Pick Topic
Review Topic
List Experts
Examine Expert
Save Expert
  Site Guide ··   
Thyroid Diseases HELP
Based on 31,519 articles since 2006
||||

These are the 31519 published articles about Thyroid Diseases that originated from Worldwide during 2006-2015.
 
+ Citations + Abstracts
Pages: 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 · 7 · 8 · 9 · 10 · 11 · 12 · 13 · 14 · 15 · 16 · 17 · 18 · 19 · 20
1 Guideline Modern radiation therapy for extranodal lymphomas: field and dose guidelines from the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group. 2015

Yahalom, Joachim / Illidge, Tim / Specht, Lena / Hoppe, Richard T / Li, Ye-Xiong / Tsang, Richard / Wirth, Andrew / Anonymous70832. ·Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. Electronic address: yahalomj@mskcc.org. · Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, The Christie National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom. · Department of Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, People's Republic of China. · Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · Division of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, St. Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Australia. · ·Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys · Pubmed #25863750.

ABSTRACT: Extranodal lymphomas (ENLs) comprise about a third of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used as either primary therapy (particularly for indolent ENL), consolidation after systemic therapy, salvage treatment, or palliation. The wide range of presentations of ENL, involving any organ in the body and the spectrum of histological sub-types, poses a challenge both for routine clinical care and for the conduct of prospective and retrospective studies. This has led to uncertainty and lack of consistency in RT approaches between centers and clinicians. Thus far there is a lack of guidelines for the use of RT in the management of ENL. This report presents an effort by the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) to harmonize and standardize the principles of treatment of ENL, and to address the technical challenges of simulation, volume definition and treatment planning for the most frequently involved organs. Specifically, detailed recommendations for RT volumes are provided. We have applied the same modern principles of involved site radiation therapy as previously developed and published as guidelines for Hodgkin lymphoma and nodal NHL. We have adopted RT volume definitions based on the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), as has been widely adopted by the field of radiation oncology for solid tumors. Organ-specific recommendations take into account histological subtype, anatomy, the treatment intent, and other treatment modalities that may be have been used before RT.

2 Guideline Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. 2015

Wells, Samuel A / Asa, Sylvia L / Dralle, Henning / Elisei, Rossella / Evans, Douglas B / Gagel, Robert F / Lee, Nancy / Machens, Andreas / Moley, Jeffrey F / Pacini, Furio / Raue, Friedhelm / Frank-Raue, Karin / Robinson, Bruce / Rosenthal, M Sara / Santoro, Massimo / Schlumberger, Martin / Shah, Manisha / Waguespack, Steven G / Anonymous2500963. ·1Genetics Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. · 2Department of Pathology, University Health Network, and Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. · 3Department of General, Visceral, and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle/Saale, Germany. · 4Department of Endocrinology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy. · 5Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. · 6Department of Endocrine Neoplasia and Hormonal Disorders, Division of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas. · 7Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York. · 8Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri. · 9Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology and Metabolism and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Policlinico Santa Maria alle Scotte, Siena, Italy. · 10Endocrine Practice, Moleculargenetic Laboratory, Medical Faculty, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. · 11University of Sydney School of Medicine, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. · 12Departments of Internal Medicine, Pediatrics and Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky. · 13Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Universita' di Napoli "Federico II," Napoli, Italy. · 14Institut Gustave Roussy, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Université of Paris-Sud, Villejuif, France. · 15Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #25810047.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. METHODS: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. RESULTS: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. CONCLUSIONS: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice.

3 Guideline Practice Bulletin No. 148: Thyroid disease in pregnancy. 2015

Anonymous3640806. · ·Obstet Gynecol · Pubmed #25798985.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

4 Guideline Screening for thyroid dysfunction: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. 2015

LeFevre, Michael L / Anonymous720905. · ·Ann Intern Med · Pubmed #25798805.

ABSTRACT: DESCRIPTION: Update of the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on screening for thyroid disease. METHODS: The USPSTF reviewed the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for subclinical and "overt" thyroid dysfunction without clinically obvious symptoms, as well as the effects of treatment on intermediate and final health outcomes. POPULATION: This recommendation applies to nonpregnant, asymptomatic adults. RECOMMENDATION: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in nonpregnant, asymptomatic adults. (I statement).

