Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Thyroid Diseases HELP
Based on 37,110 articles published since 2008

These are the 37110 published articles about Thyroid Diseases that originated from Worldwide during 2008-2019.
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Retrospective Application of the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Ultrasound Classification, Biopsy Indications, and Follow-up Imaging of Thyroid Nodules: Can Improved Reporting Decrease Testing? 2019

Mohammadi, Manijeh / Betel, Carrie / Burton, Kirsteen Rennie / Higgins, Kevin McLughlin / Ghorab, Zeina / Halperin, Ilana Jaye. ·Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: mohammadi.mjh@gmail.com. · Department of Medical Imaging, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ·Can Assoc Radiol J · Pubmed #30691566.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Thyroid ultrasound has been widely used to determine which nodules need further investigation. The goal of this study is to determine if using an ultrasonographic features checklist based on 2015 American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines can improve reporting and decrease unnecessary further testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, ultrasonographic images of all nodules biopsied at our institution in 2014 and 2015 were reviewed by radiologists blinded to fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy result using a checklist. The checklist was prepared based on 2015 ATA guidelines. The ultrasonographic characteristics of thyroid nodules were compared with the result of biopsy to determine positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, and specificity for predicting malignancy. Radiologists also made an overall recommendation on need for FNA. RESULTS: A total of 425 thyroid nodule ultrasound scans were reviewed by radiologists. Biopsy results of 31 nodules were malignant and 394 were non-malignant. Malignant nodules showed higher frequency of solid composition, hypoechoechogenicity, and cervical lymph node involvement compared to benign nodules. Solid nodule composition had the highest PPV (13%) and NPV (94.7%). Extra-thyroid extension had the highest specificity (90.1%). Lesion vascularity had the highest sensitivity (83.8%), followed by hypoechogenicity (65.6%). Overall, the checklist had a positive predictive value of 9%, negative predictive value of 97.5%, sensitivity of 96.8%, and specificity of 11.14%. Radiologists determined that 10% of the nodules were very low-risk and did not require FNA. CONCLUSION: Using a checklist based on 2015 ATA guideline thyroid nodule ultrasonographic features is a sensitive tool with high NPV to predict benign thyroid nodule, thereby preventing unnecessary FNAs.

2 Guideline Thyroid ultrasonography reporting: consensus of Italian Thyroid Association (AIT), Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE), Italian Society of Ultrasonography in Medicine and Biology (SIUMB) and Ultrasound Chapter of Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM). 2018

Rago, T / Cantisani, V / Ianni, F / Chiovato, L / Garberoglio, R / Durante, C / Frasoldati, A / Spiezia, S / Farina, R / Vallone, G / Pontecorvi, A / Vitti, P. ·Endocrinology Unit, Dept. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa, 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy. rago@endoc.med.unipi.it. · Dept. of Radiological Science, Policlinico Umberto I, University Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico, 155, Rome, 00161, Italy. · Endocrinology Unit, University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, Rome, 00168, Italy. · Internal Medicine and Endocrinology Unit - ICS Maugeri, IRCCS, University of Pavia, Via S. Maugeri, 4, Pavia, 27100, Italy. · Endocrinology, Diabetology and Metabolism Unit, Dept. Medical Science, University of Torino, Via Magellano, 1, Turin, 10128, Italy. · Dept. of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University Sapienza, Viale del Policlinico, 155, Rome, 00161, Italy. · Endocrinology Unit, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova, IRCCS, Viale Risorgimento, 80, Reggio Emilia, 42123, Italy. · Endocrine Surgery, Ospedale del Mare, Via Enrico Russo, Naples, 80147, Italy. · Dept. of Advanced Biomedical Science, University of Naples Federico II, Corso Umberto I, 40, Naples, 80128, Italy. · Endocrinology Unit, Dept. Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Paradisa, 2, 56124, Pisa, Italy. ·J Endocrinol Invest · Pubmed #30327945.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid ultrasonography (US) is the gold standard for thyroid imaging and its widespread use is due to an optimal spatial resolution for superficial anatomic structures, a low cost and the lack of health risks. Thyroid US is a pivotal tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of autoimmune thyroid diseases, for assessing nodule size and echostructure and defining the risk of malignancy in thyroid nodules. The main limitation of US is the poor reproducibility, due to the variable experience of the operators and the different performance and settings of the equipments. Aim of this consensus statement is to standardize the report of thyroid US through the definition of common minimum requirements and a correct terminology. US patterns of autoimmune thyroid diseases are defined. US signs of malignancy in thyroid nodules are classified and scored in each nodule. We also propose a simplified nodule risk stratification, based on the predictive value of each US sign, classified and scored according to the strength of association with malignancy, but also to the estimated reproducibility among different operators.

3 Guideline International neuromonitoring study group guidelines 2018: Part II: Optimal recurrent laryngeal nerve management for invasive thyroid cancer-incorporation of surgical, laryngeal, and neural electrophysiologic data. 2018

