to the physical integrity of oneself or others that results in significant psychological trauma. Moreover, the ability of people to handle acute severe stress experiences varies among individuals. Depending on the underlying personality and resiliency, therefore, PTSD can occur in individuals exposed to exceedingly stressful incidences or those who have encountered seemingly less overwhelming stressors. In addition to severe stressful exposure, multiple other factors including genetic susceptibility; past experiences; cultural, spiritual, and personal beliefs; bullying and harassments; and lack of support at the workplace, social, and home environement may contribute to the development of PTSD. Author investigated multiple potential mechanisms for the development and sustenance of PTSD based on the recent literature and his own experiences and insight. Based on this search, author indicates that among other pathological and biochemical abnormalities, hormonal aberrations are most likely key mechanisms initiating and the maintenance of the PTSD. These pathophysiological neuro-hormonal changes instigate maladaptive learning processes caused by sustained high levels of anxiety and fear, through a hypo-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary axis and hyper-responsive catecholamine system (persistently elevated blood norepinephrine levels and lower than appropriate glucocorticoid levels). In addition to having inappropriately low serum cortisol levels and high epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, patients with PTSD also have mitochondrial dysfunctions and other hormonal abnormalities. Based on these data, author concluded that these pathological, biochemical and sustained neurohormonal abnormalities are likely to influence the structural brain changes, particularly in the amygdala and hippocampus, which are characteristics of patients with PTSD. Considering these abnormalities, neuroendocrine system needs to be considered as a key target for new drug development for prevention and treatment of PTSD.

6 Review Factors related to posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescence. 2012

Nooner, Kate B / Linares, L Oriana / Batinjane, Jessica / Kramer, Rachel A / Silva, Raul / Cloitre, Marylene. ·Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA. noonerk@mail.montclair.edu ·Trauma Violence Abuse · Pubmed #22665437.

ABSTRACT: Studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescence published from 2000 to 2011 indicate that adolescents are at greater risk of experiencing trauma than either adults or children, and that the prevalence of PTSD among adolescents is 3-57%. Age, gender, type of trauma, and repeated trauma are discussed as factors related to the increased rates of adolescent PTSD. PTSD in adolescence is also associated with suicide, substance abuse, poor social support, academic problems, and poor physical health. PTSD may disrupt biological maturational processes and contribute to the long-term emotion and behavior regulation problems that are often evident in adolescents with the disorder. Recommendations are presented for practice and research regarding the promotion of targeted prevention and intervention services to maximize adolescents' strengths and minimize vulnerabilities. Public policy implications are discussed.

7 Review Family issues associated with military deployment, family violence, and military sexual trauma. 2011

Fraser, Cira. ·Monmouth University, Marjorie K. Unterberg School of Nursing and Health Studies, 400 Cedar Avenue, West Long Branch, NJ 07764-1898, USA. cfraser@monmouth.edu ·Nurs Clin North Am · Pubmed #22055902.

ABSTRACT: Today's military has a greater percentage of families and children in comparison with previous generations. There are many, and unique, demands on military families made by the ongoing conflicts, and military life can be stressful. The presence of an increasing number of stressors is associated with an increased likelihood of domestic violence in military families and sexual trauma in service members. In this article, literature and research are presented to provide an overview of military deployment and families, and the effect of deployment on families; this is followed by a review of research on family violence and military sexual trauma.

8 Clinical Trial Mapping concentrations of posttraumatic stress and depression trajectories following Hurricane Ike. 2016

Gruebner, Oliver / Lowe, Sarah R / Tracy, Melissa / Joshi, Spruha / Cerdá, Magdalena / Norris, Fran H / Subramanian, S V / Galea, Sandro. ·Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Boston, MA, USA. · Montclair State University, Department of Psychology, Montclair, NJ, USA. · University at Albany, State University of New York, School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Albany, NY, USA. · University of Minnesota Twin Cities, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, Minneapolis, MN, USA. · University of California at Davis, Department of Emergency Medicine, Sacramento, CA, USA. · Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, USA. · Boston University, School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ·Sci Rep · Pubmed #27558011.

ABSTRACT: We investigated geographic concentration in elevated risk for a range of postdisaster trajectories of chronic posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) and depression symptoms in a longitudinal study (N = 561) of a Hurricane Ike affected population in Galveston and Chambers counties, TX. Using an unadjusted spatial scan statistic, we detected clusters of elevated risk of PTSS trajectories, but not depression trajectories, on Galveston Island. We then tested for predictors of membership in each trajectory of PTSS and depression (e.g., demographic variables, trauma exposure, social support), not taking the geographic nature of the data into account. After adjusting for significant predictors in the spatial scan statistic, we noted that spatial clusters of PTSS persisted and additional clusters of depression trajectories emerged. This is the first study to show that longitudinal trajectories of postdisaster mental health problems may vary depending on the geographic location and the individual- and community-level factors present at these locations. Such knowledge is crucial to identifying vulnerable regions and populations within them, to provide guidance for early responders, and to mitigate mental health consequences through early detection of mental health needs in the population. As human-made disasters increase, our approach may be useful also in other regions in comparable settings worldwide.