5 Guideline Management of recurrent/persistent nodal disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: a critical review of the risks and benefits of surgical intervention versus active surveillance. 2015

Tufano, Ralph P / Clayman, Gary / Heller, Keith S / Inabnet, William B / Kebebew, Electron / Shaha, Ashok / Steward, David L / Tuttle, R Michael / Anonymous3450802. ·1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine , Baltimore, Maryland. · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #25246079.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The primary goals of this interdisciplinary consensus statement are to define the eligibility criteria for management of recurrent and persistent cervical nodal disease in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to review the risks and benefits of surgical intervention versus active surveillance. METHODS: A writing group was convened by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association and was tasked with identifying the important clinical elements to consider when managing recurrent/persistent nodal disease in patients with DTC based on the available evidence in the literature and the group's collective experience. SUMMARY: The decision on how best to manage individual patients with suspected recurrent/persistent nodal disease is challenging and requires the consideration of a significant number of variables outlined by the members of the interdisciplinary team. Here we report on the consensus opinions that were reached by the writing group regarding the technical and clinical issues encountered in this patient population. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of recurrent/persistent disease requires a team decision-making process that includes the patient and physicians as to what, if any, intervention should be performed to best control the disease while minimizing morbidity. Several management principles and variables involved in the decision making for surgery versus active surveillance were developed that should be taken into account when deciding how best to manage a patient with DTC and suspected recurrent or persistent cervical nodal disease.

6 Guideline American Thyroid Association statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery. 2015

Yeh, Michael W / Bauer, Andrew J / Bernet, Victor A / Ferris, Robert L / Loevner, Laurie A / Mandel, Susan J / Orloff, Lisa A / Randolph, Gregory W / Steward, David L / Anonymous3440802. ·1 Section of Endocrine Surgery, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine , Los Angeles, California. · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #25188202.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. SUMMARY: Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging.

7 Guideline Diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of medullary thyroid carcinoma: recommendations by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2014

Maia, Ana Luiza / Siqueira, Debora R / Kulcsar, Marco A V / Tincani, Alfio J / Mazeto, Glaucia M F S / Maciel, Lea M Z. ·Unidade de Tireoide, Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. · Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. · Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil. · Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, Brasil. · Divisão de Endocrinologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #25372577.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates in the thyroid parafollicular cells and represents 3-4% of the malignant neoplasms that affect this gland. Approximately 25% of these cases are hereditary due to activating mutations in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene. The course of MTC is indolent, and survival rates depend on the tumor stage at diagnosis. The present article describes clinical evidence-based guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of MTC. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the consensus described herein, which was elaborated by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, was to discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of individuals with MTC in accordance with the latest evidence reported in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After clinical questions were elaborated, the available literature was initially surveyed for evidence in the MedLine-PubMed database, followed by the Embase and Scientific Electronic Library Online/Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (SciELO/Lilacs) databases. The strength of evidence was assessed according to the Oxford classification of evidence levels, which is based on study design, and the best evidence available for each question was selected. RESULTS: Eleven questions corresponded to MTC diagnosis, 8 corresponded to its surgical treatment, and 13 corresponded to follow-up, for a total of 32 recommendations. The present article discusses the clinical and molecular diagnosis, initial surgical treatment, and postoperative management of MTC, as well as the therapeutic options for metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: MTC should be suspected in individuals who present with thyroid nodules and family histories of MTC, associations with pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism, and/or typical phenotypic characteristics such as ganglioneuromatosis and Marfanoid habitus. Fine-needle nodule aspiration, serum calcitonin measurements, and anatomical-pathological examinations are useful for diagnostic confirmation. Surgery represents the only curative therapeutic strategy. The therapeutic options for metastatic disease remain limited and are restricted to disease control. Judicious postoperative assessments that focus on the identification of residual or recurrent disease are of paramount importance when defining the follow-up and later therapeutic management strategies.