Wu, Che-Wei / Dionigi, Gianlorenzo / Barczynski, Marcin / Chiang, Feng-Yu / Dralle, Henning / Schneider, Rick / Al-Quaryshi, Zaid / Angelos, Peter / Brauckhoff, Katrin / Brooks, Jennifer A / Cernea, Claudio R / Chaplin, John / Chen, Amy Y / Davies, Louise / Diercks, Gill R / Duh, Quan Yang / Fundakowski, Christopher / Goretzki, Peter E / Hales, Nathan W / Hartl, Dana / Kamani, Dipti / Kandil, Emad / Kyriazidis, Natalia / Liddy, Whitney / Miyauchi, Akira / Orloff, Lisa / Rastatter, Jeff C / Scharpf, Joseph / Serpell, Jonathan / Shin, Jennifer J / Sinclair, Catherine F / Stack, Brendan C / Tolley, Neil S / Slycke, Sam Van / Snyder, Samuel K / Urken, Mark L / Volpi, Erivelto / Witterick, Ian / Wong, Richard J / Woodson, Gayle / Zafereo, Mark / Randolph, Gregory W. ·Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. · Division for Endocrine Surgery, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood "G. Barresi", University Hospital G. Martino, University of Messina, Messina, Italy. · Department of Endocrine Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Third Chair of General Surgery, Krakow, Poland. · Department of General Surgery, University Hospital Halle, Halle/Saale, Germany. · Department of General, Visceral, and Vascular Surgery, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany. · Department of Otolaryngology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa, U.S.A. · Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. · Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. · Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery, Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. · Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil. · Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Gillies Hospital and Clinics, Epsom, New Zealand. · VA Endocrine Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA. · Outcomes Group, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Norwich, Vermont, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. · Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. · P.G. Stadtische Kliniken Neuss Lukaskrankenhaus GmbH, Neuss, Nordrhein-Westfalen, DE. · Department of Otolaryngology, Uniformed Services of the Health Sciences, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. · San Antonio Head and Neck, San Antonio, Texas, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif, France. · Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. · Department of Surgery, Kuma Hospital, Kobe, Japan. · Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A. · Breast, Endocrine and General Surgery Unit, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. · Monash University School of Languages, Literatures, Cultures, and Linguistics, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. · Department of Otolaryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, Icahn School of Medicine, New York, New York, U.S.A. · Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.A. · Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Imperial College Hospitals NHS Trust, St. Mary's Hospital, London, United Kingdom. · Onze-Lieve-Vrouw Hospital Aalst, Brussels, Belgium. · Department of General Surgery, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley School of Medicine, Edinburg, Texas, U.S.A. · Clinics Hospital, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil. · Department of Otolaryngology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Department of Surgery-Head and Neck Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, U.S.A. · 865 Indianola Drive, Merritt Island, Florida, U.S.A. · Department of Head and Neck Surgery, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, U.S.A. · Division of Surgical Oncology, Endocrine Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A. ·Laryngoscope · Pubmed #30291765.

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this publication was to inform surgeons as to the modern state-of-the-art evidence-based guidelines for management of the recurrent laryngeal nerve invaded by malignancy through blending the domains of 1) surgical intraoperative information, 2) preoperative glottic function, and 3) intraoperative real-time electrophysiologic information. These guidelines generated by the International Neural Monitoring Study Group (INMSG) are envisioned to assist the clinical decision-making process involved in recurrent laryngeal nerve management during thyroid surgery by incorporating the important information domains of not only gross surgical findings but also intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve functional status and preoperative laryngoscopy findings. These guidelines are presented mainly through algorithmic workflow diagrams for convenience and the ease of application. These guidelines are published in conjunction with the INMSG Guidelines Part I: Staging Bilateral Thyroid Surgery With Monitoring Loss of Signal. Level of Evidence: 5 Laryngoscope, 128:S18-S27, 2018.

4 Guideline [Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. 2018

Verburg, Frederik A / Grünwald, Frank / Lassmann, Michael / Hänscheid, Heribert / Luster, Markus / Dietlein, Markus. · ·Nuklearmedizin · Pubmed #30125925.

ABSTRACT: Version 4 of the procedural guideline for Iodine-131 whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) in differentiated thyroid carcinoma is an update of the version 3, which was published by the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin" (DGN) and the "Deutsche Gesellschaft für Medizinische Physik" (DGMP) in 2007. This procedural guideline advises on how to best perform I-131 whole body scintigraphy after I-131 therapy or after application of a diagnostic I-131 activity. The updated relevant medical indications for I-131 whole body scintigraphy are given in this procedural guideline. Novel insights on the relationship bet¬ween activity and image quality were incorporated in the updated recommendations. A representative expert group has discussed and reached consensus on the procedural guideline; the development of this procedural guideline therefore fulfils the criteria for level S1 (first step) within the classification of the German Workgroup of Scientific Medical Societies ("Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften"; AWMF). Additionally, indications for WBS, timing and activity for WBS were discussed by the working group "Thyroid" of the DGN on November 30th 2012, April 19th, 2013 and on April 23rd, 2015.

5 Guideline Italian consensus on diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer: joint statements of six Italian societies. 2018

Pacini, F / Basolo, F / Bellantone, R / Boni, G / Cannizzaro, M A / De Palma, M / Durante, C / Elisei, R / Fadda, G / Frasoldati, A / Fugazzola, L / Guglielmi, R / Lombardi, C P / Miccoli, P / Papini, E / Pellegriti, G / Pezzullo, L / Pontecorvi, A / Salvatori, M / Seregni, E / Vitti, P. ·Department of Medical, Surgical and Neurological Sciences, University of Siena, 53100, Siena, Italy. pacini8@unisi.it. · Department of Surgical, Medical, Molecular Pathology and Critical Area, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · U.O.C. Chirurgia Endocrina e Metabolica, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. · Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Advanced Technologies "G.F.Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy. · Dipartimento Chirurgico Generale e Polispecialistico Chirurgia 2, AORN Cardarelli, Naples, Italy. · Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, University of Rome Sapienza, Rome, Italy. · Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · Institute of Pathology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy. · Endocrinology Unit, Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova-IRCCS, Reggio Emilia, Italy. · Division of Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Milan, Italy. · Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. · Department of Endocrinology, Regina Apostolorum Hospital, Albano Laziale, Italy. · Endocrinology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Garibaldi-Nesima Medical Center, Catania, Italy. · Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery Unit, Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori-IRCCS 'Fondazione G. Pascale', Naples, Italy. · Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Area di Endocrinologia e Malattie Metaboliche, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy. · Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. · Struttura di Terapia Medico Nucleare ed Endocrinologia U.O. Medicina Nucleare Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori Milano, Milan, Italy. ·J Endocrinol Invest · Pubmed #29729004.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. METHODS: Six scientific Italian societies entitled to cure thyroid cancer patients (the Italian Thyroid Association, the Medical Endocrinology Association, the Italian Society of Endocrinology, the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, the Italian Society of Unified Endocrine Surgery and the Italian Society of Anatomic Pathology and Diagnostic Cytology) felt the need to develop a consensus report based on significant scientific advances occurred in the field. OBJECTIVE: The document includes recommendations regarding initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, initial management of thyroid cancer including staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation, and levothyroxine therapy, short-term and long-term follow-up strategies, and management of recurrent and metastatic disease. The objective of this consensus is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers about the best strategies (and their limitations) relating to the diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer.