9 Article Trauma-related cognitions predict treatment response in smokers with PTSD: Evidence from cross-lagged panel analyses. 2020

Mu, Wenting / Narine, Kevin / Farris, Samantha / Lieblich, Shari / Zang, Yinyin / Bredemeier, Keith / Brown, Lily / Foa, Edna. ·Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address: wenting.mu@pennmedicine.upenn.edu. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States. · Department of Psychology, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, United States. · School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China. ·Addict Behav · Pubmed #32413581.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Compared to smokers without posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), smokers with PTSD smoke more heavily and are less successful in quitting smoking. However, limited research has examined the cognitive pathways underlying this heightened comorbidity. The current study is the first to simultaneously model the cross-sectional and lagged relationships between trauma-related cognitions and cigarette smoking, as well as between trauma-related cognitions and PTSD severity, in smokers with comorbid PTSD receiving treatment. METHOD: Participants (n = 142) were seeking treatment for smoking cessation and PTSD as part of a randomized controlled trial of varenicline and smoking cessation counseling with or without adjunctive Prolonged Exposure (varenicline + PE vs. varenicline only) (Foa et al., 2017). Data were available for both baseline and end-of-treatment assessments of trauma cognitions severity of cigarette smoking and PTSD symptoms. We conducted both cross-sectional and lagged analysis to simultaneously examine the bidirectional relationship from trauma cognitions and 1) cigarette smoking and 2) PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Trauma cognitions (specifically, negative beliefs about the self and the world) were significantly associated with cigarette/day at the end of treatment for participants who received varenicline only. However, baseline trauma cognitions did not predict post-treatment cigarettes/day. Baseline trauma cognitions (specifically negative beliefs about the self and world) were associated with PTSD severity at both baseline and end of treatment; furthermore, these negative cognitions at baseline positively and prospectively predicted end-of-treatment PTSD severity, but not vice versa. Wald tests revealed that there were no treatment effects on these cross-lagged relationships. Conclusions These findings provide novel empirical support for the importance of addressing trauma-related cognitions in the smoking cessation treatment efforts for patients with comorbid PTSD and cigarette smoking.

10 Article Double-blind randomized controlled study of the efficacy, safety and tolerability of eszopiclone 2020

Dowd, Sheila M / Zalta, Alyson K / Burgess, Helen J / Adkins, Elizabeth C / Valdespino-Hayden, Zerbrina / Pollack, Mark H. ·Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60601, United States. sheila_dowd@rush.edu. · Department of Psychological Science, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697, United States. · Sleep and Circadian Research Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. · Center for Behavioral Intervention Technologies | Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, United States. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60601, United States. ·World J Psychiatry · Pubmed #32257848.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbance is a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Given the relationship between sleep disturbance and PTSD, there has been a relative paucity of studies examining the potential therapeutic impact of using pharmacotherapy to target sleep disturbance in patients with PTSD. Eszopiclone (ESZ) is a non-benzodiazepine y-aminobutyric acid-A receptor agonist indicated for the treatment of sleep and may affect sleep in patients with PTSD. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of ESZ METHODS: The study was a 12-wk, double blind, randomized controlled trial with 3 mg of ESZ ( RESULTS: Patients in both arms experienced significant improvement in PTSD symptoms as assessed by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS): ESZ (t11 = -3.12, CONCLUSION: Results do not support the hypothesis of a specific positive effect of ESZ compared to PBO for measures of PTSD and associated sleep disturbance.