8 Guideline Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the american thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement. 2014

Jonklaas, Jacqueline / Bianco, Antonio C / Bauer, Andrew J / Burman, Kenneth D / Cappola, Anne R / Celi, Francesco S / Cooper, David S / Kim, Brian W / Peeters, Robin P / Rosenthal, M Sara / Sawka, Anna M / Anonymous920821. ·1 Division of Endocrinology, Georgetown University , Washington, DC. · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #25266247.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A number of recent advances in our understanding of thyroid physiology may shed light on why some patients feel unwell while taking levothyroxine monotherapy. The purpose of this task force was to review the goals of levothyroxine therapy, the optimal prescription of conventional levothyroxine therapy, the sources of dissatisfaction with levothyroxine therapy, the evidence on treatment alternatives, and the relevant knowledge gaps. We wished to determine whether there are sufficient new data generated by well-designed studies to provide reason to pursue such therapies and change the current standard of care. This document is intended to inform clinical decision-making on thyroid hormone replacement therapy; it is not a replacement for individualized clinical judgment. METHODS: Task force members identified 24 questions relevant to the treatment of hypothyroidism. The clinical literature relating to each question was then reviewed. Clinical reviews were supplemented, when relevant, with related mechanistic and bench research literature reviews, performed by our team of translational scientists. Ethics reviews were provided, when relevant, by a bioethicist. The responses to questions were formatted, when possible, in the form of a formal clinical recommendation statement. When responses were not suitable for a formal clinical recommendation, a summary response statement without a formal clinical recommendation was developed. For clinical recommendations, the supporting evidence was appraised, and the strength of each clinical recommendation was assessed, using the American College of Physicians system. The final document was organized so that each topic is introduced with a question, followed by a formal clinical recommendation. Stakeholder input was received at a national meeting, with some subsequent refinement of the clinical questions addressed in the document. Consensus was achieved for all recommendations by the task force. RESULTS: We reviewed the following therapeutic categories: (i) levothyroxine therapy, (ii) non-levothyroxine-based thyroid hormone therapies, and (iii) use of thyroid hormone analogs. The second category included thyroid extracts, synthetic combination therapy, triiodothyronine therapy, and compounded thyroid hormones. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that levothyroxine should remain the standard of care for treating hypothyroidism. We found no consistently strong evidence for the superiority of alternative preparations (e.g., levothyroxine-liothyronine combination therapy, or thyroid extract therapy, or others) over monotherapy with levothyroxine, in improving health outcomes. Some examples of future research needs include the development of superior biomarkers of euthyroidism to supplement thyrotropin measurements, mechanistic research on serum triiodothyronine levels (including effects of age and disease status, relationship with tissue concentrations, as well as potential therapeutic targeting), and long-term outcome clinical trials testing combination therapy or thyroid extracts (including subgroup effects). Additional research is also needed to develop thyroid hormone analogs with a favorable benefit to risk profile.

9 Guideline Guidelines for the management of thyroid cancer. 2014

Perros, Petros / Boelaert, Kristien / Colley, Steve / Evans, Carol / Evans, Rhordi M / Gerrard Ba, Georgina / Gilbert, Jackie / Harrison, Barney / Johnson, Sarah J / Giles, Thomas E / Moss, Laura / Lewington, Val / Newbold, Kate / Taylor, Judith / Thakker, Rajesh V / Watkinson, John / Williams, Graham R / Anonymous4160785. ·Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. · ·Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) · Pubmed #24989897.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

10 Guideline European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology consensus guidelines on screening, diagnosis, and management of congenital hypothyroidism. 2014

Léger, Juliane / Olivieri, Antonella / Donaldson, Malcolm / Torresani, Toni / Krude, Heiko / van Vliet, Guy / Polak, Michel / Butler, Gary / Anonymous6180776 / Anonymous6190776. ·Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. · ·Horm Res Paediatr · Pubmed #24662106.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). EVIDENCE: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles relating to the screening, diagnosis, and management of CH. The evidence-based guidelines were developed with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. CONSENSUS PROCESS: Thirty-two participants drawn from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and five other major scientific societies in the field of pediatric endocrinology were allocated to working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Each group searched the literature, evaluated the evidence, and developed a draft document. These papers were debated and finalized by each group before presentation to the full assembly for further discussion and agreement. RECOMMENDATIONS: The recommendations include: worldwide neonatal screening, approaches to assess the cause (including genotyping) and the severity of the disorder, the immediate initiation of appropriate L-T4 supplementation and frequent monitoring to ensure dose adjustments to keep thyroid hormone levels in the target ranges, a trial of treatment in patients suspected of transient CH, regular assessments of developmental and neurosensory functions, consulting health professionals as appropriate, and education about CH. The harmonization of diagnosis, management, and routine health surveillance would not only optimize patient outcomes, but should also facilitate epidemiological studies of the disorder. Individuals with CH require monitoring throughout their lives, particularly during early childhood and pregnancy.