6 Guideline Guidelines of Polish National Societies Diagnostics and Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma. 2018 Update. 2018

Jarząb, Barbara / Dedecjus, Marek / Słowińska-Klencka, Dorota / Lewiński, Andrzej / Adamczewski, Zbigniew / Anielski, Ryszard / Bagłaj, Maciej / Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata / Barczyński, Marcin / Bednarczuk, Tomasz / Bossowski, Artur / Buziak-Bereza, Monika / Chmielik, Ewa / Cichocki, Andrzej / Czarniecka, Agnieszka / Czepczyński, Rafał / Dzięcioł, Janusz / Gawlik, Tomasz / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Hasse-Lazar, Kornelia / Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja / Jażdżewski, Krystian / Jurecka-Lubieniecka, Beata / Kalemba, Michał / Kamiński, Grzegorz / Karbownik-Lewińska, Małgorzata / Klencki, Mariusz / Kos-Kudła, Beata / Kotecka-Blicharz, Agnieszka / Kowalska, Aldona / Krajewska, Jolanta / Kropińska, Aleksandra / Kukulska, Aleksandra / Kulik, Emilia / Kułakowski, Andrzej / Kuzdak, Krzysztof / Lange, Dariusz / Ledwon, Aleksandra / Lewandowska-Jabłońska, Elżbieta / Łącka, Katarzyna / Michalik, Barbara / Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna / Nauman, Janusz / Niedziela, Marek / Małecka-Tendera, Ewa / Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata / Olczyk, Tomasz / Paliczka-Cieślik, Ewa / Pomorski, Lech / Puch, Zbigniew / Roskosz, Józef / Ruchała, Marek / Rusinek, Dagmara / Sporny, Stanisław / Stanek-Widera, Agata / Stojcev, Zoran / Syguła, Aleksandra / Syrenicz, Anhelli / Szpak-Ulczok, Sylwia / Tomkalski, Tomasz / Wygoda, Zbigniew / Włoch, Jan / Zembala-Nożyńska, Ewa. ·Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine Oncology Department; M.Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Institute - Cancer Center, Gliwice Branch, Wybrzeze AK 15, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland; Zakład Medycyny Nuklearnej i Endokrynologii Onkologicznej, Centrum Onkologii-Instytut im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie, Oddział w Gliwicach, Wybrzeże AK 15, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland. barbara.jarzab@io.gliwice. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #29442352.

ABSTRACT: Significant advances have been made in thyroid can-cer research in recent years, therefore relevant clinical guidelines need to be updated. The current Polish guidelines "Diagnostics and Treatment of Thyroid Carcinoma" have been formulated at the "Thyroid Cancer and Other Malignancies of Endocrine Glands" conference held in Wisła in November 2015 [1].

7 Guideline [Study and management of thyroid nodes by non specialist physicians: SOCHED consensus]. 2017

Tala, Hernán / Díaz, René E / Domínguez Ruiz-Tagle, José Miguel / Sapunar Zenteno, Jorge / Pineda, Pedro / Arroyo Albala, Patricia / Barberán, Marcela / Cabané, Patricio / Cruz Olivos, Francisco / Gac E, Patricio / Glasinovic Pizarro, Andrea / González, Hernán E / Grob, Francisca / Hidalgo Valle, Maria Soledad / Jaimovich, Rodrigo / Lanas, Alejandra / Liberman, Claudio / Lobo Guiñez, Maite / Madrid, Arturo. ·Unidad de Endocrinología, Departamento de Medicina Interna, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago, Chile. · Sección Endocrinología, Hospital del Salvador, Santiago, Chile. · Departamento de Endocrinología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. · Departamento Medicina Interna, Centro EPICYN, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Frontera, Temuco, Chile. · Hospital Clínico, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. · Clínica Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile. · Departamento de Radiología, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. · Clínica Santa María, Santiago, Chile. · Departamento de Cirugía Oncológica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. · División de Pediatría, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. · Hospital San Borja-Arriarán, Santiago, Chile. · Medicina Nuclear, Clínica Las Condes, Santiago, Chile. · Centro de Diagnóstico Plaza Italia, Santiago, Chile. · Unidad de Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello, Departamento de Cirugía, Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Santiago, Chile. ·Rev Med Chil · Pubmed #29189861.

ABSTRACT: The thyroid nodule is a frequent cause of primary care consultation. The prevalence of a palpable thyroid nodule is approximately 4-7%, increasing up to 67% by the incidental detection of nodules on ultrasound. The vast majority are benign and asymptomatic, staying stable over time. The clinical importance of studying a thyroid nodule is to exclude thyroid cancer, which occurs in 5 to 10% of the nodules. The Board of SOCHED (Chilean Society of Endocrinology and Diabetes) asked the Thyroid Study Group to develop a consensus regarding the diagnostic management of the thyroid nodule in Chile, aimed at non-specialist physicians and adapted to the national reality. To this end, a multidisciplinary group of 31 experts was established among university academics, active researchers with publications on the subject and prominent members of scientific societies of endocrinology, head and neck surgery, pathology and radiology. A total of 14 questions were developed with key aspects for the diagnosis and subsequent referral of patients with thyroid nodules, which were addressed by the participants. In those areas where the evidence was insufficient or the national reality had to be considered, the consensus opinion of the experts was used through the Delphi methodology. The consensus was approved by the SOCHED board for publication.

8 Guideline The 2017 Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. 2017

Cibas, Edmund S / Ali, Syed Z. ·1 Departments of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts. · 2 Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions , Baltimore, Maryland. ·Thyroid · Pubmed #29091573.

ABSTRACT: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) established a standardized, category-based reporting system for thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens. The 2017 revision reaffirms that every thyroid FNA report should begin with one of six diagnostic categories, the names of which remain unchanged since they were first introduced: (i) nondiagnostic or unsatisfactory; (ii) benign; (iii) atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS); (iv) follicular neoplasm or suspicious for a follicular neoplasm; (v) suspicious for malignancy; and (vi) malignant. There is a choice of two different names for some of the categories. A laboratory should choose the one it prefers and use it exclusively for that category. Synonymous terms (e.g., AUS and FLUS) should not be used to denote two distinct interpretations. Each category has an implied cancer risk that ranges from 0% to 3% for the "benign" category to virtually 100% for the "malignant" category, and, in the 2017 revision, the malignancy risks have been updated based on new (post 2010) data. As a function of their risk associations, each category is linked to updated, evidence-based clinical management recommendations. The recent reclassification of some thyroid neoplasms as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) has implications for the risk of malignancy, and this is accounted for with regard to diagnostic criteria and optional notes. Such notes can be useful in helping guide surgical management.