11 Article Evaluating a screener to quantify PTSD risk using emergency care information: a proof of concept study. 2020

van der Mei, Willem F / Barbano, Anna C / Ratanatharathorn, Andrew / Bryant, Richard A / Delahanty, Douglas L / deRoon-Cassini, Terri A / Lai, Betty S / Lowe, Sarah R / Matsuoka, Yutaka J / Olff, Miranda / Qi, Wei / Schnyder, Ulrich / Seedat, Soraya / Kessler, Ronald C / Koenen, Karestan C / Shalev, Arieh Y / Anonymous4261135. ·Department of Population Health, New York University Langone Health, 227 E 30th St, New York, NY, USA. willem.vandermei91@gmail.com. · Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 1 Park Avenue, New York, NY, 10016, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, 722 W. 168th St, New York, NY, 10032, USA. · School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia. · Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, 144 Kent Hall, Kent, OH, 44242, USA. · Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, 9200 W. Wisconsin Avenue, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA. · Department of Counselling, Developmental, and Educational Psychology, Lynch School of Education and Human Development, Boston College, Campion Hall Room 313, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, USA. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, 1 Normal Avenue, Montclair, NJ, 07043, USA. · Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center Japan, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chou-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan. · Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Postbus 240, 1110 AE, Diemen, The Netherlands. · Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Zurich, PO Box 1931, Lenggstrasse 31, 8032, Zürich, Switzerland. · Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa. · Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, 180 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Kresge 505, 677 Huntington Avenue, Kresge Building, Boston, MA, 02115, USA. ·BMC Emerg Med · Pubmed #32122334.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous work has indicated that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) within 60 days of trauma exposure, can reliably produce likelihood estimates of chronic PTSD among trauma survivors admitted to acute care centers. Administering the CAPS is burdensome, requires skilled professionals, and relies on symptoms that are not fully expressed upon acute care admission. Predicting chronic PTSD from peritraumatic responses, which are obtainable upon acute care admission, has yielded conflicting results, hence the rationale for a stepwise screening-and-prediction practice. This work explores the ability of peritraumatic responses to produce risk likelihood estimates of early CAPS-based PTSD symptoms indicative of chronic PTSD risk. It specifically evaluates the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) as a risk-likelihood estimator. METHODS: We used individual participant data (IPD) from five acute care studies that used both the PDEQ and the CAPS (n = 647). Logistic regression calculated the probability of having CAPS scores ≥ 40 between 30 and 60 days after trauma exposure across the range of initial PDEQ scores, and evaluated the added contribution of age, sex, trauma type, and prior trauma exposure. Brier scores, area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the mean slope of the calibration line evaluated the accuracy and precision of the predicted probabilities. RESULTS: Twenty percent of the sample had CAPS ≥ 40. PDEQ severity significantly predicted having CAPS ≥ 40 symptoms (p < 0.001). Incremental PDEQ scores produced a reliable estimator of CAPS ≥ 40 likelihood. An individual risk estimation tool incorporating PDEQ and other significant risk indicators is provided. CONCLUSION: Peritraumatic reactions, measured here by the PDEQ, can reliably quantify the likelihood of acute PTSD symptoms predictive of chronic PTSD and requiring clinical attention. Using them as a screener in a stepwise chronic PTSD prediction strategy may reduce the burden of later CAPS-based assessments. Other peritraumatic metrics may perform similarly and their use requires similar validation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Jerusalem Trauma Outreach and Prevention Study (J-TOPS): NCT00146900.

12 Article Single-Trial Mechanisms Underlying Changes in Averaged P300 ERP Amplitude and Latency in Military Service Members After Combat Deployment. 2019

Trongnetrpunya, Amy / Rapp, Paul / Wang, Chao / Darmon, David / Costanzo, Michelle E / Nathan, Dominic E / Roy, Michael J / Cellucci, Christopher J / Keyser, David. ·Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States. · Department of Military and Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States. · Department of Mathematics, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ, United States. · Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States. · Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Center for Neuroscience and Regenerative Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States. · Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD, United States. · Aquinas LLC, Berwyn, PA, United States. ·Front Hum Neurosci · Pubmed #31708761.

ABSTRACT: Attenuation in P300 amplitude has been characterized in a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as dementia, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unclear whether the attenuation observed in the averaged event-related potential (ERP) is due to the reduction of neural resources available for cognitive processing, the decreased consistency of cognitive resource allocation, or the increased instability of cognitive processing speed. In this study, we investigated this problem by estimating single-trial P300 amplitude and latency using a modified Woody filter and examined the relation between amplitudes and latencies from the single-trial level to the averaged ERP level. ERPs were recorded from 30 military service members returning from combat deployment at two time points separated by 6 or 12 months. A conventional visual oddball task was used to elicit P300. We observed that the extent of changes in the within-subject average P300 amplitude over time was significantly correlated with the amount of change in three single-trial measures: (1) the latency variance of the single-trial P300 (

13 Article Correlates of Persistent Victimization by Romantic Partners: A Short-Term Prospective Study. 2019

Cascardi, Michele / Avery-Leaf, Sarah. ·Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, Wayne, New Jersey. · Private Practice, Olympia, Washington. ·Violence Vict · Pubmed #31019011.

ABSTRACT: There has been limited prospective investigation of correlates of

14 Article A placebo-controlled pilot study of a wearable morning bright light treatment for probable PTSD. 2019

Zalta, Alyson K / Bravo, Karyna / Valdespino-Hayden, Zerbrina / Pollack, Mark H / Burgess, Helen J. ·Department of Psychological Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #30995350.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence-based treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have poor uptake and remission rates, suggesting that alternative treatments are needed. Morning bright light may be an effective treatment for PTSD given its established effects on mood and sleep, however, there are no published trials. METHODS: We conducted a placebo-controlled pilot trial of a wearable light device, the Re-timer®, for individuals with probable PTSD. Individuals were randomly assigned to the active Re-timer® (n = 9) or a placebo Re-timer® dimmed with neutral density filters (n = 6). Participants self-administered the treatment at home 1 hr each morning over 4 weeks. PTSD and depression symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: The Re-timer® was well tolerated and the perceived benefit was high, though treatment adherence was only moderate. Those in the active group were more likely to achieve a minimal clinically important change in PTSD and depression symptoms and had larger symptom reductions than those in the placebo group CONCLUSIONS: A wearable morning light treatment was acceptable and feasible for patients with probable PTSD. This study provides initial proof-of-concept that light treatment can improve PTSD. A larger trial is warranted to establish treatment efficacy. NCT#: 03513848.

15 Article Cultural Predictors of Resilience in a Multinational Sample of Trauma Survivors. 2019

Raghavan, Sumithra S / Sandanapitchai, Priyadharshiny. ·Department of Psychology, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ, United States. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #30804836.