11 Guideline European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology consensus guidelines on screening, diagnosis, and management of congenital hypothyroidism. 2014

Léger, Juliane / Olivieri, Antonella / Donaldson, Malcolm / Torresani, Toni / Krude, Heiko / van Vliet, Guy / Polak, Michel / Butler, Gary / Anonymous980773 / Anonymous990773. ·Université Paris Diderot (J.L.), Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-75019 Paris, France; Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpital Robert Debré, Service d'Endocrinologie Diabétologie Pédiatrique et Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, F-75019, Paris, France; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité Mixte de Recherche 676, F-75019 Paris, France; Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences (A.O.), Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy; Child Health Section of Glasgow University School of Medicine (M.D.), Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Yorkhill, Glasgow G3 8SJ, Scotland, United Kingdom; Swiss Neonatal Screening Laboratory (T.T.), University Children's Hospital, CH-8032 Zurich, Switzerland; Department of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes (H.K.), Charite Children's Hospital, Berlin 10117, Germany; Endocrinology Service and Research Center (G.v.V.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine and Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada H3T 1C5; AP-HP, Hôpital Necker Enfants-Malades, Endocrinologie, Gynécologie et Diabétologie Pédiatriques (M.P.), Centre de Référence des Maladies Endocriniennes Rares de la Croissance, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM, Unité 845, F-75015 Paris, France; and Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine and Endocrinology (G.B.), University College London Hospital, and University College London Institute of Child Health, London NW1 2PQ, United Kingdom. · ·J Clin Endocrinol Metab · Pubmed #24446653.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The aim was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). EVIDENCE: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify key articles relating to the screening, diagnosis, and management of CH. The evidence-based guidelines were developed with the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, describing both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. In the absence of sufficient evidence, conclusions were based on expert opinion. CONSENSUS PROCESS: Thirty-two participants drawn from the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology and five other major scientific societies in the field of pediatric endocrinology were allocated to working groups with assigned topics and specific questions. Each group searched the literature, evaluated the evidence, and developed a draft document. These papers were debated and finalized by each group before presentation to the full assembly for further discussion and agreement. RECOMMENDATIONS: The recommendations include: worldwide neonatal screening, approaches to assess the cause (including genotyping) and the severity of the disorder, the immediate initiation of appropriate L-T4 supplementation and frequent monitoring to ensure dose adjustments to keep thyroid hormone levels in the target ranges, a trial of treatment in patients suspected of transient CH, regular assessments of developmental and neurosensory functions, consulting health professionals as appropriate, and education about CH. The harmonization of diagnosis, management, and routine health surveillance would not only optimize patient outcomes, but should also facilitate epidemiological studies of the disorder. Individuals with CH require monitoring throughout their lives, particularly during early childhood and pregnancy.

12 Guideline American Thyroid Association statement on optimal surgical management of goiter. 2014

Chen, Amy Y / Bernet, Victor J / Carty, Sally E / Davies, Terry F / Ganly, Ian / Inabnet, William B / Shaha, Ashok R / Anonymous3050773. ·1 Division of Endocrine Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine , Atlanta, Georgia . · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #24295043.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Goiter, or benign enlargement of the thyroid gland, can be asymptomatic or can cause compression of surrounding structures such as the esophagus and/or trachea. The options for medical treatment of euthyroid goiter are short-lived and are limited to thyroxine hormone suppression and radioactive iodine ablation. The objective of this statement article is to discuss optimal surgical management of goiter. METHODS: A task force was convened by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association and was tasked with writing of this article. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Surgical management is recommended for goiters with compressive symptoms. Symptoms of dyspnea, orthopnea, and dysphagia are more commonly associated with thyromegaly, in particular, substernal goiters. Several studies have demonstrated improved breathing and swallowing outcomes after thyroidectomy. With careful preoperative testing and thoughtful consideration of the type of anesthesia, including the type of intubation, preparation for surgery can be optimized. In addition, planning the extent of surgery and postoperative care are necessary to achieve optimal results. Close collaboration of an experienced surgical and anesthesia team is essential for induction and reversal of anesthesia. In addition, this team must be cognizant of complications from massive goiter surgery such as bleeding, airway distress, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and transient hypoparathyroidism. With careful preparation and teamwork, successful thyroid surgery can be achieved.