9 Guideline Radioactive iodine therapy, molecular imaging and serum biomarkers for differentiated thyroid cancer: 2017 guidelines of the French Societies of Nuclear Medicine, Endocrinology, Pathology, Biology, Endocrine Surgery and Head and Neck Surgery. 2017

Zerdoud, Slimane / Giraudet, Anne-Laure / Leboulleux, Sophie / Leenhardt, Laurence / Bardet, Stéphane / Clerc, Jérôme / Toubert, Marie-Elisabeth / Al Ghuzlan, Abir / Lamy, Pierre-Jean / Bournaud, Claire / Keller, Isabelle / Sebag, Frédéric / Garrel, Renaud / Mirallié, Eric / Groussin, Lionel / Hindié, Elif / Taïeb, David. ·Service de médecine nucléaire, institut universitaire du cancer Toulouse oncopole, 1, avenue Irène-Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse cedex 9, France. · Médecine nucleaire, centre LUMEN, curiethérapie, thyroïde, tumeurs endocrines, centre de lutte contre le cancer Léon-Berard, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire et cancérologie endocrinienne Gustave-Roussy, université Paris Saclay, 114, rue Edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif, France. · Unité thyroïde tumeurs endocrines, institut E3M, hôpital La Pitié-Salpêtrière, 83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire et UCP thyroïde, centre François-Baclesse, 3, avenue Général-Harris, 14076 Caen cedex 05, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire, groupe hospitalier Paris Centre, AP-HP, 27, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Jacques, 75679 Paris cedex 14, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire, hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 1, avenue Claude-Vellefaux, 75475 Paris cedex 10, France. · Département de biologie et de pathologie médicales Gustave-Roussy, 39, rue Camille-Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif, France. · Laboratoire d'oncologie moléculaire, institut médical d'analyse génomique, Labosud, 141, avenue Paul-Bringuier, 34080 Montpellier, France; Unité de recherche clinique, clinique Beau-Soleil, 119, avenue de Lodeve, 34070 Montpellier, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire, hospices civils de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 28, avenue Doyen-Lépine, 69677 Bron cedex, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire, hôpitaux universitaires Est Parisien, hôpital Saint-Antoine, AP-HP, 184, rue du Faubourg-Saint-Antoine, 75012 Paris, France. · Service de chirurgie endocrinienne, université Aix-Marseille, CHU de la Timone, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France. · Département ORL et chirurgie cervico faciale, pole neuroscience tête et cou, hôpital Gui-de-Chauliac, CHU de Montpellier, 80, rue Fliche, 34295 Montpellier, France. · Service de chirurgie endocrinienne et digestive, CHU de Nantes, 1, place Alexis-Ricordeau, 44093 Nantes, France. · Service d'endocrinologie et maladies métaboliques, hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, 123, boulevard du Port-Royal, 75014 Paris, France. · Service de médecine nucléaire, hôpital Haut-Lévêque, université de Bordeaux, CHU de Bordeaux, avenue Magellan, 33604 Pessac, France. Electronic address: elif.hindie@chu-bordeaux.fr. · Service central de biophysique et de médecine nucléaire, université Aix-Marseille, CHU de la Timone, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille cedex 05, France. Electronic address: david.taieb@ap-hm.fr. ·Ann Endocrinol (Paris) · Pubmed #28578852.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Guideline Screening for Thyroid Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. 2017

Anonymous1120906 / Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten / Grossman, David C / Curry, Susan J / Barry, Michael J / Davidson, Karina W / Doubeni, Chyke A / Epling, John W / Kemper, Alex R / Krist, Alex H / Kurth, Ann E / Landefeld, C Seth / Mangione, Carol M / Phipps, Maureen G / Silverstein, Michael / Simon, Melissa A / Siu, Albert L / Tseng, Chien-Wen. ·University of California, San Francisco. · Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Seattle. · University of Iowa, Iowa City. · Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · Columbia University, New York, New York. · University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. · Virginia Tech Carilion School of Medicine, Roanoke. · Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. · Fairfax Family Practice Residency, Fairfax, Virginia10Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond. · Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. · University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham. · University of California, Los Angeles. · Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. · Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts. · Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois. · Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, New York18James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York. · Pacific Health Research and Education Institute, Honolulu, Hawaii20University of Hawaii, Honolulu. ·JAMA · Pubmed #28492905.

ABSTRACT: Importance: The incidence of thyroid cancer detection has increased by 4.5% per year over the last 10 years, faster than for any other cancer, but without a corresponding change in the mortality rate. In 2013, the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the United States was 15.3 cases per 100 000 persons. Most cases of thyroid cancer have a good prognosis; the 5-year survival rate for thyroid cancer overall is 98.1%. Objective: To update the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for thyroid cancer. Evidence Review: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults, the diagnostic accuracy of screening (including neck palpation and ultrasound), and the benefits and harms of treatment of screen-detected thyroid cancer. Findings: The USPSTF found inadequate direct evidence on the benefits of screening but determined that the magnitude of the overall benefits of screening and treatment can be bounded as no greater than small, given the relative rarity of thyroid cancer, the apparent lack of difference in outcomes between patients who are treated vs monitored (for the most common tumor types), and observational evidence showing no change in mortality over time after introduction of a mass screening program. The USPSTF found inadequate direct evidence on the harms of screening but determined that the overall magnitude of the harms of screening and treatment can be bounded as at least moderate, given adequate evidence of harms of treatment and indirect evidence that overdiagnosis and overtreatment are likely to be substantial with population-based screening. The USPSTF therefore determined that the net benefit of screening for thyroid cancer is negative. Conclusions and Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for thyroid cancer in asymptomatic adults. (D recommendation).