ABSTRACT: The present study aims to fill a gap in the study of resilience to trauma by examining resilience in a culturally diverse population. Approximately 70% of adults across the globe experience at least one traumatic event in their lifetime, yet resilience is a common response trajectory. This pilot study explored reactions to trauma and psychological resilience in an international sample of trauma-exposed participants. Participants were recruited online using the Amazon Mechanical Turk software and after completing an informed consent, were determined eligible to participate if they endorsed experiencing at least one traumatic event. Eligible participants then completed The Stressful Life Events Questionnaire, Brief Resiliency Scale, Ego Resiliency Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version, Brief Religious Coping Scale, and Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. The final sample included 200 trauma exposed adults from nineteen different countries worldwide, with a majority hailing from the United States, India, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Results revealed that Asian participants scored significantly higher on resilience scales and endorsed higher levels of spiritually focused coping than other subgroups. Multivariate analyses revealed that these differences in resilience remained significant even after controlling for sense of ethnic identity and spiritual coping, suggesting that there may be culturally specific predictors of resilience within the Asian subgroup. Understanding variations in resilience will aid in developing culturally tailored interventions and pursuing a strengths-based approach to recovery from trauma. Limitations and implications are discussed.

16 Article Differentiating PTSD from anxiety and depression: Lessons from the ICD-11 PTSD diagnostic criteria. 2019

Barbano, Anna C / van der Mei, Willem F / deRoon-Cassini, Terri A / Grauer, Ettie / Lowe, Sarah Ryan / Matsuoka, Yutaka J / O'Donnell, Meaghan / Olff, Miranda / Qi, Wei / Ratanatharathorn, Andrew / Schnyder, Ulrich / Seedat, Soraya / Kessler, Ronald C / Koenen, Karestan C / Shalev, Arieh Y / Anonymous7921116. ·Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York. · Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey. · Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center Japan, Tokyo, Japan. · Pheonix Australia, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. · Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. · Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland. · Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa. · Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Depress Anxiety · Pubmed #30681235.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently associated with depression and anxiety, but the nature of the relationship is unclear. By removing mood and anxiety diagnostic criteria, the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) aims to delineate a distinct PTSD phenotype. We examined the effect of implementing ICD-11 criteria on rates of codiagnosed depression and anxiety in survivors with recent PTSD. METHOD: Participants were 1,061 survivors of traumatic injury admitted to acute care centers in Israel. ICD-10 and ICD-11 diagnostic rules were applied to the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV. Co-occurring disorders were identified using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Depression severity was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Assessments were performed 0-60 ("wave 1") and 90-240 ("wave 2") days after trauma exposure. RESULTS: Participants identified by ICD-11 PTSD criteria were equally or more likely than those identified by the ICD-10 alone to meet depression or anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria (for wave 1: depressive disorders, OR [odds ratio] = 1.98, 95% CI [confidence interval] = [1.36, 2.87]; anxiety disorders, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = [0.67, 1.64]; for wave 2: depressive disorders, OR = 1.70, 95% CI = [1.00, 2.91]; anxiety disorders, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = [0.54, 2.01]). ICD-11 PTSD was associated with higher BDI scores (M = 23.15 vs. 17.93, P < 0.001 for wave 1; M = 23.93 vs. 17.94, P < 0.001 for wave 2). PTSD symptom severity accounted for the higher levels of depression in ICD-11 PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite excluding depression and anxiety symptom criteria, the ICD-11 identified equal or higher proportion of depression and anxiety disorders, suggesting that those are inherently associated with PTSD.

17 Article Estimating the risk of PTSD in recent trauma survivors: results of the International Consortium to Predict PTSD (ICPP). 2019

Shalev, Arieh Y / Gevonden, Martin / Ratanatharathorn, Andrew / Laska, Eugene / van der Mei, Willem F / Qi, Wei / Lowe, Sarah / Lai, Betty S / Bryant, Richard A / Delahanty, Douglas / Matsuoka, Yutaka J / Olff, Miranda / Schnyder, Ulrich / Seedat, Soraya / deRoon-Cassini, Terri A / Kessler, Ronald C / Koenen, Karestan C / Anonymous2610974. ·Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Biological Psychology,  Vrije Universiteit,  Amsterdam,  The Netherlands. · Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA. · Department of Counseling, Developmental and Educational Psychology, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA. · School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW,  Australia. · Department of Psychological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH, USA. · Division of Health Care Research, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center Japan, Tokyo, Japan. · Department of Psychiatry, University of Amsterdam,  Amsterdam,  The Netherlands, and Arq Psychotrauma Expert Group, Diemen, The Netherlands. · University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. · Department of Psychiatry, Stellenbosch University, Parow, Cape Town, South Africa. · Department of Surgery, Medical College of  Wisconsin, Milwaukee,  WI, USA. · Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA. ·World Psychiatry · Pubmed #30600620.