13 Guideline Clinical guidelines for management of thyroid nodule and cancer during pregnancy. 2014

Galofré, Juan Carlos / Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso / Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina / Anonymous2650775. ·Departamento de Endocrinología, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, España. Electronic address: jcgalofre@unav.es. · Servicio de Endocrinología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España. · ·Endocrinol Nutr · Pubmed #24176541.

ABSTRACT: Special considerations are warranted in management of thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer during pregnancy. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach of thyroid nodules follows the standard practice in non-pregnant women. On the other hand, differentiated thyroid cancer management during pregnancy poses a number of challenges for the mother and fetus. The available data show that pregnancy is not a risk factor for thyroid cancer development or recurrence, although flare-ups cannot be completely ruled out in women with active disease. If surgery is needed, it should be performed during the second term or, preferably, after delivery. A majority of pregnant patients with low-risk disease only need adjustment in levothyroxine therapy. However, women with increased serum thyroglobulin levels before pregnancy or structural disease require regular thyroglobulin measurements and neck ultrasound throughout pregnancy. Pregnancy is an absolute contraindication for radioactive iodine administration.

14 Guideline Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Position statement of the working group on disorders related to iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition. 2014

Donnay, Sergio / Arena, Jose / Lucas, Anna / Velasco, Inés / Ares, Susana / Anonymous90957. ·Unidad de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón, Madrid, España. · UNICEF España, España. · Servicio de Endocrinología y Nutrición, Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol, Barcelona, España. · Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia, Hospital de Riotinto, Huelva, España. · Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, España. · ·Endocrinol Nutr · Pubmed #24035326.

ABSTRACT: Severe and mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects thyroid function of the mother and neonate as well as the infant's neuropsychological development. Studies performed in Spain confirm that most women are iodine deficient during pregnancy and lactation. Pregnant and breast feeding women and women planning to become pregnant should take iodine supplements.

15 Guideline [Intraoperative neuromonitoring in thyroid surgery. Recommendations of the Surgical Working Group for Endocrinology]. 2013

Dralle, H / Lorenz, K / Schabram, P / Musholt, T J / Dotzenrath, C / Goretzki, P E / Kußmann, J / Niederle, B / Nies, C / Schabram, J / Scheuba, C / Simon, D / Steinmüller, T / Trupka, A / Anonymous1500766. ·Klinik für Allgemein-, Viszeral- und Gefäßchirurgie, Medizinische Fakultät, Universitätsklinikum Halle, Ernst-Grube-Str. 40, 06097, Halle (Saale), Deutschland, henning.dralle@uk-halle.de. · ·Chirurg · Pubmed #24337220.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

16 Guideline [Management of endocrine dysfunctions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a report of the SFGM-TC on dyslipidemia and thyroid disorders]. 2013

Cornillon, J / Vantyghem, M-C / Couturier, M A / de Berranger, E / François, S / Hermet, E / Maillard, N / Marcais, A / Tabrizi, R / Decanter, C / Duléry, R / Bauters, F / Yakoub-Agha, I / Anonymous90760. ·Service d'hématologie adulte, institut de cancérologie de la Loire, 108 bis, avenue Albert-Raimond, Saint-Priest-en-Jarez, France. · ·Pathol Biol (Paris) · Pubmed #24011967.

ABSTRACT: In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC) set up the third annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from all member centers and took place in October 2012 in Lille. Here we report our results and recommendations regarding the management of short and long-term endocrine dysfunction following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The key aim of this workshop was to give an overview on dyslipidemia and thyroid disorders post-transplant.