11 Guideline Consensus statement for use and technical requirements of thyroid ultrasound in endocrinology units. 2017

Martín-Hernández, Tomás / Díez Gómez, Juan José / Díaz-Soto, Gonzalo / Torres Cuadro, Alberto / Navarro González, Elena / Oleaga Alday, Amelia / Sambo Salas, Marcel / Reverter Calatayud, Jordi L / Argüelles Jiménez, Iñaki / Mancha Doblas, Isabel / Fernández García, Diego / Galofré, Juan Carlos. ·Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, España. Electronic address: tmartin@cica.es. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valladolid, Valladolid, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, Sevilla, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Basurto, Bilbao, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, Badalona, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, España. · UGC Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospitales Virgen de la Victoria y Regional de Málaga, Málaga, España. · Departamento de Endocrinología, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, España. ·Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr · Pubmed #28440762.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodule detection has increased with widespread use of ultrasound, which is currently the main tool for detection, monitoring, diagnosis and, in some instances, treatment of thyroid nodules. Knowledge of ultrasound and adequate instruction on its use require a position statement by the scientific societies concerned. The working groups on thyroid cancer and ultrasound techniques of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition have promoted this document, based on a thorough analysis of the current literature, the results of multicenter studies and expert consensus, in order to set the requirements for the best use of ultrasound in clinical practice. The objectives include the adequate framework for use of thyroid ultrasound, the technical and legal requirements, the clinical situations in which it is recommended, the levels of knowledge and learning processes, the associated responsibility, and the establishment of a standardized reporting of results and integration into hospital information systems and endocrinology units.

12 Guideline American Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Task Force Review and Recommendation on the Proposed Renaming of Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Without Invasion to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features. 2017

Haugen, Bryan R / Sawka, Anna M / Alexander, Erik K / Bible, Keith C / Caturegli, Patrizio / Doherty, Gerard M / Mandel, Susan J / Morris, John C / Nassar, Aziza / Pacini, Furio / Schlumberger, Martin / Schuff, Kathryn / Sherman, Steven I / Somerset, Hilary / Sosa, Julie Ann / Steward, David L / Wartofsky, Leonard / Williams, Michelle D. ·1 University of Colorado School of Medicine , Aurora, Colorado. · 2 University Health Network, University of Toronto , Toronto, Canada . · 3 Brigham and Women's Hospital , Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. · 4 The Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota. · 5 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland. · 6 Boston Medical Center , Boston, Massachusetts. · 7 Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania , Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. · 8 The Mayo Clinic , Jacksonville, Florida. · 9 The University of Siena , Siena, Italy . · 10 Institute Gustave Roussy and University Paris Sud , Villejuif, France . · 11 Oregon Health and Science University , Portland, Oregon. · 12 University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center , Houston, Texas. · 13 Duke University School of Medicine , Durham, North Carolina. · 14 University of Cincinnati Medical Center , Cincinnati, Ohio. · 15 MedStar Washington Hospital Center , Washington, DC. ·Thyroid · Pubmed #28114862.

ABSTRACT: American Thyroid Association (ATA) leadership asked the ATA Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force to review, comment on, and make recommendations related to the suggested new classification of encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). The task force consists of members from the 2015 guidelines task force with the recusal of three members who were authors on the paper under review. Four pathologists and one endocrinologist were added for this specific review. The manuscript proposing the new classification and related literature were assessed. It is recommended that the histopathologic nomenclature for eFVPTC without invasion be reclassified as a NIFTP, given the excellent prognosis of this neoplastic variant. This is a weak recommendation based on moderate-quality evidence. It is also noted that prospective studies are needed to validate the observed patient outcomes (and test performance in predicting thyroid cancer outcomes), as well as implications on patients' psychosocial health and economics.

13 Guideline Core Needle Biopsy of the Thyroid: 2016 Consensus Statement and Recommendations from Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology. 2017

Na, Dong Gyu / Baek, Jung Hwan / Jung, So Lyung / Kim, Ji-Hoon / Sung, Jin Yong / Kim, Kyu Sun / Lee, Jeong Hyun / Shin, Jung Hee / Choi, Yoon Jung / Ha, Eun Ju / Lim, Hyun Kyung / Kim, Soo Jin / Hahn, Soo Yeon / Lee, Kwang Hwi / Choi, Young Jun / Youn, Inyoung / Kim, Young Joong / Ahn, Hye Shin / Ryu, Ji Hwa / Baek, Seon Mi / Sim, Jung Suk / Jung, Chan Kwon / Lee, Joon Hyung / Anonymous18310893. ·Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul 06524, Korea. · Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 05505, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea. · Department of Radiology and Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul 07442, Korea. · Department of Radiology and Thyroid Center, Daerim St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul 07442, Korea.; Department of Radiology, Smarton Hospital, Bucheon 14534, Korea. · Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 03181, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul 04401, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Human Medical Imaging and Intervention Center, Seoul 06524, Korea.; Department of Radiology, New Korea Hospital, Kimpo 10086, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 48108, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Daejeon 35365, Korea. · Department of Radiology and Thyroid Center, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul 06973, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Sharing and Happiness Hospital, Busan 48101, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Withsim Clinic, Seongnam 13590, Korea. · Department of Hospital Pathology, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea. · Department of Radiology, Dong-A University Medical Center, Busan 49201, Korea. ·Korean J Radiol · Pubmed #28096731.

ABSTRACT: Core needle biopsy (CNB) has been suggested as a complementary diagnostic method to fine-needle aspiration in patients with thyroid nodules. Many recent CNB studies have suggested a more advanced role for CNB, but there are still no guidelines on its use. Therefore, the Task Force Committee of the Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology has developed the present consensus statement and recommendations for the role of CNB in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules. These recommendations are based on evidence from the current literature and expert consensus.

14 Guideline Diagnostics and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children - Guidelines of Polish National Societies. 2016

Niedziela, Marek / Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria / Małecka-Tendera, Ewa / Czarniecka, Agnieszka / Dedecjus, Marek / Lange, Dariusz / Kucharska, Anna / Gawlik, Aneta / Pomorski, Lech / Włoch, Jan / Bagłaj, Maciej / Słowińska-Klencka, Dorota / Sporny, Stanisław / Kurzawa, Paweł / Kropińska, Aleksandra / Krajewska, Jolanta / Czepczyński, Rafał / Ruchała, Marek / Lewiński, Andrzej / Jarząb, Barbara. ·Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Rheumatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland. mniedzie@ump.edu.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #28042655.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

15 Guideline Management of thyroid cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines. 2016

Mitchell, A L / Gandhi, A / Scott-Coombes, D / Perros, P. ·The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust,Newcastle upon Tyne,UK. · Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery,University Hospital of South Manchester,Manchester,UK. · University Hospital of Wales,Cardiff,UK. ·J Laryngol Otol · Pubmed #27841128.