ABSTRACT: A timely determination of the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prerequisite for efficient service delivery and prevention. We provide a risk estimate tool allowing a calculation of individuals' PTSD likelihood from early predictors. Members of the International Consortium to Predict PTSD (ICPP) shared individual participants' item-level data from ten longitudinal studies of civilian trauma survivors admitted to acute care centers in six countries. Eligible participants (N=2,473) completed an initial clinical assessment within 60 days of trauma exposure, and at least one follow-up assessment 4-15 months later. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) evaluated PTSD symptom severity and diagnostic status at each assessment. Participants' education, prior lifetime trauma exposure, marital status and socio-economic status were assessed and harmonized across studies. The study's main outcome was the likelihood of a follow-up PTSD given early predictors. The prevalence of follow-up PTSD was 11.8% (9.2% for male participants and 16.4% for females). A logistic model using early PTSD symptom severity (initial CAPS total score) as a predictor produced remarkably accurate estimates of follow-up PTSD (predicted vs. raw probabilities: r=0.976). Adding respondents' female gender, lower education, and exposure to prior interpersonal trauma to the model yielded higher PTSD likelihood estimates, with similar model accuracy (predicted vs. raw probabilities: r=0.941). The current model could be adjusted for other traumatic circumstances and accommodate risk factors not captured by the ICPP (e.g., biological, social). In line with their use in general medicine, risk estimate models can inform clinical choices in psychiatry. It is hoped that quantifying individuals' PTSD risk will be a first step towards systematic prevention of the disorder.

18 Article The Effects of Equine Assisted Therapy on Plasma Cortisol and Oxytocin Concentrations and Heart Rate Variability in Horses and Measures of Symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Veterans. 2018

Malinowski, Karyn / Yee, Chi / Tevlin, Jenni M / Birks, Eric K / Durando, Mary M / Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Hossein / Cavaiola, Alan A / McKeever, Kenneth H. ·Rutgers Equine Science Center and the Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ. Electronic address: karynmal@njaes.rutgers.edu. · Rutgers Equine Science Center and the Department of Animal Sciences, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ. · Sports Medicine and Imaging, Newark, DE. · Sue Carter Lab, Kinsey Institute and Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. · Psychology Department, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ. ·J Equine Vet Sci · Pubmed #30973147.

ABSTRACT: With the increase in the number of horses being used in Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) programs and with the increasing concern for animal welfare, it is important to understand the impact of such interventions on the stress level and quality of life for the horses involved. The purpose of the present pilot study was to test the hypothesis that participation in EAAT would acutely alter physiological markers of stress and well-being, including plasma cortisol, plasma oxytocin, and heart rate variability (HRV), in horses and that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would be reduced after five sessions of EAAT in veterans who had previously been diagnosed with PTSD. Nine healthy geldings, of various breeds, ages 10-23 years, conditioned and experienced as therapeutic riding horses, were selected to participate in the study. Of these, seven were selected at random to wear electrocardiogram units, and all nine were used for blood sampling to measure plasma cortisol and oxytocin. Each horse was randomly assigned to partner with a veteran for five EAAT sessions, 1 hour in duration. A standing control was conducted on a later date on which horses did not participate in EAAT. Measurement after 5 days of EAAT was conducted immediately after the end of the last session on day 5 using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the PCL-5 (a 20 item self-report measure of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 5 for symptoms of PTSD). Two way repeated measure analysis of variance showed no significant day by time interactions for plasma cortisol (P = .821) or oxytocin (P = .861). There was a significant day by time interaction (P = .006) for heart rate (HR); where on day 1, HR (bpm) was significantly lower during the interaction with the veterans. There were no significant differences in HRV variables. Posttherapy measures in PTSD symptoms in veterans were significantly reduced except for interpersonal sensitivity (P = .08) and phobic anxiety (P = .17). There was an effect of EAAT on HR which was significantly reduced on day 2 during the actual EAAT session. Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies had no effect on respiration rate and systolic or diastolic blood pressure in veterans involved in five sessions of EAAT, lasting 60 minutes in duration over the course of 5 days. Stress levels, as demonstrated by plasma cortisol concentrations and HRV, did not change in horses involved in EAAT sessions with veterans who had been previously diagnosed with PTSD. Furthermore, the horses used in this study did not demonstrate increased levels of well-being as demonstrated by the lack of change in plasma oxytocin concentrations after EAAT sessions. Symptoms of PTSD did change significantly in the veterans who participated in this study.

19 Article Veterans have greater variability in their perception of binocular alignment. 2018

Schubert, Michael C / Gimmon, Yoav / Millar, Jennifer / Brewer, Kelly J / Roberts, Dale / Shelhamer, Mark / Rohde, Charles / Serrador, Jorge M. ·Laboratory of Vestibular NeuroAdaptation, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Baltimore, MD, United States of America. · Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. · War Related Illness and Injury Study Center, Department of Veteran Affairs, NJ, United States of America. · Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. · Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. · Department of Pharmacology, Physiology & Neuroscience, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers School of Graduate Studies, Newark, NJ, United States of America. ·PLoS One · Pubmed #30586453.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: A significant population of our wounded veterans suffer long-term functional consequences of visual deficit, disorientation, dizziness, and an impaired ability to read. These symptoms may be related to damage within the otolith pathways that contribute to ocular alignment. The purpose of this study was to compare perception of vertical and torsional ocular alignment between veterans and healthy controls in an upright and supine test position. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Veterans (n = 26) with reports of dizziness were recruited from the East Orange Veterans Administration Hospital. Healthy controls (n = 26) were recruited from both Johns Hopkins University and the East Orange VA. Each subject performed 20 trials each of a novel vertical and torsional binocular alignment perception test. Veterans underwent semicircular canal and otolith pathway function testing. RESULTS: 88% of the Veterans had an absent otolith response. Only the veterans had an abnormally large variability in perception of both vertical and torsional ocular alignment, and in both upright and supine position. Neither post-traumatic stress disorder, nor depression contributed to the misperception in binocular alignment. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel method of measuring vertical and torsional misalignment distinguishes veterans with dizziness from healthy controls. The high prevalence of absent otolith function seems to explain this result. Further studies are needed to better understand the fundamental mechanism responsible for the increased variability of perception of binocular alignment.