17 Guideline Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypothyroidism. 2013

Brenta, Gabriela / Vaisman, Mario / Sgarbi, José Augusto / Bergoglio, Liliana Maria / Andrada, Nathalia Carvalho de / Bravo, Pedro Pineda / Orlandi, Ana Maria / Graf, Hans / Anonymous6150752. ·Dr. Cesar Milstein Hospital, Buenos Aires, Argentina. gbrenta@gmail.com · ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #23828433.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hypothyroidism has long been known for its effects on different organ systems, leading to hypometabolism. However, subclinical hypothyroidism, its most prevalent form, has been recently related to cardiovascular risk and also to maternal-fetal complications in pregnant women. OBJECTIVES: In these clinical practice guidelines, several aspects of this field have been discussed with the clear objectives of helping physicians treat patients with hypothyroidism, and of sharing some of our Latin American-based clinical experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Latin American Thyroid Society commissioned a Task Force on Hypothyroidism to develop evidence-based clinical guidelines on hypothyroidism. A systematic review of the available literature, focused on the primary databases of MedLine/PubMed and Lilacs/SciELO was performed. Filters to assess methodological quality were applied to select the best quality studies. The strength of recommendation on a scale from A-D was based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence--based Medicine, Levels of Evidence 2009, allowing an unbiased opinion devoid of subjective viewpoints. The areas of interest for the studies comprised diagnosis, screening, treatment and a special section for hypothyroidism in pregnancy. RESULTS: Several questions based on diagnosis, screening, treatment of hypothyroidism in adult population and specifically in pregnant women were posed. Twenty six recommendations were created based on the answers to these questions. Despite the fact that evidence in some areas of hypothyroidism, such as therapy, is lacking, out of 279 references, 73% were Grade A and B, 8% Grade C and 19% Grade D. CONCLUSIONS: These evidence-based clinical guidelines on hypothyroidism will provide unified criteria for management of hypothyroidism throughout Latin America. Although most of the studies referred to are from all over the world, the point of view of thyroidologists from Latin America is also given.

18 Guideline Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: update on the Brazilian consensus. 2013

Rosário, Pedro Weslley / Ward, Laura S / Carvalho, Gisah A / Graf, Hans / Maciel, Rui M B / Maciel, Léa Maria Z / Maia, Ana Luiza / Vaisman, Mário / Anonymous6140752. ·Serviço de Endocrinologia e Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. pedrorosario@globo.com · ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #23828432.

ABSTRACT: Thyroid nodules are frequent findings, especially when sensitive imaging methods are used. Although thyroid cancer is relatively rare, its incidence is increasing, particularly in terms of small tumors, which have an uncertain clinical relevance. Most patients with differentiated thyroid cancer exhibit satisfactory clinical outcomes when treatment is appropriate, and their mortality rate is similar to that of the overall population. However, relapse occurs in a considerable fraction of these patients, and some patients stop responding to conventional treatment and eventually die from their disease. Therefore, the challenge is how to identify the individuals who require more aggressive disease management while sparing the majority of patients from unnecessary treatments and procedures. We have updated the Brazilian Consensus that was published in 2007, emphasizing the diagnostic and therapeutic advances that the participants, representing several Brazilian university centers, consider most relevant in clinical practice. The formulation of the present guidelines was based on the participants' experience and a review of the relevant literature.

19 Guideline AIUM practice guideline for the performance of a thyroid and parathyroid ultrasound examination. 2013

Anonymous1960752 / Anonymous1970752 / Anonymous1980752 / Anonymous1990752. · ·J Ultrasound Med · Pubmed #23804357.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

20 Guideline Clinical and professional ethics guidelines for the practice of thyroidology. 2013

Rosenthal, M Sara / Angelos, Peter / Cooper, David S / Fassler, Cheryl / Finder, Stuart G / Hays, Marguerite T / Tendler, Beatriz / Braunstein, Glenn D / Anonymous4070759. ·1 Program for Bioethics, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky , Lexington, Kentucky. · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #23750916.

ABSTRACT: -- No abstract --

21 Guideline American Thyroid Association statement on outpatient thyroidectomy. 2013

Terris, David J / Snyder, Samuel / Carneiro-Pla, Denise / Inabnet, William B / Kandil, Emad / Orloff, Lisa / Shindo, Maisie / Tufano, Ralph P / Tuttle, R Michael / Urken, Mark / Yeh, Michael W / Anonymous4060759. ·1 GRU Thyroid Center, Department of Otolaryngology, Georgia Regents University , Augusta, Georgia . · ·Thyroid · Pubmed #23742254.

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The primary goals of this interdisciplinary consensus statement are to define the eligibility criteria for outpatient thyroidectomy and to explore preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors that should be considered in order to optimize the safe and efficient performance of ambulatory surgery. SUMMARY: A series of criteria was developed that may represent relative contraindications to outpatient thyroidectomy, and these fell into the following broad categories: clinical, social, and procedural issues. Intraoperative factors that bear consideration are enumerated, and include choice of anesthesia, use of nerve monitoring, hemostasis, management of the parathyroid glands, wound closure, and extubation. Importantly, postoperative factors are described at length, including suggested discharge criteria and recognition of complications, especially bleeding, airway distress, and hypocalcemia. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient thyroidectomy may be undertaken safely in a carefully selected patient population provided that certain precautionary measures are taken to maximize communication and minimize the likelihood of complications.