ABSTRACT: This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. This paper provides recommendations on the management of thyroid cancer in adults and is based on the 2014 British Thyroid Association guidelines. Recommendations • Ultrasound scanning (USS) of the nodule or goitre is a crucial investigation in guiding the need for fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). (R) • FNAC should be considered for all nodules with suspicious ultrasound features (U3-U5). If a nodule is smaller than 10 mm in diameter, USS guided FNAC is not recommended unless clinically suspicious lymph nodes on USS are also present. (R) • Cytological analysis and categorisation should be reported according to the current British Thyroid Association Guidance. (R) • Ultrasound scanning assessment of cervical nodes should be done in FNAC-proven cancer. (R) • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) should be done in suspected cases of retrosternal extension, fixed tumours (local invasion with or without vocal cord paralysis) or when haemoptysis is reported. When CT with contrast is used pre-operatively, there should be a two-month delay between the use of iodinated contrast media and subsequent radioactive iodine (I131) therapy. (R) • Fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography imaging is not recommended for routine evaluation. (G) • In patients with thyroid cancer, assessment of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node disease in the central and lateral neck compartments should be undertaken pre-operatively by USS and cross-sectional imaging (CT or MRI) if indicated. (R) • For patients with Thy 3f or Thy 4 FNAC a diagnostic hemithyroidectomy is recommended. (R) • Total thyroidectomy is recommended for patients with tumours greater than 4 cm in diameter or tumours of any size in association with any of the following characteristics: multifocal disease, bilateral disease, extrathyroidal spread (pT3 and pT4a), familial disease and those with clinically or radiologically involved nodes and/or distant metastases. (R) • Subtotal thyroidectomy should not be used in the management of thyroid cancer. (G) • Central compartment neck dissection is not routinely recommended for patients with papillary thyroid cancer without clinical or radiological evidence of lymph node involvement, provided they meet all of the following criteria: classical type papillary thyroid cancer, patient less than 45 years old, unifocal tumour, less than 4 cm, no extrathyroidal extension on ultrasound. (R) • Patients with metastases in the lateral compartment should undergo therapeutic lateral and central compartment neck dissection. (R) • Patients with follicular cancer with greater than 4 cm tumours should be treated with total thyroidectomy. (R) • I131 ablation should be carried out only in centres with appropriate facilities. (R) • Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) should be checked in all post-operative patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but not sooner than six weeks after surgery. (R) • Patients who have undergone total or near total thyroidectomy should be started on levothyroxine 2 µg per kg or liothyronine 20 mcg tds after surgery. (R) • The majority of patients with a tumour more than 1 cm in diameter, who have undergone total or near-total thyroidectomy, should have I131 ablation. (R) • A post-ablation scan should be performed 3-10 days after I131 ablation. (R) • Post-therapy dynamic risk stratification at 9-12 months is used to guide further management. (G) • Potentially resectable recurrent or persistent disease should be managed with surgery whenever possible. (R) • Distant metastases and sites not amenable to surgery which are iodine avid should be treated with I131 therapy. (R) • Long-term follow-up for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is recommended. (G) • Follow-up should be based on clinical examination, serum Tg and thyroid-stimulating hormone assessments. (R) • Patients with suspected medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) should be investigated with calcitonin and carcino-embryonic antigen levels (CEA), 24 hour catecholamine and nor metanephrine urine estimation (or plasma free nor metanephrine estimation), serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. (R) • Relevant imaging studies are advisable to guide the extent of surgery. (R) • RET (Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor) proto-oncogene analysis should be performed after surgery. (R) • All patients with known or suspected MTC should have serum calcitonin and biochemical screening for phaeochromocytoma pre-operatively. (R) • All patients with proven MTC greater than 5 mm should undergo total thyroidectomy and central compartment neck dissection. (R) • Patients with MTC with lateral nodal involvement should undergo selective neck dissection (IIa-Vb). (R) • Patients with MTC with central node metastases should undergo ipsilateral prophylactic lateral node dissection. (R) • Prophylactic thyroidectomy should be offered to RET-positive family members. (R) • All patients with proven MTC should have genetic screening. (R) • Radiotherapy may be useful in controlling local symptoms in patients with inoperable disease. (R) • Chemotherapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors may help in controlling local symptoms. (R) • For individuals with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, initial assessment should focus on identifying the small proportion of patients with localised disease and good performance status, which may benefit from surgical resection and other adjuvant therapies. (G) • The surgical intent should be gross tumour resection and not merely an attempt at debulking. (G).

16 Guideline Pathological aspects of the assessment of head and neck cancers: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines. 2016

Helliwell, T R / Giles, T E. ·Department of Cellular Pathology,Liverpool Clinical Laboratories,University of Liverpool,UK. · Department of Cellular Pathology,Liverpool Clinical Laboratories,Liverpool,UK. ·J Laryngol Otol · Pubmed #27841114.

ABSTRACT: This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It introduces the current best practice in histopathology and cytopathology as it pertains to head and neck and thyroid cancers. Recommendations • Accurate diagnosis of the type of malignancy is a key component of effective management. (R) • Surgeons and oncologists should understand the scope and limitations of cellular pathology in order to inform multidisciplinary discussions. (R) • A clinically suspected diagnosis of malignancy should be confirmed by biopsy or cytology before operation. (R) • Cytopathological diagnoses should be discussed with surgeons and radiologists to maximise the information gained from each modality of investigation. (R) • Pathological investigations are the basis for accurate cancer staging and stratification of clinical outcomes. (R).

17 Guideline Congenital hypothyroidism - Polish recommendations for therapy, treatment monitoring, and screening tests in special categories of neonates with increased risk of hypothyroidism. 2016

Kucharska, Anna Małgorzata / Beń-Skowronek, Iwona / Walczak, Mieczysław / Ołtarzewski, Mariusz / Szalecki, Mieczysław / Jackowska, Teresa / Lewiński, Andrzej / Bossowski, Artur. ·Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland. ankucharska@wum.edu.pl. ·Endokrynol Pol · Pubmed #27828692.