20 Article Lagged effects of substance use on PTSD severity in a randomized controlled trial with modified prolonged exposure and relapse prevention. 2018

Hien, Denise A / Smith, Kathryn Z / Owens, Max / López-Castro, Teresa / Ruglass, Lesia M / Papini, Santiago. ·Center of Alcohol Studies, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. · Division on Substance Use Disorders, New York State Psychiatric Institute, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. · Department of Psychology, University of South Florida. · The City College of New York, City University of New York. · Institute for Mental Health Research, Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin. ·J Consult Clin Psychol · Pubmed #30265040.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To advance understanding of the effectiveness of evidence-based treatments for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), research must provide a more nuanced picture of how substance use affects change in PTSD symptoms over the course of treatments and whether prolonged exposure techniques can be efficacious during active substance use. A data set that included patients with PTSD/subthreshold-PTSD and SUD treated with an exposure-based intervention provided an opportunity to conduct a secondary analysis to test how patients' substance use impacted PTSD change over treatment. METHOD: We applied growth models to week-to-week PTSD symptom and substance use changes during treatment and follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of two cognitive-behavioral treatments for PTSD and SUD: Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and SUD Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE) and Relapse Prevention Therapy (RPT). Cross-lagged analyses were used to determine whether prior week substance use impacted subsequent PTSD symptom severity. RESULTS: Both treatments evidenced significant reductions in PTSD symptom severity. In the context of continued substance use, results suggest that individuals still benefit from exposure-based treatment. CONCLUSION: Results provide evidence that RPT and COPE both led to significant reductions in PTSD, providing further support that exposure-based techniques tailored for SUD can be conducted without jeopardizing PTSD or SUD outcomes. Implications for clinical decision making around treatment selection are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

21 Article Neuropsychological predictors of response to cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in persons with severe mental illness. 2018

Mueser, Kim T / McGurk, Susan R / Xie, Haiyi / Bolton, Elisa E / Jankowski, M Kay / Lu, Weili / Rosenberg, Stanley D / Wolfe, Rosemarie. ·Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Departments of Occupational Therapy, Psychological and Brain Sciences, and Psychiatry, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address: Mueser@bu.edu. · Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Departments of Occupational Therapy, Psychological and Brain Sciences, and Psychiatry, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. · Departments of Biomedical Data Science and Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA. · Counseling Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, USA. · Department of Psychiatry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA. · Department of Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Counseling Professions, Rutgers University, Scotch Plains, NJ, USA. ·Psychiatry Res · Pubmed #29040946.

ABSTRACT: This study examined whether cognitive functioning was related to treatment outcomes in persons with severe mental illness who received a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) program for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study sample was drawn from a larger controlled trial of 108 persons with severe mental illness and PTSD comparing the effects of CBT with treatment as usual on PTSD and related outcomes, with assessments conducted at baseline, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Among the 54 persons in CBT, 49 were administered a neuropsychological battery at baseline and 40 were exposed to the CBT program. Statistical analyses of these 40 participants were conducted to evaluate whether cognitive functioning was related to participation in the CBT program, completion of homework assignments, and improvements in PTSD, and other outcomes. Cognitive functioning was not related to participation in CBT or completion of homework. Lower cognitive functioning predicted less learning of information about PTSD at post-treatment and follow-up, but not less clinical benefit from CBT in PTSD diagnosis or symptoms, other symptoms, or health. The results suggest that cognitive impairment does not attenuate response to the CBT for PTSD program in persons with severe mental illness. Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00053690.

22 Article Mental health indicators associated with oil spill response and clean-up: cross-sectional analysis of the GuLF STUDY cohort. 2017