22 Guideline Clinical practice guideline: improving voice outcomes after thyroid surgery. 2013

Chandrasekhar, Sujana S / Randolph, Gregory W / Seidman, Michael D / Rosenfeld, Richard M / Angelos, Peter / Barkmeier-Kraemer, Julie / Benninger, Michael S / Blumin, Joel H / Dennis, Gregory / Hanks, John / Haymart, Megan R / Kloos, Richard T / Seals, Brenda / Schreibstein, Jerry M / Thomas, Mack A / Waddington, Carolyn / Warren, Barbara / Robertson, Peter J / Anonymous1910750. ·New York Otology, New York, New York 10028, USA. newyorkotology@gmail.com · ·Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg · Pubmed #23733893.

ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Thyroidectomy may be performed for clinical indications that include malignancy, benign nodules or cysts, suspicious findings on fine needle aspiration biopsy, dysphagia from cervical esophageal compression, or dyspnea from airway compression. About 1 in 10 patients experience temporary laryngeal nerve injury after surgery, with longer lasting voice problems in up to 1 in 25. Reduced quality of life after thyroid surgery is multifactorial and may include the need for lifelong medication, thyroid suppression, radioactive scanning/treatment, temporary and permanent hypoparathyroidism, temporary or permanent dysphonia postoperatively, and dysphagia. This clinical practice guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for management of the patient's voice when undergoing thyroid surgery during the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative period. PURPOSE: The purpose of this guideline is to optimize voice outcomes for adult patients aged 18 years or older after thyroid surgery. The target audience is any clinician involved in managing such patients, which includes but may not be limited to otolaryngologists, general surgeons, endocrinologists, internists, speech-language pathologists, family physicians and other primary care providers, anesthesiologists, nurses, and others who manage patients with thyroid/voice issues. The guideline applies to any setting in which clinicians may interact with patients before, during, or after thyroid surgery. Children under age 18 years are specifically excluded from the target population; however, the panel understands that many of the findings may be applicable to this population. Also excluded are patients undergoing concurrent laryngectomy. Although this guideline is limited to thyroidectomy, some of the recommendations may extrapolate to parathyroidectomy as well. RESULTS: The guideline development group made a strong recommendation that the surgeon should identify the recurrent laryngeal nerve(s) during thyroid surgery. The group made recommendations that the clinician or surgeon should (1) document assessment of the patient's voice once a decision has been made to proceed with thyroid surgery; (2) examine vocal fold mobility, or refer the patient to a clinician who can examine vocal fold mobility, if the patient's voice is impaired and a decision has been made to proceed with thyroid surgery; (3) examine vocal fold mobility, or refer the patient to a clinician who can examine vocal fold mobility, once a decision has been made to proceed with thyroid surgery if the patient's voice is normal and the patient has (a) thyroid cancer with suspected extrathyroidal extension, or (b) prior neck surgery that increases the risk of laryngeal nerve injury (carotid endarterectomy, anterior approach to the cervical spine, cervical esophagectomy, and prior thyroid or parathyroid surgery), or (c) both; (4) educate the patient about the potential impact of thyroid surgery on voice once a decision has been made to proceed with thyroid surgery; (5) inform the anesthesiologist of the results of abnormal preoperative laryngeal assessment in patients who have had laryngoscopy prior to thyroid surgery; (6) take steps to preserve the external branch of the surperior laryngeal nerve(s) when performing thyroid surgery; (7) document whether there has been a change in voice between 2 weeks and 2 months following thyroid surgery; (8) examine vocal fold mobility or refer the patient for examination of vocal fold mobility in patients with a change in voice following thyroid surgery; (9) refer a patient to an otolaryngologist when abnormal vocal fold mobility is identified after thyroid surgery; (10) counsel patients with voice change or abnormal vocal fold mobility after thyroid surgery on options for voice rehabilitation. The group made an option that the surgeon or his or her designee may monitor laryngeal electromyography during thyroid surgery. The group made no recommendation regarding the impact of a single intraoperative dose of intravenous corticosteroid on voice outcomes in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.