ABSTRACT: Proper treatment of congenital hypothyroidism warrants normal intellectual and physical development. This paper introduces the principles of treatment of congenital hypothyroidism, the recommended levothyroxine dosage, and the aims of therapy with its justification. The principles of treatment, specialist care of the patient, and methods used to evaluate therapeutic effects are described. Based on these data, recommendations concerning treatment and its monitoring in patients with congenital hypothyroidism are formulated. The paper also highlights the importance of educating the patients and/or their caretakers as one of the basic components of an effective therapy. The interpretation of screening tests in preterm neonates is provided as well. In the current screening program in preterm children TSH was determined between days three and five of life and then after three weeks. During this time TSH values are frequently low because of the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Due to the increased risk of primary and secondary hypothyroidism in preterm and low birth weight babies the determination of TSH and fT4 between days three and five of life is recommended, irrespective of the screening test. (Endokrynol Pol 2016; 67 (5): 536-547).

18 Guideline 2016 Guidelines for the management of thyroid storm from The Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society (First edition). 2016

Satoh, Tetsurou / Isozaki, Osamu / Suzuki, Atsushi / Wakino, Shu / Iburi, Tadao / Tsuboi, Kumiko / Kanamoto, Naotetsu / Otani, Hajime / Furukawa, Yasushi / Teramukai, Satoshi / Akamizu, Takashi. ·Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma 371-8511, Japan. ·Endocr J · Pubmed #27746415.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.

19 Guideline Current recommendations in the management of hypothyroidism: developed from a statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive. 2016

Parretti, Helen / Okosieme, Onyebuchi / Vanderpump, Mark. ·Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham. · Consultant endocrinologist, Endocrine and Diabetes Department, Prince Charles Hospital, Merthyr Tydfil. · Consultant physician and endocrinologist, The Physicians' Clinic, London. ·Br J Gen Pract · Pubmed #27688516.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Guideline AIUM Practice Parameter for the Performance of a Thyroid and Parathyroid Ultrasound Examination. 2016

Anonymous7010879. · ·J Ultrasound Med · Pubmed #27574124.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline 2016 American Thyroid Association Guidelines for Diagnosis and Management of Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis. 2016

Ross, Douglas S / Burch, Henry B / Cooper, David S / Greenlee, M Carol / Laurberg, Peter / Maia, Ana Luiza / Rivkees, Scott A / Samuels, Mary / Sosa, Julie Ann / Stan, Marius N / Walter, Martin A. ·1 Massachusetts General Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts. · 2 Endocrinology - Metabolic Service, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center , Bethesda, Maryland. · 3 Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland. · 4 Western Slope Endocrinology , Grand Junction, Colorado. · 5 Departments of Clinical Medicine and Endocrinology, Aalborg University and Aalborg University Hospital , Aalborg, Denmark . · 6 Thyroid Section, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre, Brazil . · 7 Pediatrics - Chairman's Office, University of Florida College of Medicine , Gainesville, Florida. · 8 Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Clinical Nutrition, Oregon Health & Science University , Portland, Oregon. · 9 Section of Endocrine Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine , Durham, North Carolina. · 10 Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota. · 11 Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Bern , Switzerland . ·Thyroid · Pubmed #27521067.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This document describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspecialty physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition. METHODS: The American Thyroid Association (ATA) previously cosponsored guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that were published in 2011. Considerable new literature has been published since then, and the ATA felt updated evidence-based guidelines were needed. The association assembled a task force of expert clinicians who authored this report. They examined relevant literature using a systematic PubMed search supplemented with additional published materials. An evidence-based medicine approach that incorporated the knowledge and experience of the panel was used to update the 2011 text and recommendations. The strength of the recommendations and the quality of evidence supporting them were rated according to the approach recommended by the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Group. RESULTS: Clinical topics addressed include the initial evaluation and management of thyrotoxicosis; management of Graves' hyperthyroidism using radioactive iodine, antithyroid drugs, or surgery; management of toxic multinodular goiter or toxic adenoma using radioactive iodine or surgery; Graves' disease in children, adolescents, or pregnant patients; subclinical hyperthyroidism; hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' orbitopathy; and management of other miscellaneous causes of thyrotoxicosis. New paradigms since publication of the 2011 guidelines are presented for the evaluation of the etiology of thyrotoxicosis, the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism with antithyroid drugs, the management of pregnant hyperthyroid patients, and the preparation of patients for thyroid surgery. The sections on less common causes of thyrotoxicosis have been expanded. CONCLUSIONS: One hundred twenty-four evidence-based recommendations were developed to aid in the care of patients with thyrotoxicosis and to share what the task force believes is current, rational, and optimal medical practice.


Gharib, Hossein / Papini, Enrico / Garber, Jeffrey R / Duick, Daniel S / Harrell, R Mack / Hegedüs, Laszlo / Paschke, Ralf / Valcavi, Roberto / Vitti, Paolo / Anonymous6130867. · ·Endocr Pract · Pubmed #27167915.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 50 to 60% of healthy subjects. Most nodules do not cause clinically significant symptoms, and as a result, the main challenge in their management is to rule out malignancy, with ultrasonography (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy serving as diagnostic cornerstones. The key issues discussed in these guidelines are as follows: (1) US-based categorization of the malignancy risk and indications for US-guided FNA (henceforth, FNA), (2) cytologic classification of FNA samples, (3) the roles of immunocytochemistry and molecular testing applied to thyroid FNA, (4) therapeutic options, and (5) follow-up strategy. Thyroid nodule management during pregnancy and in children are also addressed. On the basis of US features, thyroid nodules may be categorized into 3 groups: low-, intermediate-and high-malignancy risk. FNA should be considered for nodules ≤10 mm diameter only when suspicious US signs are present, while nodules ≤5 mm should be monitored rather than biopsied. A classification scheme of 5 categories (nondiagnostic, benign, indeterminate, suspicious for malignancy, or malignant) is recommended for the cytologic report. Indeterminate lesions are further subdivided into 2 subclasses to more accurately stratify the risk of malignancy. At present, no single cytochemical or genetic marker can definitely rule out malignancy in indeterminate nodules. Nevertheless, these tools should be considered together with clinical data, US signs, elastographic pattern, or results of other imaging techniques to improve the management of these lesions. Most thyroid nodules do not require any treatment, and levothyroxine (LT4) suppressive therapy is not recommended. Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) should be the first-line treatment option for relapsing, benign cystic lesions, while US-guided thermal ablation treatments may be considered for solid or mixed symptomatic benign thyroid nodules. Surgery remains the treatment of choice for malignant or suspicious nodules. The present document updates previous guidelines released in 2006 and 2010 by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), American College of Endocrinology (ACE) and Associazione Medici Endocrinologi (AME).