Kwok, Richard K / McGrath, John A / Lowe, Sarah R / Engel, Lawrence S / Jackson, W Braxton / Curry, Matthew D / Payne, Julianne / Galea, Sandro / Sandler, Dale P. ·Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. Electronic address: richard.kwok@nih.gov. · Social & Scientific Systems Inc, Durham, NC, USA. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ, USA. · Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. · RTI International, Durham, NC, USA. · School of Public Health, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA. · Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA. ·Lancet Public Health · Pubmed #29253441.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Adverse mental health effects have been reported following oil spills but few studies have identified specific responsible attributes of the clean-up experience. We aimed to analyse the effects of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (Gulf of Mexico) disaster on the mental health of individuals involved in oil spill response and clean-up. METHODS: We used data from the Gulf Long-term Follow-up Study, a cohort of workers and volunteers involved in oil spill clean-up after the Deepwater Horizon disaster. We included 8968 workers (hired after completing training for oil spill response and clean-up) and 2225 non-workers (completed training but were not hired) who completed a Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and four-item Primary Care PTSD Screen to assess for probable depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) indicators. Participants were recruited between March 28, 2011, and March 29, 2013. The mental health indicators were assessed at home visits done between May 12, 2011, and May 15, 2013. We used regression models to analyse the effect of potentially stressful job experiences, job type, and total hydrocarbon exposure on mental health indicators. FINDINGS: Oil spill response and clean-up work was associated with increased prevalence of depression (prevalence ratio [PR] 1·22, 95% CI 1·08-1·37) and PTSD (PR 1·35, 95% CI 1·07-1·71). Among workers, individuals who reported smelling oil, dispersants, or cleaning chemicals had an elevated prevalence of depression (1·56, 1·37-1·78) and PTSD (2·25, 1·71-2·96). Stopping work because of the heat was also associated with depression (1·37, 1·23-1·53) and PTSD (1·41, 1·15-1·74), as was working as a commercial fisherman before the spill (1·38, 1·21-1·57; and 2·01, 1·58-2·55, respectively). An increase in exposure to total hydrocarbons appeared to be associated with depression and PTSD, but after taking into account oil spill job experiences, only the association between the highest amount of total hydrocarbons and PTSD remained (1·75, 1·11-2·76). INTERPRETATION: Oil spill clean-up workers with high amounts of total hydrocarbon exposure or potentially stressful job experiences had an increased prevalence of depression and PTSD. These findings provide evidence that response and clean-up work is associated with adverse psychological effects and suggest the need for mental health services both before and after the event. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

23 Article Comparison of Simulated Treatment and Cost-effectiveness of a Stepped Care Case-Finding Intervention vs Usual Care for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder After a Natural Disaster. 2017

Cohen, Gregory H / Tamrakar, Shailesh / Lowe, Sarah / Sampson, Laura / Ettman, Catherine / Linas, Ben / Ruggiero, Kenneth / Galea, Sandro. ·Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York. · Department of Psychology, Montclair State University, Montclair, New Jersey. · Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts. · College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. ·JAMA Psychiatry · Pubmed #28979968.

ABSTRACT: Importance: Psychiatric interventions offered after natural disasters commonly address subsyndromal symptom presentations, but often remain insufficient to reduce the burden of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective: To simulate a comparison of a stepped care case-finding intervention (stepped care [SC]) vs a moderate-strength single-level intervention (usual care [UC]) on treatment effectiveness and incremental cost-effectiveness in the 2 years after a natural disaster. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study, which simulated treatment scenarios that start 4 weeks after landfall of Hurricane Sandy on October 29, 2012, and ending 2 years later, created a model of 2 642 713 simulated agents living in the areas of New York City affected by Hurricane Sandy. Interventions: Under SC, cases were referred to cognitive behavioral therapy, an evidence-based therapy that aims to improve symptoms through problem solving and by changing thoughts and behaviors; noncases were referred to Skills for Psychological Recovery, an evidence-informed therapy that aims to reduce distress and improve coping and functioning. Under UC, all patients were referred only to Skills for Psychological Recovery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The reach of SC compared with UC for 2 years, the 2-year reduction in prevalence of PTSD among the full population, the 2-year reduction in the proportion of PTSD cases among initial cases, and 10-year incremental cost-effectiveness. Results: This population of 2 642 713 simulated agents was initialized with a PTSD prevalence of 4.38% (115 751 cases) and distributions of sex (52.6% female and 47.4% male) and age (33.9% aged 18-34 years, 49.0% aged 35-64 years, and 17.1% aged ≥65 years) that were comparable with population estimates in the areas of New York City affected by Hurricane Sandy. Stepped care was associated with greater reach and was superior to UC in reducing the prevalence of PTSD in the full population: absolute benefit was clear at 6 months (risk difference [RD], -0.004; 95% CI, -0.004 to -0.004), improving through 1.25 years (RD, -0.015; 95% CI, -0.015 to -0.014). Relative benefits of SC were clear at 6 months (risk ratio, 0.905; 95% CI, 0.898-0.913), with continued gains through 1.75 years (risk ratio, 0.615; 95% CI, 0.609-0.662). The absolute benefit of SC among cases was much stronger, emerging at 3 months (RD, -0.006; 95% CI, -0.007 to -0.005) and increasing through 1.5 years (RD, -0.338; 95% CI, -0.342 to -0.335). Relative benefits of SC among cases were equivalent to those observed in the full population. The incremental cost-effectiveness of SC compared with UC was $3428.71 to $6857.68 per disability-adjusted life year avoided, and $0.80 to $1.61 per PTSD-free day. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this simulation study suggest that SC for individuals with PTSD in the aftermath of a natural disaster is associated with greater reach than UC, more effectiveness than UC, and is well within the range of acceptability for cost-effectiveness. Results should be considered in light of limitations inherent to agent-based models.