23 Guideline The Brazilian consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism: recommendations by the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013

Maia, Ana Luiza / Scheffel, Rafael S / Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza / Mazeto, Glaucia M F S / Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de / Graf, Hans / Vaisman, Mario / Maciel, Lea M Z / Ramos, Helton E / Tincani, Alfio José / Andrada, Nathalia Carvalho de / Ward, Laura S / Anonymous4860748. ·Unidade de Tireoide, Serviço de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. almaia@ufrgs.br · ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #23681266.

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Hyperthyroidism is characterized by increased synthesis and release of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Thyrotoxicosis refers to the clinical syndrome resulting from excessive circulating thyroid hormones, secondary to hyperthyroidism or due to other causes. This article describes evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of thyrotoxicosis. OBJECTIVE: This consensus, developed by Brazilian experts and sponsored by the Department of Thyroid Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism, aims to address the management, diagnosis and treatment of patients with thyrotoxicosis, according to the most recent evidence from the literature and appropriate for the clinical reality of Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After structuring clinical questions, search for evidence was made available in the literature, initially in the database MedLine, PubMed and Embase databases and subsequently in SciELO - Lilacs. The strength of evidence was evaluated by Oxford classification system was established from the study design used, considering the best available evidence for each question. RESULTS: We have defined 13 questions about the initial clinical approach for the diagnosis and treatment that resulted in 53 recommendations, including the etiology, treatment with antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine and surgery. We also addressed hyperthyroidism in children, teenagers or pregnant patients, and management of hyperthyroidism in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy and various other causes of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical diagnosis of hyperthyroidism usually offers no difficulty and should be made with measurements of serum TSH and thyroid hormones. The treatment can be performed with antithyroid drugs, surgery or administration of radioactive iodine according to the etiology of thyrotoxicosis, local availability of methods and preferences of the attending physician and patient.

24 Guideline The clinical use of thyroid function tests. 2013

Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de / Perez, Camila Luhm Silva / Ward, Laura Sterian. ·Serviço de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Hospital de Clínicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brasil. carvalho.gisah@gmail.com · ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #23681265.

ABSTRACT: Laboratory tests are essential for accurate diagnosis and cost-effective management of thyroid disorders. When the clinical suspicion is strong, hormonal levels just confirms the diagnosis. However, in most patients, symptoms are subtle and unspecific, so that only biochemical tests can detect the disorder. The objective of this article is to do a critical analysis of the appropriate use of the most important thyroid function tests, including serum concentrations of thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones and antithyroid antibodies. Through a survey in the MedLine database, we discuss the major pitfalls and interferences related to daily use of these tests and recommendations are presented to optimize the use of these diagnostic tools in clinical practice.

25 Guideline Congenital hypothyroidism: recommendations of the Thyroid Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013

Maciel, Léa Maria Zanini / Kimura, Edna Teruko / Nogueira, Célia Regina / Mazeto, Glaucia M F S / Magalhães, Patrícia Künzle Ribeiro / Nascimento, Marilza Leal / Nesi-França, Suzana / Vieira, Sandra E / Anonymous4850748. ·Divisão de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil. lmzmacie@fmrp.usp.br · ·Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol · Pubmed #23681264.

ABSTRACT: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common congenital endocrine disorder, with an incidence of 1:2,000 to 1:4,000 live births and it is a leading preventable mental retardation. Neonatal Screening Programs allow early identification of the disease and the adequate treatment of affected children can avoid the complications related to deprivation of the hormone. Most cases of primary congenital hypothyroidism (85%) are due to thyroid dysgenesis (ectopia, hypoplasia or agenesis) while the remaining result from defects in hormone synthesis. Affected children (> 95%) usually have no symptoms suggesting the disease at birth. The most frequent symptoms and signs are prolonged neonatal jaundice, hoarse cry, lethargy, slow movements, constipation, macroglossia, umbilical hernia, large fontanelle, hypotonia and dry skin. Around the world, various strategies are used for the screening of the CH. In Brazil, screening for CH is mandatory by law and usually done by serum TSH in dried blood collected from the heel. The recommended age for performing this test is after 48 hours of life until the 4th day. Diagnostic confirmation is required dosing TSH and free T4 or total T4 in serum.

Next