23 Guideline 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism. 2016

Carney, Hazel C / Ward, Cynthia R / Bailey, Steven J / Bruyette, David / Dennis, Sonnya / Ferguson, Duncan / Hinc, Amy / Rucinsky, A Renee. ·WestVet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5019 North Sawyer Avenue, Garden City, ID 83617, USA Email: hcarney@westvet.net. · University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2200 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605,USA Email: crward@uga.edu. · Exclusively Cats Veterinary Hospital, 6650 Highland Road, Ste 116, Waterford, MI 48327, USA. · VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1900 South Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025, USA. · Stratham-Newfields Veterinary Hospital, 8 Main Street, Newfields, NH 03856, USA. · College of Veterinary Medicine - University of Illinois, Department of Comparative Biosciences, 3840 Veterinary Medicine Basic Sciences Bldg, 2001 South Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61802, USA. · Cosmic Cat Veterinary Clinic, 220 East Main Street, Branford, CT 06405, USA. · Mid Atlantic Cat Hospital, 201 Grange Hall Road, Queenstown, MD 21658, USA. ·J Feline Med Surg · Pubmed #27143042.

ABSTRACT: CLINICAL CONTEXT: Since 1979 and 1980 when the first reports of clinical feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) appeared in the literature, our understanding of the disease has evolved tremendously. Initially, FHT was a disease that only referral clinicians treated. Now it is a disease that primary clinicians routinely manage. Inclusion of the measurement of total thyroxine concentration in senior wellness panels, as well as in diagnostic work-ups for sick cats, now enables diagnosis of the condition long before the cat becomes the classic scrawny, unkempt, agitated patient with a bulge in its neck. However, earlier recognition of the problem has given rise to several related questions: how to recognize the health significance of the early presentations of the disease; how early to treat the disease; whether to treat FHT when comorbid conditions are present; and how to manage comorbid conditions such as chronic kidney disease and cardiac disease with treatment of FHT. The 2016 AAFP Guidelines for the Management of Feline Hyperthyroidism (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines) will shed light on these questions for the general practitioner and suggest when referral may benefit the cat. SCOPE: The Guidelines explain FHT as a primary disease process with compounding factors, and provide a concise explanation of what we know to be true about the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.The Guidelines also:Distill the current research literature into simple recommendations for testing sequences that will avoid misdiagnosis and separate an FHT diagnosis into six clinical categories with associated management strategies.Emphasize the importance of treating all hyperthyroid cats, regardless of comorbidities, and outline the currently available treatments for the disease.Explain how to monitor the treated cat to help avoid exacerbating comorbid diseases.Dispel some of the myths surrounding certain aspects of FHT and replace them with an evidence-based narrative that veterinarians and their practice teams can apply to feline patients and communicate to their owners. EVIDENCE BASE: To help ensure better case outcomes, the Guidelines reflect currently available, evidenced-based knowledge. If research is lacking, or if a consensus does not exist, the expert panel of authors has made recommendations based on their extensive, cumulative clinical experience.

24 Guideline American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. 2016

Cohen, Ezra E W / LaMonte, Samuel J / Erb, Nicole L / Beckman, Kerry L / Sadeghi, Nader / Hutcheson, Katherine A / Stubblefield, Michael D / Abbott, Dennis M / Fisher, Penelope S / Stein, Kevin D / Lyman, Gary H / Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L. ·Medical Oncologist, Moores Cancer Center, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA. · Retired Head and Neck Surgeon, Former Associate Professor of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Louisiana State University Health and Science Center, New Orleans, LA. · Program Manager, National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA. · Research Analyst-Survivorship, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA. · Professor of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Cancer Surgery, and Director of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, George Washington University, Washington, DC. · Associate Professor, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Section of Speech Pathology and Audiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. · Medical Director for Cancer Rehabilitation, Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation, West Orange, NJ. · Chief Executive Officer, Dental Oncology Professionals, Garland, TX. · Clinical Instructor of Otolaryngology and Nurse, Miller School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Division of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, FL. · Vice President, Behavioral Research, and Director, Behavioral Research Center, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA. · Co-Director, Hutchinson Institute for Cancer Outcomes Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, and Professor of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. · Director, The George Washington University Cancer Institute, Washington, DC. ·CA Cancer J Clin · Pubmed #27002678.

ABSTRACT: Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

25 Guideline Laryngeal examination in thyroid and parathyroid surgery: An American Head and Neck Society consensus statement: AHNS Consensus Statement. 2016

Sinclair, Catherine F / Bumpous, Jeffrey M / Haugen, Bryan R / Chala, Andres / Meltzer, Daniel / Miller, Barbra S / Tolley, Neil S / Shin, Jennifer J / Woodson, Gayle / Randolph, Gregory W. ·Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. · Department of Otolaryngology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky. · University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO. · University of Caldas, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia, South America. · Mount Sinai, New York, New York. · Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. · Department of Surgery, Imperial College of London, London, United Kingdom. · Harvard, Boston, Massachusetts. · Department of Otolaryngology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Carbondale, Illinois. · Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts. ·Head Neck · Pubmed #26970554.

ABSTRACT: This American Head and Neck Society (AHNS) consensus statement discusses the techniques of laryngeal examination for patients undergoing thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy. It is intended to help guide all clinicians who diagnose or manage adult patients with thyroid disease for whom surgery is indicated, contemplated, or has been performed. This consensus statement concludes that flexible transnasal laryngoscopy is the optimal laryngeal examination technique, with other techniques including laryngeal ultrasound and stroboscopy being useful in selected scenarios. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 811-819, 2016.