24 Article Stress-Related Mental Health Symptoms in Coast Guard: Incidence, Vulnerability, and Neurocognitive Performance. 2017

Servatius, Richard J / Handy, Justin D / Doria, Michael J / Myers, Catherine E / Marx, Christine E / Lipsky, Robert / Ko, Nora / Avcu, Pelin / Wright, W Geoffrey / Tsao, Jack W. ·Department of Veterans Affairs, Syracuse Veterans Affairs Medical CenterSyracuse, NY, United States. · Department of Psychiatry, State University of New York Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuse, NY, United States. · Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, Stress and Motivated Behavior Institute, Rutgers UniversityNewark, NJ, United States. · United States Coast GuardWashington, DC, United States. · Department of Veterans Affairs, VA New Jersey Health Care SystemEast Orange, NJ, United States. · Department of Pharmacology, Physiology & Neuroscience, Rutgers Biomedical Health Sciences, Rutgers UniversityNewark, NJ, United States. · Veterans Affairs Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness, Research Education and Clinical Center, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical CenterDurham, NC, United States. · Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of MedicineDurham, NC, United States. · Department of Neurosciences, INOVA Health SystemFairfax, VA, United States. · Program of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Rutgers UniversityNewark, NJ, United States. · Neuromotor Sciences Program, Temple UniversityPhiladelphia, PA, United States. · Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science CenterMemphis, TN, United States. · Department of Neurology, Memphis Veteran Affairs Administration Medical CenterMemphis, TN, United States. · Children's Foundation Research Institute, Le Bonheur Children's HospitalMemphis, TN, United States. ·Front Psychol · Pubmed #28959220.

ABSTRACT: U.S. Coast Guard (CG) personnel face occupational stressors (e.g., search and rescue) which compound daily life stressors encountered by civilians. However, the degree CG personnel express stress-related mental health symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is understudied as a military branch, and little is known concerning the interplay of vulnerabilities and neurocognitive outcomes in CG personnel. The current study addressed this knowledge gap, recruiting 241 active duty CG personnel (22% female) to assess mental health, personality, and neurocognitive function. Participants completed a battery of scales: PTSD Checklist with military and non-military prompts to screen for PTSD, Psychological Health Questionnaire 8 for MDD, and scales for behaviorally inhibited (BI) temperament, and distressed (Type D) personality. Neurocognitive performance was assessed with the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) battery. Cluster scoring yielded an overall rate of PTSD of 15% (95% CI: 11-20%) and 8% (95% CI: 3-9%) for MDD. Non-military trauma was endorsed twice that of military trauma in those meeting criteria for PTSD. Individual vulnerabilities were predictive of stress-related mental health symptoms in active duty military personnel; specifically, BI temperament predicted PTSD whereas gender and Type D personality predicted MDD. Stress-related mental health symptoms were also associated with poorer reaction time and response inhibition. These results suggest rates of PTSD and MDD are comparable among CG personnel serving Boat Stations to those of larger military services after combat deployment. Further, vulnerabilities distinguished between PTSD and MDD, which have a high degree of co-occurrence in military samples. To what degree stress-related mental healthy symptoms and attendant neurocognitive deficits affect operational effectiveness remains unknown and warrant future study.

25 Article Posttraumatic Reactions to Psychosis: A Qualitative Analysis. 2017

Lu, Weili / Mueser, Kim T / Rosenberg, Stanley D / Yanos, Philip T / Mahmoud, Neisrein. ·Department of Psychiatric Rehabilitation and Counseling Professions, Rutgers University, Scotch Plains, NJ, United States. · Center for Psychiatric Rehabilitation, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States. · Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, United States. · Dartmouth Trauma Intervention Research Center, Lebanon, NH, United States. · Department of Psychology, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY, New York, NY, United States. ·Front Psychiatry · Pubmed #28769826.

ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to evaluate the potentially traumatic aspects of psychotic symptoms and psychiatric treatment of psychosis using qualitative methods. Participants included 63 people with first episode psychosis or multiple psychotic episodes recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit and an urban state psychiatric hospital in the North East region of the United States. Quasi-structured interviews were used to explore those aspects of symptoms and treatment that were perceived as traumatic Emotional reactions to the most traumatic aspect of symptoms and treatment, during and after the event, were also examined. Participants described a number of traumatogenic aspects of psychotic symptoms, including frightening hallucinations; suicidal thought/attempts, thoughts/attempts to hurt others; paranoia/delusions and bizarre/disorganized behavior or catatonia. Traumatic aspects of psychosis elicited emotions including anger, sadness and confusion, anxiety, and numbness at the time of event. Furthermore, many participants found aspects of treatment to be traumatic, including: being forced to stay in the hospital for a long time; experiencing upsetting side-effects; coercive treatments, including involuntary hospitalization, use of restraints, and forced medication; being exposed to aggressive patients; and mistreatment by professionals. These experiences elicited emotions of anger, sadness, distrust, and a sense of helplessness. Study findings suggest that the experiences both of psychotic symptoms and psychiatric treatment, potentially traumatic, can be a powerful barrier to engaging people in mental health services and facilitating recovery. Clinical implications were discussed.

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